• Title, Summary, Keyword: single-node culture

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The Architectural Meaning of the Floor-Sitting Culture in Korea - Focused on the Matter of Shoes - (좌식공간관습의 건축사적 함의 - 신발의 문제를 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Jae-Mo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.83-98
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    • 2012
  • The starting point of this study is the concerning of simple behavioral pattern that whoever enters the inner space with taking off his shoes should go out from the position where he laid his shoes. The using of Ondol (floor heating room) and Maru (lifted wood floor) had changed the architectural space from chair-sitting to floor-sitting space, and it also made the behavior of taking off the shoes at the entrance of building and stepping on the lifted floor. This simple behavior has possibility to make lots of changes to the culture of architectural design. With this noticeable point, this paper is talking about the cultural feature of Korean traditional architecture, especially about the influence of tanking off and putting on shoes. The matter of shoes has changed diverse aspects of building and layout planning. It maximized the difference between front and rear part of building and characterized the lateral extension of Korean traditional house. The ritual space also had evolved from chair-sitting to floor-sitting space according to the type of ritual behavioral pattern. The change on the single building level had influenced on the layout planning of architectural complex. For examples, the parallel layout of ChangDeok-gung palace and the long sequential process to the main pavilion of Buddhist temple are the result of the matter of shoes. And NuGak(樓閣), the double-storied pavilion, on the axis of entering sequence's node is one of the unique planning elements that makes possible to go through the building without taking off the shoes and also makes upper level space for staying. In short, Korean traditional architecture that has the chair-sitting spatial origin of the East Asian cultural sphere has pursued new architectural issues and planning methods according to evolution to the floor-sitting culture.

Multiple Shoot Formation of Gentiana axillariflora Leveille by in Vitro Culture (큰용담의 기내증식에서 multiple shoot의 유기)

  • Lim, Jung-Dae;Yu, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 2000
  • This study was aimed to proliferate Gentiana axillariflora Leveille which is one of the important medicinal and ornamental plants, by establishment of multiple shoot formation and embryogenesis through tissue culture technique. Callus was formed on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with 2,4-D, CPA, but not formed with BAP. The addition of 2,4-D 2 mg/ l into the medium was effective for callus formation and the rate of callus formation was about 90%. Somatic embryos were obtained on MS medium for two months. When callus was cultured on MS medium with combination treatment of 2,4-D 0.5 mg/ l and BAP 0.5 mg/ l, the number of embryo formed was better than that of other single or combination treatments and the total numbers of embryo a were 18.8 (number of total embryo/number of explants incubated = 753/40) at mean. Callus induction from stem and node explants was increased by addition of TDZ 2 mg/ l in the presence of 2,4-D 2 mg/ l, respectively. The best result about the differentiation of shoots was obtained on MS medium added BAP 2 mg/ l from node culture. Multiple shoots from shoot apex were induced on MS medium containing BAP 1 mg/ I and TDZ 1 mg/ l , BAP 2 mg/ l and TDZ 1 mg/ l. The number of multiple shoots per one explant was above seventy plants. It was the most effective regeneration system for rapid multiplication of Gentiana axillariflora Leveille.

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Promoted Growth and Development of Carnation Plantlets In Vitro by Ventilation and Combined Red and Blue Light

  • Nguyen, Quan Hoang;Thi, Luc The;Park, Yoo Gyeong;Jeong, Byoung Ryong
    • FLOWER RESEARCH JOURNAL
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.166-178
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    • 2018
  • In this study, the principal objective was to investigate the effect of light quality and vessel ventilation on the growth and development, physiology, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and contents of mineral nutrients of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) 'Marble Beauty'. Single node cuttings stuck into the plant growth regulator (PGR)-free MS medium in containers covered with caps with or without a ventilation filter were cultured first four weeks under white and then additional four weeks under either white (control), blue, red, or red + blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for 56 days. Interestingly, a ventilated culture condition not only reduced the percentage of the hyperhydricity, but also increased the total chlorophyll content (Chl a + Chl b) of the plantlets as compared to the non-ventilated condition. In addition, blue LEDs produced plantlets with the greatest number of shoots and red LEDs produced plantlets with the greatest shoot length. The quality of plantlets was improved under a ventilation condition. Besides, under a ventilated condition, red + blue LEDs raised APX activity, and blue LEDs not only raised the activity of the CAT, but also increased tissue contents of such elements as K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe. The red LEDs increased contents of B and Si under a ventilated condition, and Na accumulation under a non-ventilated condition. Thus, including blue or red LEDs as the light source in a ventilated culture condition will produce plantlets of carnation 'Marble Beauty' in vitro with improved quality.

