• Title, Summary, Keyword: skin tone

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Skin Tone Enhancement Based on Human Favorite Skin Color (인간의 선호 피부색에 기반한 Skin Color Enhancement)

  • 김문철;오재환
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.5-8
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    • 2002
  • The paper handles a skin tone enhancement within digitalized images, which is based on human favorite skin color. To archive a human-favorite skin tone area, lots of observers are participated in visual experiments. The statistical result of the visual experiment was reflected in a proposed skin tone enhancement algorithm and gives more reasonable human-friendly skin color reproduction on a display device. This research was accomplished to implement in our DTV related application.

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Face Detection Algorithm Using Pulse-Coupled Neural Network (Pulse-Coupled Neural Network를 이용한 얼굴추출 알고리즘)

  • Lim, Young-Wan;Na, Jin-Hee;Choi, Jin-Young
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.105-107
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    • 2004
  • In this work, we suggested the method which improves the efficiency of the face detection algorithm using Pulse-Coupled Neural Network. Face detection algorithm which uses the color information is independent on size, angle, and obstruction of a face. But the use of color information encounters some problems arising from skin-tone color in the background, intensity variation within faces, and presence of random noise, and so on. Depending on these conditions, we obtained the mean and variance of skin-tone colors by experiments. Then we introduce a preprocess that the pixel with a mean value of skin-tone colors has highest level value(255) and the other pixels in the skin-tone region have values between 0 and 255 according to a normal distribution with a variance. This preprocess leads to an easy decision of the linking parameters.

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A Robust Face Detection Method Based on Skin Color and Edges

  • Ghimire, Deepak;Lee, Joonwhoan
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.141-156
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    • 2013
  • In this paper we propose a method to detect human faces in color images. Many existing systems use a window-based classifier that scans the entire image for the presence of the human face and such systems suffers from scale variation, pose variation, illumination changes, etc. Here, we propose a lighting insensitive face detection method based upon the edge and skin tone information of the input color image. First, image enhancement is performed, especially if the image is acquired from an unconstrained illumination condition. Next, skin segmentation in YCbCr and RGB space is conducted. The result of skin segmentation is refined using the skin tone percentage index method. The edges of the input image are combined with the skin tone image to separate all non-face regions from candidate faces. Candidate verification using primitive shape features of the face is applied to decide which of the candidate regions corresponds to a face. The advantage of the proposed method is that it can detect faces that are of different sizes, in different poses, and that are making different expressions under unconstrained illumination conditions.

Visual Evaluations of Clothing./ng Color Images for Cool Skin Color (찬피부색에 대한 의복색 이미지의 시각적 평가)

  • 박화순
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.327-336
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    • 2002
  • This paper is intended to help cool-skin-colored people to choose suitable clothing colors confidently and look well-dressed and to make positive self-images. A pseudo-experimental method has made it possible to analyze the visual evaluations of clothing color images for cool-skin-colored people and obtain the following results. 1. Reddish colors of vivid tone for doffing give positive images and those of dull and dark tone, negative ones. 2. Yellowish colors of vivid and bright tone for doffing show positive images and those of dull and dark tone, negative ones. Cool yellow of light tone proves to contribute to a well-looking image. 3. Warm green of vivid and deep tone, and cool green of vivid tone for clothing present positive images. 4. Warm blue of vivid and deep tone, and cool blue of vivid and bright lone make positive images. Either blue with dull tone gives a negative image. 5. Purple colors whose tone is vivid, deep and light contribute to positive images, and those of dull tone, negative ones.

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Emotional reactions of users for the skin-tone variations of portrait photography (인물 사진의 피부 톤 변화에 대한 감성 반응)

  • Kim, Eunyoung;Park, Chongwook;Woo, Sungju
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2014
  • The skin-tone in portrait photography is one of the most sensitive parts that need retouching by a photographer. To investigate the emotional reactions related to users' preferences for the skin-tone variations in portrait photography, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment included JND(Just Noticeable Difference) test to determine the general distribution of preferences with many photographs that varied in phases up to an extreme one, as a result, preferences for the brightest skin-tone and the red or magenta one were found. Based on the first experiment, we reduced the number of samples by adjusting their brightness to the brightest phase constantly. To intensify the second experiment, we reduced the number of the other colored samples to only one and made samples for five phases from green to magenta, namely the most preferred skin-tone in the first experiment. In the second experiment, the common preference for a neutral skin-tone and the partial difference between the two gender groups were found. In conclusion, the users' preference for a particular skin-tone was positively affected by emotions such as 'happiness' or 'comfortable'. With this investigation, we compiled some statistically meaningful facts to confirm that the preferences of the users depend positively on controlling the skin-tone in portrait photography.

The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Sympathetic Tone (경피신경 전기자극법이 교감신경 긴장성에 미치는 영향)

  • An, Soo-Gyung;Yoo, Hwan-Suk;Lee, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Young-Rok
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation(TENS) on sympathetic tone in healthy subjects. Stimulation in the conventional and burst modes was applied to the skin of the forearm overlying the median nerve. TENS was applied for 20 minutes at an intensity sufficient to produce a perceptible though not uncomfortable sensation and no muscle contracion of the forearm musculature. The change in sympathetic tone was measured with skin temperature. Skin temperature was measured at the index finger and on the volar surface of the forearm in the stimulated limb. The conventional and burst modes did not change the skin temperature at any of the two measurement sites. We conclude that TENS, as applied in this study, does not influence sympathetic tone. Further research is needed to assess the sympathetic effects of TENS on patient groups, long term treatment and other modalities.

