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Preliminary Study on the Development of a Performance Based Design Platform of Vertical Breakwater against Seismic Activity - Centering on the Weakened Shear Modulus of Soil as Shear Waves Go On (직립식 방파제 성능기반 내진 설계 Platform 개발을 위한 기초연구 - 전단파 횟수 누적에 따른 지반 강도 감소를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Jin Gyu;Cho, Yong Jun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Coastal and Ocean Engineers
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.306-318
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    • 2018
  • In order to evaluate the seismic capacity of massive vertical type breakwaters which have intensively been deployed along the coast of South Korea over the last two decades, we carry out the preliminary numerical simulation against the PoHang, GyeongJu, Hachinohe 1, Hachinohe 2, Ofunato, and artificial seismic waves based on the measured time series of ground acceleration. Numerical result shows that significant sliding can be resulted in once non-negligible portion of seismic energy is shifted toward the longer period during its propagation process toward the ground surface in a form of shear wave. It is well known that during these propagation process, shear waves due to the seismic activity would be amplified, and non-negligible portion of seismic energy be shifted toward the longer period. Among these, the shift of seismic energy toward the longer period is induced by the viscosity and internal friction intrinsic in the soil. On the other hand, the amplification of shear waves can be attributed to the fact that the shear modulus is getting smaller toward the ground surface following the descending effective stress toward the ground surface. And the weakened intensity of soil as the number of attacking shear waves are accumulated can also contribute these phenomenon (Das, 1993). In this rationale, we constitute the numerical model using the model by Hardin and Drnevich (1972) for the weakened shear modulus as shear waves go on, and shear wave equation, in the numerical integration of which $Newmark-{\beta}$ method and Modified Newton-Raphson method are evoked to take nonlinear stress-strain relationship into account. It is shown that the numerical model proposed in this study could duplicate the well known features of seismic shear waves such as that a great deal of probability mass is shifted toward the larger amplitude and longer period when shear waves propagate toward the ground surface.

Change of Hydraulic Properties of Sand due to Fine Diatom Particle Migration (미세 Diatom 입자 이동에 의한 모래지반의 투수 특성 변화)

  • Pyo, Won-Mi;Lee, Jong-Sub;Lee, Joo Yong;Hong, Won-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.19-32
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    • 2018
  • During the process of gas hydrate extraction in the deep seabed, fine diatom particle migration occurs, which causes the seabed slope failure and the productivity deterioration of the gas hydrate. Therefore, a study related with the changes of the ground characteristics due to the fine particle migration is required. The objective of this study is to investigate the change of hydraulic properties of sand due to the migration of fine diatom particle in sandy soils. In order to simulate the sediments of the Ulleung basin gas hydrate in the East Sea, fifteen sand-diatom mixtures that have different diatom volume fractions (DVF) are prepared. During the falling head permeability tests, the coefficients of permeability are measured according to the DVF. In addition, for the simulation of the fine diatom particle migration, constant head permeability tests are conducted by applying the hydraulic pressures of 3 kPa, 6kPa, and 9 kPa on a specimen composed of two layers: a specimen with 50% DVF in upper layer and a specimen with 0% DVF in lower layer. Furthermore, the coefficient of permeability and the electrical resistivity of the migration zone are measured during the constant head permeability test. The falling head permeability tests show that the coefficient of permeability decreases as the DVF of the specimen increases. In addition, the gradient of the coefficient of permeability curve decreases in the DVF range of 10%~50% compared with that of 0%~10%, and increases above 50% in DVF. The result of constant head permeability tests shows that the coefficient of permeability decreases and electrical resistivity increases in the migration zone due to the fine diatom particle migration. This study demonstrates that fine diatom particle migration reduces the permeability of the soils and the behavior of the migration zone due to the fine diatom particle migration may be estimated based on the reversal relationship between the coefficient of permeability and the electrical resistivity.

