Lisboa, Isabel Neves Duarte;de Azevedo Macena, Monica Suela;da Conceicao Dias Fernandes, Maria Isabel;de Almeida Medeiros, Ana Beatriz;de Lima, Cyndi Fernandes;de Carvalho Lira, Ana Luisa Brandao
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: Skin cancer has a remarkable importance given the high incidence in the population. In Brazil, it is estimated that there were 98,420 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer among men and 83,710 new cases among women in 2014. Objectives: To verify signs and symptoms present in patients with skin neoplasms according to the literature and relate them to the nursing diagnoses of NANDA International. Materials and Methods: Integrative literature review carried out from March to May 2015 in the databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SCOPUS, National Library of Medicine and Nattional Institutes of Health, Latin American and Caribbean Sciences of Health and Web of Science. The descriptors used were: 'Signs and Symptoms' and 'Skin Neoplasms'. Sixteen articles were identified as the final sample. After review, the signs and symptoms of skin cancer identified in the literature were related to the defining characteristics present in NANDA International, with the aim to trace possible nursing diagnoses. Results: The most prevalent signs and symptoms were: asymmetric and well circumscribed nodules with irregular borders; speckles with modified color aspect; ulcerations; blisters; pain; itching; and bleeding. The principal nursing diagnoses outlined were: risk for impaired skin integrity; impaired skin integrity; acute pain; risk of shock; and impaired comfort. Conclusions: The identification of signs and symptoms present in patients with skin cancer and the relationships of these with the nursing diagnoses of NANDA International provide a basis for qualified and systematized nursing care to this clientele.
A validation of the nursing diagnosis 'fluid volume deficit' was completed by using the diagnostic content validity method. Articles pertaining to fluid volume depletion were reviewed to identify the signs and symptoms used to describe the nursing diagnosis. The topics addressed in the articles included hypovolemic shock, hemorrhage, trauma, fluid balance, hydration, burn injury, thirst, dehydration. A validation instruments was constructed of 52 signs and symptoms. A validation tool was examined by expert nurses group who work on intensive care unit, kidney transplantation unit, internal medicine and general surgery unit. The study sample rated the signs and symptoms on a scale from one to five, evaluating their relevance to this diagnosis. Of the 52 signs and symptoms on the validation tool, 10 were categorized as critical indicators and 34 were categorized as defining characteristics.
Purpose: This methodological study was done to develop a telephone consultation algorithms and practice guidelines for patient discharged with ophthalmic diseases. Methods: The ophthalmic problems of the patients were identified and expert knowledge on managing the problems was acquired. Algorithms and practice guidelines were developed based on the expert knowledge. The content validity of algorithms and practice guidelines was evaluated by the experts. Results: The preliminary algorithms and practice guidelines were developed from 60 detailed signs and symptoms and 45 nursing interventions. The experts agreed that 57 detailed signs and symptoms linked with nursing interventions were valid, with the content validity index over 80%. Meeting with nurse experts and ophthalmologists was convened to review the rest of the 3 detailed signs and symptoms linked with nursing interventions. Finally, 60 detailed signs and symptoms and 46 nursing interventions were confirmed. Conclusion: This study suggests that the algorithms and practice guidelines are effective decision-making tools and utilization of these algorithms and practice guidelines is expected to improve the quality of clinical nursing and patient satisfaction.