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A Differences in Preference and Evaluation on the Image of Make-up (Part II) -Focused on Perceiver's Age & Habitant- (화장색 이미지평가와 선호도 차이 (제2보) -지각자의 연령과 거주지를 중심으로-)

  • Lee Yon-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.684-698
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    • 2006
  • This study consists of the stimuli of a female model in her twenties with twenty-two different facial make-up. The subjects of this study are one thousand low hundred ninety seven purposive sampled-male and female grown-ups throughout the country. The period of the research was the December of 2004, one month, and the materials were analyzed by factor analysis, T-examination, analysis of variance, Cronbach's a, Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Here follows the result of the research. Firstly, Familiarity, Intelligence, Fitness, Charm, Tradition and Youth were came out as the result of factor analysis of make-up color image perception. Secondly, in age/lip color perception of bright skin tone, there was difference of Intelligence and Charm. In age/image make-up perception of bright skin tone, there was difference of Familiarity, Charm especially on Cool image make-up. Thirdly in habitant/lip color perception of dark skin tone, there was difference of Intelligence and Charm. In habitant/image make-up perception of bright skin tone, there was difference of Familiarity, Charm and of bright skin tone, Intelligence, Charm, Tradition and Youth. Fourthly, there were the interaction effects on the gender of perceivers and lip color and image make-up of perceivers habitant. Lastly, in preference rate, lip color was more affected by age and image make-up were more affected by perceivers habitant.

Efficient and Automatic Face Detection Using Skin-tone and Shape (Skin-tone과 특징형태를 적용한 효율적인 얼굴영역 자동검출 기법의 구현)

  • 김광희;김성환;최옥매;이배호
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.575-578
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    • 1999
  • The principal features of a face are as follows : skin-tone, symmetry, and requisites such as shape of ellipse, eyes, nose, mouth. Also, faces have different size, various shape and position. In case of application of face recognition and detection without preprocessing, efficiency of the performance is decreased. In addition, face itself, complex background, image quality, etc. are included. Therefore, previous face recognition methods are implemented on the base of specific constraints of the face image. In this paper, we propose the efficient and automatic face detection algorithm for minimizing influence such as complex background, image quality, etc. This face detection technique consists of skin-tone, candidate face region and face region extractions.

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A Differences in Preference and Evaluation on the Image of Make-up (Part I) -Focused on Perceiver's Genders- (화장색 이미지평가와 선호도 차이 (제1보) -지각자의 성별을 중심으로-)

  • Lee Yon-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.567-581
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this research is to provide the basic data for the development of make-up color application system, based of Korean's skin tone and the preference in make-up color to enhance the effectiveness of the education of beauty in universities. The research was conducted by the previous studies, the analyses of sale's rate of hue-cosmetics, the analytic experiment of color of cosmetics by using Spectrum Color Analyzer and other experimental researches. This research, based on the results of three preliminary researches, shows the result of evaluation from perceivers which has been come out from the experiment of having one model in her twenties being changed with twenty-two different conditions of make-up. Here follows the result of the research. Firstly, there was difference on perceiving images in terms of the gender of perceivers and especially male-group tend to have clearly perceived the gap between elegance-greyish purple, orange-natural, red-classic on monochrome make-up and contrast make-up. Secondly, in terms of lip-colors, salmon pink and pink was regarded positively to both female and male subjects and to male subjects, greyish purple was thought to be better on darker skin-tone and to female subjects, better on lighter skin-tone. Thirdly, on image make-up, romantic gives intelligent image regardless of skin-tone and gender, especially gives more positive looks to male subjects. Natural and classic elements were perceived more positively on darker skin-tone and had bigger perceiving gap in female subjects. Fourthly, in preference rate, male subjects normally preferred the look with make-up than female subjects did and salmon pink and pink lip color was preferred on the darker skin-tone.

Role of linking parameters in Pulse-Coupled Neural Network for face detection

  • Lim, Young-Wan;Na, Jin-Hee;Choi, Jin-Young
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1048-1052
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    • 2004
  • In this work, we have investigated a role of linking parameter in Pulse-Coupled Neural Network(PCNN) which is suggested to explain the synchronous activities among neurons in the cat cortex. Then we have found a method to determine the linking parameter for a satisfactory face detection performance in a given color image. Face detection algorithm which uses the color information is independent on pose, size and obstruction of a face. But the use of color information encounters some problems arising from skin-tone color in the background, intensity variation within faces, and presence of random noise and so on. Depending on these conditions, PCNN's linking parameters should be selected an appropriate values. First we obtained the mean and variance of the skin-tone colors by experiments. Then, we introduced a preprocess that the pixel with a mean value of skin-tone colors has the highest level value (255) and the other pixels have values between 0 and 255 according to normal distribution with a variance. This preprocessing leads to an easy decision of the linking parameter of the Pulse-Coupled Neural Network. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed method can improve the face detection performance compared to the existing methods.

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