Adaptive Lock Escalation in Database Management Systems (데이타베이스 관리 시스템에서의 적응형 로크 상승)

  • Chang, Ji-Woong;Lee, Young-Koo;Whang, Kyu-Young;Yang, Jae-Heon
    • Journal of KIISE:Databases
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.742-757
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    • 2001
  • Since database management systems(DBMSS) have limited lock resources, transactions requesting locks beyond the limit mutt be aborted. In the worst carte, if such transactions are aborted repeatedly, the DBMS can become paralyzed, i.e., transaction execute but cannot commit. Lock escalation is considered a solution to this problem. However, existing lock escalation methods do not provide a complete solution. In this paper, we prognose a new lock escalation method, adaptive lock escalation, that selves most of the problems. First, we propose a general model for lock escalation and present the concept of the unescalatable look, which is the major cause making the transactions to abort. Second, we propose the notions of semi lock escalation, lock blocking, and selective relief as the mechanisms to control the number of unescalatable locks. We then propose the adaptive lock escalation method using these notions. Adaptive lock escalation reduces needless aborts and guarantees that the DBMS is not paralyzed under excessive lock requests. It also allows graceful degradation of performance under those circumstances. Third, through extensive simulation, we show that adaptive lock escalation outperforms existing lock escalation methods. The results show that, compared to the existing methods, adaptive lock escalation reduces the number of aborts and the average response time, and increases the throughput to a great extent. Especially, it is shown that the number of concurrent transactions can be increased more than 16 ~256 fold. The contribution of this paper is significant in that it has formally analysed the role of lock escalation in lock resource management and identified the detailed underlying mechanisms. Existing lock escalation methods rely on users or system administrator to handle the problems of excessive lock requests. In contrast, adaptive lock escalation releases the users of this responsibility by providing graceful degradation and preventing system paralysis through automatic control of unescalatable locks Thus adaptive lock escalation can contribute to developing self-tuning: DBMSS that draw a lot of attention these days.

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Geoacoustic characteristics of Quaternary stratigraphic sequences in the mid-eastern Yellow Sea (황해 중동부 제4기 퇴적층의 지음향 특성)

  • Jin, Jae-Hwa;Jang, Seong-Hyeong;Kim, Seong-Pil;Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Lee, Chi-Won;Chang, Jeong-Hae;Choi, Jin-Hyeok;Ryang, Woo-Heon
    • The Sea
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2001
  • According to analyses of high-resolution seismic profiles (air gun, sparker, and SBP) and a deep-drill core(YSDP 105) in the mid-eastern Yellow Sea, stratigraphic and geoacoustic models have been established and seismo-acoustic modeling has been fulfilled using ray tracing of finite element method. Stratigraphic model reflects seismo-, litho-, and chrono-stratigraphic sequences formed under a significant influence of Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea-level fluctuations. Each sequence consists of terrestrial to very-shallow-marine coarse-grained lowstand systems tract and tidal fine-grained transgressive to highstand systems tract. Based on mean grain-size data (121 samples) of the drill core, bulk density and P-wave velocity of depositional units have been inferred and extrapolated down to a depth of the recovery using the Hamilton's regression equations. As goo-acoustic parameters, the 121 pairs of bulk density and P-wave velocity have been averaged on each unit of the stratigraphic model. As a result of computer ray-tracing simulation of the subsurface strata, we have found that there are complex ray paths and many acoustic-shadow zones owing to the presence of irregular layer boundaries and low-velocity layers.

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Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Fault Slip Induced by Water Injection: DECOVALEX-2019 TASK B (Step 1) (유체 주입에 의한 단층의 수리역학적 거동 해석: 국제공동연구 DECOVALEX-2019 Task B 연구 현황(Step 1))

