• Title, Summary, Keyword: skin flora

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Antibacterial and Antibiotic Activity Enhancing Effect of Extract and Fractions from the Root of Rumex japonicus Houtt (참소리쟁이 뿌리 추출물 및 분획의 항균 활성과 항생제 증강 활성)

  • Yang, Sun A;Kim, A Young;Pyo, Byoung Sik;Kim, Sun Min
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2017
  • Background: The objective of this study were to determine the antibacterial activity and antibiotic activity-enhancing effect of 70% ethanol extract of the root of Rumex japonicus Houtt. and its fractions when used in combination with gentamicin against aerobic skin flora. Methods and Results: The antibacterial activity and antibiotic (gentamicin) activity enhancing effect against aerobic skin flora were determined using the disc diffusion assay. Chloroform fraction (CF) and ethyl acetate fraction (EF) showed higher activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis than those shown by other fractions. Regarding the antibiotic (gentamicin) activity-enhancing effect against aerobic skin flora, the n-hexane fraction (HF) and CF showed strong activity. The combination of HF and CF with gentamicin was evaluated using the broth dilution assay to determine the inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic skin flora. The combination of CF with gentamicin exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus and S. epdermidis. MTT assay performed to determine the viability of L929 cells revealed that EF treatment resulted in viability of 33.96 - 116.76% at the tested concentration. The combination of 70% ethanol extract and its other fractions with gentamicin showed low cell toxicity. Conclusions: Appropriate use of antimicrobial agents is important prior to the development of new antibiotics. The 70% ethanol extract of the root of R. japonicus Houtt. and its fractions showed significant synergism with gentamicin when used in combination against S. aureus and S. epdermidis. Thus, R. japonicus Houtt. could be used as a functional materials in antimicrobial-related fields.

Superficial and Deep Skin Preparation with Povidone-Iodine for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery : A Technical Note

  • Craven, Claudia L.;Thompson, Simon D.;Toma, Ahmed K.;Watkins, Laurence D.
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 2019
  • Objective : Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery is a common and effective treatment for hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal fluid disorders. Infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after a VP shunt. There is evidence that a deep skin flora microbiome may have a role to play in post-operative infections. In this technical note, we present a skin preparation technique that addresses the issue of the skin flora beyond the initial incision. Methods : The patient is initially prepped, as standard, with. a single layer of 2% CHG+70% isopropyl alcohol. The novel stage is the 'double incision' whereby an initial superficial incision receives a further application of povidone-iodine prior to completing the full depth incision. Results : Of the 84 shunts inserted using the double-incision method (September 2015 to September 2016), only one developed a shunt infection. Conclusion : The double incision approach to skin preparation is a unique operative stage in VP shunt surgery that may have a role to play in reducing acute shunt infection.

Study on Cutaneous Mycoses in Oriental Medicine (피부진균증의 한의학적 고찰)

  • Cha, Eun-Yea;Kang, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 2006
  • Fungi cause a number of plant and animal diseases. Because fungi are more chemically and genetically similar to animals than other organisms, this makes fungal diseases very difficult to treat. Human fungal infections are uncommon in normally healthy persons, being confined to conditions such as candidiasis (thrush) and dermatophyte skin infections such as athlete's foot. However, in the immunocompromised host, a variety of normally mild or nonpathogenic fungi can cause potentially fatal infections. Furthermore, the relative ease with which people can now visit 'exotic' countries provides the means for unusual fungal infections to be imported into this country. Fungal infections or mycoses are classified depending on the degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry into the host. These are Cutaneous, Subcutaneous, Systemic, and Opportunistic. As listed above, in superficial mycoses infection is localised to the skin, the hair, and the nails. An example is 'ringworm' or 'tinea', an infection of the skin by a dermatophyte. Ringworm refers to the characteristic central clearing that often occurs in dermatophyte infections of the skin. Dermatophyte members of the genera Trycophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton are responsible for the disease. Tinea can infect various sites of the body, including the scalp (tinea capitis), the beard (tinea barbae) the foot (tinea pedis: 'athlete's foot') and the groin (tinea cruris). All occur in the United Kingdom although tinea infections, other than pedis, are now rare. Candids albicans is a yeast causing candidiasis or 'thrush' in humans. As a superficial mycoses, candidiasis typically infects the mouth or vagina. C. albicans is part of the normal flora of the vagina and gastrointestinal tract and is termed a 'commensal' However, during times of ill health or impaired immunity the balance can alter and the organism multiplies to cause disease. Antibiotic treatment can also alter the normal bacterial flora allowing C. albicans to flourish. If we study mycoses of the orient medicine, we can improve the medical skills about mycoses.