The main purposes of this study were to determine the time interval between the onset of symptoms of myocardial infarction and treatment-seeking time and to identify the factors related to the interval time. This study used a retrospective design. The sample consisted of 45 patients aged over 30 who were diagnosed with an acute myocardial infarction at two large university affiliated medical center from September 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998. Data was collected by using questionnaries, which included demographic data, permonitory clinical signs and symtoms of myocardial infarction, and a measure of the severity of the signs and symptoms. Also semi-structured interviews and chart reviews were used to obtain information related to treatment-seeking time. The results of this study are summarized as follows ; 1. The most frequent premonitory clinical symptom was chest pain(92.9%), the second, was perspiration(81.0%), and the next were nausea(40.5%) and dyspnea(38.1%). Thirty two patients reported having more than four premonitory signs and symtoms. Patients described the characteristics of chest pain as “somethings very heavy pressing down”(26.2%), “felt like my chest would burst”(24.4%), or “sharp pain”(16.7%), Over 95% of the sample reported having chest pain. 2. Twenty two (52.4%) patients reported to have “very severe” premonitory pain. 3. The mean time interval between the onset of signs and symptoms and the arrival at the medical center was 6.39$\pm$10.80 hours in 42 samples, the mean time from the onset to arrival at a local hospital was 3.27$\pm$5.39 hours and for transfer from a local hospital to the medical center was 4.75$\pm$9.87 hours in patients who had arrived at medical center via local hospital. 4. The severity of premonitory signs and symptoms did not differ significantly according to existence of premonitory signs and symptoms. 5. There was no significant relationship between treatment-seeking time and age, gender, marital status, economic status, occupation, or residence. But education had significant relationship(r＝－0.51, p＝0.01). Analysis of difference of the time interval according to the premonitory signs and symptoms showed that the time was shorter in patients who experienced nausea or dyspnea(U＝115.50, p＝0.01, U＝132.00, p＝0.04), however the severity of premonitory signs and symptoms did not have statistical significance.
Prupose: The purpose of this study was to identify signs and symptoms of hospice patients during their dying processes. Method: The subjects of this study were 76 patients who received hospice care services in 2 different hospice care programs in Seoul area. Data was obtained from January, 1999 to June, 2001 by hospice nurse's observation, interviews with patient's primary caregiver and hospice volunteers, patient's self report, nursing records and questionnaires which had been developed by selecting from various references and refining them based on the result of preliminay studies. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS PC+ program and content analysis. Results: Mean lengths of hospice patient's dying process were 3.6 days. Physical signs and symptoms of hospice patients during their dying processes were 'increased sleep'(89.5%), 'decreased oral intake of food'(88.2%) and 'liquids'(86.8%), 'change of respiration'(82.9%), 'decreased urine output'(80.3%), 'cold extremities'(69.7%), 'death rattle'(67.1%), 'cyanosis'(57.9%), 'restlessness'(55.3%), etc. And psychological, spiritual and social signs and symptoms were 'decreased interpersonal relationships'(61.8%), 'panorama of memories from childhood'(60.5%), 'experiences as like hallucination'(56.5%), 'saying bye with family'(69.7%), 'forgiveness', 'make a will', etc. Experiences as like hallucination were seemed not as dream but reality were shown by 43 dying patients. They had experienced to see and to talk with their deceased mother(18.6%) and/or relatives(30.2%), angels(20.9%), heaven(11.6%), old house in which they had lived, someone from the world beyond with black clothes, etc. Conclusion: The above results indicate that death of hospice patients is ongoing process with dying signs and symptoms during several days contains not only in physical aspects but also among psychological, spiritual and social aspects including family dynamics.