  • Park, Jung-Wook;Park, Eui-Seob;Kim, Taehyun;Lee, Changsoo;Lee, Jaewon
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.400-425
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    • 2018
  • This study presents the research results and current status of the DECOVALEX-2019 project Task B. Task B named 'Fault slip modelling' is aiming at developing a numerical method to simulate the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of fault, including slip or reactivation, induced by water injection. The first research step of Task B is a benchmark simulation which is designed for the modelling teams to familiarize themselves with the problem and to set up their own codes to reproduce the hydro-mechanical coupling between the fault hydraulic transmissivity and the mechanically-induced displacement. We reproduced the coupled hydro-mechanical process of fault slip using TOUGH-FLAC simulator. The fluid flow along a fault was modelled with solid elements and governed by Darcy's law with the cubic law in TOUGH2, whereas the mechanical behavior of a single fault was represented by creating interface elements between two separating rock blocks in FLAC3D. A methodology to formulate the hydro-mechanical coupling relations of two different hydraulic aperture models and link the solid element of TOUGH2 and the interface element of FLAC3D was suggested. In addition, we developed a coupling module to update the changes in geometric features (mesh) and hydrological properties of fault caused by water injection at every calculation step for TOUGH-FLAC simulator. Then, the transient responses of the fault, including elastic deformation, reactivation, progressive evolutions of pathway, pressure distribution and water injection rate, to stepwise pressurization were examined during the simulations. The results of the simulations suggest that the developed model can provide a reasonable prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior related to fault reactivation. The numerical model will be enhanced by continuing collaboration and interaction with other research teams of DECOLVAEX-2019 Task B and validated using the field data from fault activation experiments in a further study.

Thought Experiments: on the Working Imagination and its Limitation (사고실험 - 상상의 작용과 한도에 대해)

  • Hwang, Hee-sook
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.146
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    • pp.307-328
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    • 2018
  • The use of thought experiments has a long history in many disciplines including science. In the field of philosophy, thought experiments have frequently appeared in the pre-existing literature on the contemporary Analytic Philosophy. A thought experiment refers to a synthetic environment where the designer of the experiment-with his or her intuition and imagination-tests common-sense knowledge. It can be understood as a conceptual tool for testing the validity of the common understanding of an issue or a phenomenon. However, we are not certain about the usefulness or efficacy of a thought experiment in knowledge production. The design of a thought experiment is meant to lure readers into believing as intended by the experiment itself. Thus, regardless of the purpose of a thought experiment, many readers who encounter the experiment could feel deceived. In this paper, to analyze the logic of thought experiments and to seek the source of uneasiness the readers and critics may feel about thought experiments, I draw lessons from three renowned thought-experiments: Thomson's 'ailing violinist', Putnam's 'brain in a vat', and Searle's 'Chinese room'. Imaginative thought experiments are usually constructed around a gap between the reality and the knowledge/information at hand. From the three experiments, several lessons can be learned. First, the evidence of the existence of a gap provided via thought experiments can serve as arguments for counterfactual situations. At the same time, the credibility and efficacy of the thought experiments can be damaged as soon as the thought-experiments are carried out with inappropriate and/or murky directions regarding the procedures of the experiment or the background of the study. According to D. R. Hofstadter and D. C. Dennett(1981), the 'knob setting' in a thought experiment can be altered in the middle of a simulation of the experimental condition, and then the implications of the thought experiment change altogether, indicating that an entirely different conclusion can be deduced from thought experiment. Lastly, some pre-suppositions and bias of the experiment designers play a considerable role in the validity and the chances of success of a thought experiment; thus, it is recommended that the experiment-designers refrain from exercising too much of their imagination in order to avoid contaminating the design of the experiment and/or wrongly accepting preconceived/misguided conclusions.

An experimental study of dynamic frictional resistance between orthodontic bracket and arch wire (교정용 브라켓과 강선 사이의 운동마찰저항력에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwan;Lee, Ki-Soo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.467-477
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    • 2001
  • This investigation was designed to determine the effects of wire size, bracket width and the number of bracket on bracket-wire dynamic frictional resistance during simulating arch wire-guided tooth movement in vitro. For simulation of an arch wire-guided tooth movement, we simulated tooth, periodontal ligament and cancellous bone. Maxillary premolar and 1st molar were simulated as real sized resin teeth, the simulated resin teeth which its root was coated by polyether impression material which its elastic modulus is similar to periodontal ligament were embedded in steel housing with inlay wax which its elastic modulus is similar to cancellous bone. Stainless steel wires in four wire size (0.016, 0.018, $0.016\;{\times}\;0.022,\;0.019\;{\times}\;0.025$ inch) were examined with respect to three (stainless steel) bracket widths (2.4, 3.0, 4.3mm) and the number of medium bracket(one, two, three) included in the experimental assembly under dry condition. The wires were ligated into the brackets with elastomeric module. The results were as follows : 1. In all the brackets, frictional resistance increased with increase in wire size. But, statistically similar levels of frictional resistance were observed between 0.018 inch and $0.016\;{\times}\;0.022$ inch wires in narrow bracket and also between 0.016 inch and 0.018 inch wire in wide backet. 2. The frictional forces produced by 0.016 inch wire were statistically similar levels in all the brackets. In 0.018 inch round wire, wide bracket was associated with lower amounts of friction than both narrow and medium brackets. In $0.016\;{\times}\;0.022,\;0.019\;{\times}\;0.025$ inch rectangular wire, wide bracket produced target friction than both narrow and medium brackets. In all the wirer, narrow and medium bracket demonstrated no statistical difference in levels of frictional resistance. 3. Frictional resistance increased with increase In number of medium bracket. 0.016 inch round wire demonstrated the greatest increment in frictional resistance, followed by $0.019\;{\times}\;0.025,\;0.016\;{\times}\;0.022$ inch rectangular wire which were similar level in increment of frictional resistance, 0.018 inch wire demonstrated the least increment. The increments of frictional resistance were not constantly direct proportion to number of bracket.