Effects of Light-emitting Diodes on In Vitro Growth of Virus-free Sweet Potato Plantlets (LED가 고구마 바이러스 무병묘의 기내 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoo, Kyoung-Ran;Lee, Seung-Yeob
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.490-498
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    • 2017
  • The in vitro growth of virus-free sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] plantlets was investigated under different light sources: fluorescent lamp (control); red (660 nm), blue (460 nm), white light-emitting diodes (LED), and two mixtures of blue and red LED (R:B = 8:2, and 7:3). Single node explants (10 mm) of three cultivars ('Matnami', 'Shincheonmi', and 'Yeonhwangmi') were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with $0.2mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ 6-benzyladenine for 4 weeks. Explants were exposed to $150{\pm}5{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ photosynthetic photon flux at a distance of 20 cm, constant temperature of $25^{\circ}C$, and under 16/8-h (day/night) photoperiod. Using the same method, the in vitro growth of 10 cultivars under red LED was also compared. After 3 weeks, vine length was highest in plantlets cultured under red LED, and lowest in plantlets cultured under blue LED. Fresh and dry weights were also greatest in plantlets cultured under red LED. Compared to the control, vine thickness was significantly higher in plantlets grown under white LED and the 7:3 R:B LED mixture. Significant differences were observed among the 10 cultivars grown under red LED. 'Matnami', 'Shincheonmi', and 'Shinhwangmi' all had excellent vine lengths, and fresh and dry weights. Compared to the control, vine elongation of sweet potato plantlets was most effective under red LED, and culture duration was about 1 week shorter.

Growth Acceleration and Acclimatization of In Vitro Plantlets derived from Apical Meristem of Sweet Potato (고구마의 경정조직 유래 기내 소식물체의 생장촉진과 순화)

  • ;;Shiro Higashi
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 1999
  • The single node cuttings of sweet potato (cv. Mokpo #29) plantlets maintained in vitro were cultured with (MF+) or without membrane filter (MF-) under photomixotrophic (PM), hetrotrophic (HT) and autotrophic (AT) conditions. Shoot length was the greatest (11.9cm) in 3$0^{\circ}C$ (HT) treatment and it was the shortest (3.4 cm) in $25^{\circ}C$ (PM) treatment. Nodal explants cultured in 3$0^{\circ}C$ treatment looked more vigorous than those of $25^{\circ}C$ in appearance, and node number was the greatest (10.5 per plantlet) among the treatments. But plantlets grew in 3$0^{\circ}C$ (HT) treatment were observed all overgrown. The size in leaf area was about 2 times greater and shoot length was about 2 times shorter in PM than in HT condition. Percent dry matter of shoots was 5.9% (HT) and 7.4% (PM) in $25^{\circ}C$ treatment and 6.1% (HT) and 7.4% (PM) in 3$0^{\circ}C$ treatment. Plantlets cultured in the MF+ treatments were less succulent than those cultured in the MF- treatment. Vitrified plantlets were examinated 14.8% (both $25^{\circ}C$ and 3$0^{\circ}C$) in PM condition and 22.2% ($25^{\circ}C$) and 31.5% (3$0^{\circ}C$) in HT condition. Sucrose was necessary for the survival of in vitro plantlets. In the sucrose-free medium, explants cultured in the MF- had turned yellow and were dead after 30 days of culture. But explants cultured in the MF+ were alive and produced plantlets with shoot and root (AT). On the other hand, the survival of explants on the MS basal medium (sucrose-free and hormone-free) depended entirely upon the MF attachment.

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In vitro Multiplication through Single-Node Culture of Sea-Milkwort (Glaux maritima L.) (갯봄맞이(Glaux maritima L.) 실생의 단마디배양을 통한 기내증식)