Nano-emulsion Containing Parthenocissus tricuspidata Stem Extracts for Enhanced Skin Permeation and the Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts (피부 흡수 증진을 위한 담쟁이덩굴 줄기 추출물 함유 나노에멀젼 및 이의 항균활성 연구)

  • Jo, Na Rae;Park, Min A;Jeon, So Ha;Park, Soo Nam
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.320-326
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    • 2013
  • In a previous study, we investigated the antioxidative and cellular protective effects of Parthenocissus tricuspidata stem extracts. In this study, we prepared nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extract to improve skin permeation. The particle size of the nano-emulsion using the microfluidizer was 302 nm. Its loading efficiency was over 86%. The size distribution of the nano-emulsion took a monodispersed form and the nano-emulsion was more stable than typical emulsion without using microfluidizer during a 2 week period. In vitro skin permeation study of nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extracts was carried out using Franz diffusion cell. The 1,3-butylene glycol used as a control group had 32.59% skin permeation efficiency. The skin permeation efficiency of the nano-emulsion was 42.47%. Also, we observed the antibacterial activity of the ethyl acetate fraction on skin flora for prospective applications as a natural antimicrobial. The ethyl acetate fraction had antibacterial activities higher than methyl paraben on Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. These results indicate that nano-emulsion containing P. tricuspidata stem extracts could possess valued applications in cosmetic formulations for improving skin permeation. Also, based on the antibacterial activities on skin flora, antioxidative and cellular protective effects shown in our previous study, we suggest that P. tricuspidata stem extracts could be used as functional cosmetic materials.

Antimicrobial Activity of Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) Leaf Extracts against Skin Flora (피부 상재균에 대한 니아울리 잎 추출물의 항균활성)

  • Jang, Ha Na;Park, Soo Nam
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the antimicrobial activity of niaouli leaf extracts was evaluated against skin flora. The skin flora used for experiments were three gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), and two gram-negative, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa( P. aeruginosa), and the yeast, Plasmodium ovale (P. ovale). The bioassay applied for determining the antimicrobial effects of niouli leaf extracts or fraction included the disc diffusion assay and broth dilution assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50% ethanol extract on B. subtilis, S. aureus, P. acnes, E. coli and P. aeruginosa were 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00%, 0.13% and 0.25% respectively and the MIC values of water fraction were 0.25%, 0.25%, 4,00%, 0.25% and 0.25%. P. ovale did not show antimicrobial activities. The MIC values of methyl paraben used as positive control indicated 0.25%, 0.25%, 0.25%, 0.13% and 0.50%. Also, Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 50% ethanol extract were 2.00%, 2.00%, 1.00%, 0.50% and 2.00% individually and the MBC values of water fraction were 0.50%, 0.25%, 4.00%, 0.50% and 1.00%. The MBC values of methyl paraben indicated 1.00%, 0.500%, 0.50%, 0.50% and 1.00%. These results showed that water fraction was as good as methyl paraben except for P. acnes. The 50% ethanol extract also showed activity similar with it. Thus, it is concluded that the 50% ethanol extract/fraction of niaouli could be applicable to cosmetics as a natural preservatives effective in antimicrobial activity against skin flora.

Antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes bacteria of Smilacis glabrae Rhizoma extracts (토복령 추출물의 여드름 균에 대한 항균활성)

  • Park, Jang-Soon;Kwon, Hye-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.12
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    • pp.425-430
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to measure the antimicrobial activity and antiseptic effect of Smilax china root extracts against Propionibacterium acnes and to develop natural antimicrobial extracts as an alternative for synthetic preservatives, which have recently been controversial. Extracts were obtained from dried Korean Smilax china root at room temperature using two solvents, distilled water and 95% EeOH, separately. According to the results of this study, the antimicrobial effect of Propionibacterium acnes 3314 and Propionibacterium acnes 3320 against Propionibacterium acnes was outstanding. In particular, the clear zone of the extract using distilled water showed the highest activity with 16.61 mm. As for the result of the collection of contaminated skin sample, the clear zone was 24.48 mm. This indicates that Smilax china root extracts show a high activity against skin flora as well as a high antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. In conclusion, it is confirmed that Smilax china root extracts can be used as raw materials for cosmetics that have antimicrobial activity and antiseptic effect, and it is expected that Smilax china root extracts will be used as basic materials for the development of future natural preservatives.