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Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 1998 and 1999 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 - 1998년 1999년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 -)

  • 이재헌;김광우;김병주;이재효;김우승;조형희;김민수
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.12 no.12
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    • pp.1098-1125
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    • 2000
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 1998 and 1999 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. 1) A review of the recent studies on fluid flow, turbomachinery and pipe-network shows that many experimental investigations are conducted in applications of impingement jets. Researches on turbulent flows, pipe flows, pipe-networks are focused on analyses of practical systems and prediction of system performance. The results of noise reduction in the turbomachinery are also reported. 2) A review of the recent studies on heat transfer analysis and heat exchanger shows that there were many papers on the channel flow with the application to the design of heat exchanger in the heat transfer analysis. Various experimental and numerical papers on heat exchanger were also published, however, there were few papers available for the analysis of whole system including heat exchanger. 3) A review of the recent studies on heat pump system have focused on the multi-type system and the heat pump cycle to utilize treated sewage as the heat source. The defrosting and the frosting behaviors in the fin-tube heat exchanger is experimentally examined by several authors. Several papers on the ice storage cooling system are presented to show the dynamic simulation program and optimal operation conditions. The study on the micro heat pipes for the cooling of high power electronic components is carried out to examine the characteristics of heat and mass transfer processed. In addition to these, new type of separate thermosyphon is studied experimentally. 4) The recent studies on refrigeration/air conditioning system have focused on the system performance and efficiency for new alternative refrigerants. New systems operating with natural refrigerants are drawing lots of attention. In addition to these, evaporation and condensation heat transfer characteristics of traditional and new refrigerants are investigated for plain tubes and also for microfin tubes. Capillary tubes and orifice are main topics of research as expansion devices and studies on thermophysical properties of new refrigerants and refrigerant/oil mixtures are widely carried out. 5) A review of the recent studies on absorption cooling system shows that numerous experimental and analytical studies on the improvement of absorber performance have been presented. Dynamic analysis of compressor have been performed to understand its vibration characteristics. However research works on tow-phase flow and heat transfer, which could be encountered in the refrigeration system and various phase-change heat exchanger, were seemed to be insufficient. 6) A review of recent studies on duct system shows that the methods for circuit analysis, and flow balancing have been presented. Researches on ventilation are focused on the measurement of ventilation efficiency, and variation of ventilation efficiency with ventilation methods by numerous experimental and numerical studies. Furthermore, many studies have been conducted in real building in order to estimate indoor thermal environments. Many research works to get some information for cooling tower design have been performed but are insufficient. 7) A review on the recent studies on architectural thermal environment and building mechanical systems design shows that thermal comfort analysis is sitting environment, thermal performance analysis of Korean traditional building structures., and evaluation of building environmental load have been performed. However research works to improve the performance of mechanical system design and construction technology were seemed to be insufficient.