  • Bae, Su-Ji;Kang, Beum-Chang;Jeong, Mihye;Kim, Soochong;Kim, Chang Kil;Han, Jeung-Sul
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.461-471
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to establish an in vitro propagation system for sea-milkwort (Glaux maritima L.), which is an endangered coastal plant species with high horticultural value. Two phenotypes, 'Red type (RT)' and 'Pistachio type (PT)' based on the colors of stem and flower, were obtained from a personal horticulturist in 2009 and used for this study as plant materials. The stock plants showed typical morphologies in flower, capsule, and seed appearances as previously reported. Low temperature treatment at $4^{\circ}C$ for four or more weeks after in vitro sowing maximized seed germination percentage, indicating that imbibition of seed and subsequent low temperature treatment are crucial for its germination. The in vitro seedlings had phenotypic variation, falling into 'RT' and 'PT' classes like the stock plants. Although slight differences depending on genotype and medium were recognized, the fourth or fifth nodes detached from the in vitro seedlings revealed the best multiplication efficacy when estimated on the basis of total number of nodes of newly developed axillary shoots. In addition, the nodes from 'RT' and 'PT' regenerated the most shoots on medium supplemented with $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA alone and $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ BA plus $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ IAA, respectively. The node culture-derived plantlets were well acclimatized in a culture room ex vitro and completed the pseudo-annual life cycle coincident with that in the natural salt march habitat with the current cultivation method of applying fresh water-irrigation under an inland environment. This work represents the first report of in vitro propagation of sea-milkwort. Thus, our study will contribute to exo-habitat conservation and natural habitat restoration of this endangered species in addition to development of a horticultural product.

Effects of various medium on mass propagation of in vitro cultured Platycodon grandiflorum with yellow green petals

  • Kwon, Soo Jeong;Han, Eun Ji;Moon, Young Ja;Cho, Gab Yeon;Woo, Sun Hee;Boo, Hee Ock;Koo, Jin-Woog;Kim, Hag Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.171-171
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    • 2017
  • Propagation by crown division in Platycodon grandiflorum is too slow for producing many plants in a short time although the plants are uniform. This study was performed to enhance the mass propagation for Platycodon grandiflorum containing yellow green petals via various medium compositions and the growth regulators. The nodes containing yellow green petals were used as materials to execute the study with a variety of MS medium concentrations. The 1/4MS medium showed the best development of adventitious root, while the 1/2MS medium exhibited the potential growth. The higher the concentration of sucrose showed the better development and growth of both shoots and adventitious roots. Many adventitious roots were developed at the controlled culture medium at pH 4.8 with a tendency of suppression with higher levels of pH. Also, the cultivated node and leaf explants with the treatments of simple and combined applications with auxin and cytokinin at the 1/4MS culture medium with adding 5% of sucrose were used to identify the influences of growth regulators. The regeneration of plantlets at the 234single application showed a good result with the addition of BA $1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and the development and growth of adventitious roots appeared to be good at the addition of NAA $1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. For the combined applications, the regeneration of plantlets and the development of adventitious roots were prosperous at the combined applications with BA $0.1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and IAA $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The addition of IAA for the leaf explants induced a number of plantlets that showed the potential regeneration, and the highest results was obtained from the combined applications of both BA $1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and IAA $2.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. In addition, the development of adventitious roots showed the satisfactory results at the combined application of both BA $1mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ and IAA $0.5mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$.

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Callus formation and multiple shoot induction of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (헛개나무의 캘러스 형성 및 multiple shoot 유기)

  • Eom, Seung-Hee;Kang, Won-Hee;Shin, Dong-Yong;Heo, Kwon;Choi, Won-Cheol;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Yu, Chang-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2002
  • Loaves, stems, cotyledons, and roots of Hovenia dulcis Thunb grown in test tube were cultured on media containing different concentrations of single or combined growth regulators. In MS media containing 2mg/ι BA, the shoot formation rate was 95.5% and it was the highest frequency of shoot formation. MS media showed most efficiency in the shoot formation at 0.01mg/ι TDZ for the callus formation, but the color of callus changed to brown at a higher concentration of TDZ. Callus formation was 89.% at 0.5mg/ 2.4-D, but IAA, IBA, and NAA were not effective on the formation of callus. Calli were formed only on wound area when IAA, IBA, and NAA were added into MS media. Combined growth regulators (BA + auxin) were more effective in roots and nodes than leaves and cotyledons on the formation of shoot. More than 97% of shoot formation was obtained on MS media containing BA and auxin. For the production of multiple shoot, nodes of Hovenia dulcis were used and effect of growth regulators on the formation of multiple shoot was evaluated on MS media. Highest shoots (5.3) of Hovenia dulcis were induced on MS media supplied with 0.1mg/ι BA and 0.1mg/ι NAA, and an average of 6.4 shoots per explant were obtained in 1/2 MS media containing same concentration and growth regulators. An average of 7 shoots per explant after 4 weeks of culture from nodes of Hovenia dulcis was produced on a woody plant medium(WPM) containing 0.1mg/ι BA and 0.1mg/ι NAA. Shoot length was 6.0 cm in average.