A Case Report of Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Isolated from Diabetic Patient with Cellulitis (당뇨병환자의 연조직염에서 분리된 Arcanobacterium haemolyticum 1예)

  • Lee, Hyun;Lee, Deok-Hee;Joo, Sae-Ick;Kim, Eui-Chong
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2009
  • Arcanobacterium haemolyticum was usually isolated from respiratory infection. Occasionally, the cases were reported to cause pharyngotonsillitis, cellutitis, and abscess. A. haemolyticum is V form gram-positive bacilli (coryneform bacilli), which isoften considered to be non-pathogenic normal flora or contaminants in respiratory, skin and wound infection. In order to discriminate from normal flora, incubation for at least 48 hours is recommended. We describe a case that A. haemolyticum was isolated from cellulitis with group G ${\beta}$-hemolytic Streptococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, and Prevotella disiens.

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Fabrication of Antimicrobial Wound Dressings Using Silver-Citrate Nanorods and Analysis of Their Wound-Healing Efficacy

  • Park, Yong Jin;Jeong, Jisu;Kim, Jae Seok;Choi, Dong Soo;Cho, Goang-Won;Park, Jin Seong;Lim, Jong Kuk
    • Journal of the Chosun Natural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 2019
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis is well-known not only as an innocuous normal flora species commonly isolated from human skin, but also as an important bacterial species to keep skin healthy, because this species can protect the human skin from pathogenic microorganisms. However, S. epidermidis turns into a potential pathogen in damaged skin, because these bacteria can easily form a biofilm on the wound area and provide antimicrobial resistance to other microorganisms embedded in the biofilm. Thus, it is important to kill S. epidermidis in the early stage of wound treatment and block the formation of biofilms in advance. In the present study, hydrogel wound dressings were fabricated using polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene glycol containing silver citrate nanorods, which have been proven to have strong antimicrobial activity, especially against S. epidermidis, and their wound-healing efficacy was investigated in vivo using a rat experiment.

Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of Jeju rosemary essential oil against skin flora (제주산 로즈마리 에센셜 오일의 항염 및 피부 상재균에 대한 항균 활성)

  • Kim, So-Hee;Yi, Mi-Ran;Kim, Chang-Soo;Kim, Jung-Mi;Bu, Hee-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.744-756
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and the antimicrobial activity to skin flora of essential oil from rosemary that naturally grown in Jeju. rosemary essential oil was extracted by water distillation essential oil extraction method. In order to confirm the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary essential oil, it was confirmed that the production of NO and $PGE_2$ induced by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of iNOS and COX-2, which are biosynthetic enzymes, decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, production of $TNF-{\alpha}$ and IL-6 the pro-inflammatory cytokines were inhibited. Antimicrobial activities of three S. epidermidis and three P. acnes strains including two antibiotic resistant strains were observed in paper disc method and MIC and MBC tests showed inhibition of bacterial growth and death. From the results of the experiment, we confirmed that rosemary essential oil has the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial efficacy and it could be used as a cosmetic and skin care material in the future.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Lemon and Eucalyptus Essential Oils against Skin Floras (레몬 및 유칼립투스 에센셜오일의 피부 상재균에 대한 항산화 및 항균 효과)

  • Kim, Ji-Hye;Kim, Min-Jung;Choi, Su-Ki;Bae, Seung-Hee;An, Sung-Kwan;Yoon, Yeong-Min
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 2011
  • Lemon and eucalyptus oils were known to have various biological effects such as anti-aging and sterilizing action. However these essential oils were not well studied about their antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity against specific skin flora. In this study, we investigated antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of lemon and eucalyptus oils by using DPPH radical scavening activity and paper disc method. Lemon oil showed the high DPPH scavenging activity, while eucalyptus oil did not. Blending oils of lemon and eucalyptus had little enhancememt onantioxidant activity. Paper disc method demonstrated that each oil had a high antimicrobial effect against C. albicans and P. acnes in a concentration dependent manner. The blending oils had enhancememt on antimicrobial effect against P. acnes. In conclusion, the blending oil of lemon and eucalyptus can be used as a more effective natural agents for cure of skin trouble and acne.