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Au-Ag-Te Mineralization by Boiling and Dilution of Meteoric Ground-water in the Tongyeong Epithermal sold System, Korea: Implications from Reaction Path Modeling (광화유체의 비등과 희석에 의한 통영 천열수계 Au-Ag-Te 장화작용에 대한 반응경로 모델링)

  • Maeng-Eon Park;Kyu-Youl Sung
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.507-522
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    • 2001
  • At the Tongyeong mine, quartz, rhodochrosite (kutnahorite), muscovite, illite, pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite. sphalerite, acanthite, and hessite are the principal vein minerals. They were deposited under epithermal conditions in two stages. Ore mineral assemblages and associated gangue phases in stage can be clearly divided into two general associations: an early cycle (band) that appeared with introduction of most of the sulfides and electrum, and a later cycle in which base metal and carbonate-bearing assemblages (mostly rhodochrosite) became dominant. Tellurides and some electrum occur as small rounded grains within subhedral-to euhedral pyrite or anhedral galena in stageII. Sulfide mineralization is zoned from pyrite to galena and sphalerite. We have used computer modeling to simulate formation of four stages of vein genesis. The reaction of a single fluid with andesite host rock at 28$0^{\circ}C$, isobaric cooling of a single fluid from 26$0^{\circ}C$ to 12$0^{\circ}C$, and boiling and mixing of a fluid with both decreasing pressure and temperature were studied using the CHILLER program. Calculations show that the precipitation of alteration minerals is due to fluid-andesite interaction as temperature drops. Speciation calculations confirm that the hydrothermal fluids with moderately high salinities and pH 5.7 (acid), were capable of transporting significant quantities of base metals. The abundance of gold in fluid depends critically on the ratio of total base metals and iron to sulfide in the aqueous phase because gold is transported as an Au(HS)$_2$- complex, which is sensitive to sulfide activity. Modeling results for Tongyeong mineralization show strong influence of shallow hydrogenic processes such as boiling and fluid mixing. The variable handing in stageII mineralization is best explained by maltiple boilings of hydrothermal fluid followed by lateral mixing of the fluid with overlying diluted, steam-heated ground water. The degree of similarity of calculated mineral assemblages and observed electrum composition and field relationships shows the utility of the numerical simulation method in identifying chemical processes that accompany boiling and mixing in Te-bearing Au-Ag system. This has been applied in models to narrow the search area for epithermal ores.

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A Study on the Data Driven Neural Network Model for the Prediction of Time Series Data: Application of Water Surface Elevation Forecasting in Hangang River Bridge (시계열 자료의 예측을 위한 자료 기반 신경망 모델에 관한 연구: 한강대교 수위예측 적용)

  • Yoo, Hyungju;Lee, Seung Oh;Choi, Seohye;Park, Moonhyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2019
  • Recently, as the occurrence frequency of sudden floods due to climate change increased, the flood damage on riverside social infrastructures was extended so that there has been a threat of overflow. Therefore, a rapid prediction of potential flooding in riverside social infrastructure is necessary for administrators. However, most current flood forecasting models including hydraulic model have limitations which are the high accuracy of numerical results but longer simulation time. To alleviate such limitation, data driven models using artificial neural network have been widely used. However, there is a limitation that the existing models can not consider the time-series parameters. In this study the water surface elevation of the Hangang River bridge was predicted using the NARX model considering the time-series parameter. And the results of the ANN and RNN models are compared with the NARX model to determine the suitability of NARX model. Using the 10-year hydrological data from 2009 to 2018, 70% of the hydrological data were used for learning and 15% was used for testing and evaluation respectively. As a result of predicting the water surface elevation after 3 hours from the Hangang River bridge in 2018, the ANN, RNN and NARX models for RMSE were 0.20 m, 0.11 m, and 0.09 m, respectively, and 0.12 m, 0.06 m, and 0.05 m for MAE, and 1.56 m, 0.55 m and 0.10 m for peak errors respectively. By analyzing the error of the prediction results considering the time-series parameters, the NARX model is most suitable for predicting water surface elevation. This is because the NARX model can learn the trend of the time series data and also can derive the accurate prediction value even in the high water surface elevation prediction by using the hyperbolic tangent and Rectified Linear Unit function as an activation function. However, the NARX model has a limit to generate a vanishing gradient as the sequence length becomes longer. In the future, the accuracy of the water surface elevation prediction will be examined by using the LSTM model.