This study was done to verify validity of nursing diagnoses related to difficulty in respiratory function. First, content validity was examined by an expert group considering the etiology and the signs / symptoms of three nursing diagnoses - ineffective airway clearance, ineffective breathing pattern, impaired gas exchange. Second, clinical validity was examined by comparing the frequencies of the etiologies and signs / symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses in clinical case studies with the results of the content validity. This study was a descriptive study. The sample consisted of 23 experts (professors, head nurses and clinical instructors) who had had a variety of experiences using nursing diagnoses in clinical practice, and 102 case reports done by senior student nurses of the college of nursing of Y-university. These reports were part of their clinical practice in the ICU. The instrument used for this study was a checklist for etiologies and signs and symptoms based on the literature, Doenges and Moorhouse (1988), Kim, McFarland, McLane (1991), Lee Won Hee et al. (1987), Kim Cho Ja et at. (1988). The data was collected over four month period from May 1992 to Aug. 1992. Data were analyzed using frequencies done with the SPSS / PC＋ package. The results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. General Characteristics of the Expert Group A bachelor degree was held by 43.5% and a master or doctoral degree by 56.5% of the expert group. The average age of the expert group was 35.3 years. Their average clinical experience was 9.3 years and their average experience in clinical practice was 5.9 years. The general characteristics of the patients showed that there were more women than men, that the age range was from 1 to over 80. Most of their medical diagnoses were diagnoses related to the respiratory. system, circulation or neurologic system, and 50% or more of them had a ventilator with intubation or a tracheostomy. The number of cases for each nursing diagnoses was : · Ineffective airway clearance, 92 cases. · Ineffective breathing pattern, 18 cases. · Impaired gas exchange, 22 cases. 2. The opinion of the expert group as to the classification of the etiology, and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses was as follows : · In 31.8% of the cases the classification of etiology was clear. · In 22.7%, the classification of signs and symptoms was clear. · In 17.4%, the classification of nursing interventions was clear. 3. In the expert group 80% or mere agreed to ‘dysp-nea’as a common sign and symptom of the three nursing diagnoses. The distinguishing signs and symptoms of (Ineffective airway clearance) were ‘sputum’, ‘cough’, ‘abnormal respiratory sounds : rales’. The distinguishing sings and symptoms of (Ineffective breathing pattern) were ‘tachypnea’, ‘use of accessory muscle of respiration’, ‘orthopnea’ and for (Impaired gas exchange) it was ‘abnormal arterial blood gas’, 4. The distribution of etiology, and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses was as follows : · There was a high frequency of ‘increased secretion from the bronchus and trachea’ in both the expert group and the case reports as the etiology of ineffective airway clearance. · For the etiologies for ineffective breathing pat-tern, ‘rain’, ‘anxiety’, ‘fear’, ‘obstructions of the tract, ca and bronchus’ had a high ratio in the ex-pert group and ‘decreased expansion of lung’ in the case reports. · For the etiologies for impaired gas exchanges, ‘altered oxygen -carrying capacity of the blood’ and ‘excess accumulation of interstitial fluid in lung’ had a high ratio in the expert group and ‘altered oxygen supply’ in the case reports. · For signs and symptoms for ineffective airway clearance, ‘dyspnea’, ‘altered amount and character of sputum’ were included by 100% of the expert group. ‘Abnormal respiratory. sound(rate, rhonchi)’ were included by a high ratio of the expert group. · For the signs and symptoms for ineffective breathing pattern. ‘dyspnea’, ‘shortness of breath’ were included by 100% of the expert group. In the case reports, ‘dyspnea’ and ‘tachypnea’ were reported as signs and symptoms. · For the sign and symptoms for impaired gas exchange, ‘hypoxia’ and ‘cyanosis’ had a high ratio in the expert group. In the case report, ‘hypercapnia’, ‘hypoxia’ and ‘inability to remove secretions’ were reported as signs and symptoms. In summary, the similarity of the etiologies and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses related to difficulty in respiratory function makes it difficult to distinguish among them But the clinical validity of three nursing diagnoses was established through this study, and at last one sign and symp-tom was defined for each diagnosis.
In order to evaluate the effect of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders on the bite force of anterior teeth, the author estimated a feature of maintaining the maximum bite force on central incisors in Korean 34 adult females with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD group) and in Korean 31 adult females within normal masticatory function far from any sign or symptom of TMD (control group), and analyzed the data statistically. The obtained results were as follows: 1. There was not a significant difference of the maximum bite force on central incisors between TMD group and control group (P>0.05). 2. The duration of maintaining the maximum bite force on central incisors in TMD group was shorter than it in control group (P<0.01).
The objective is to establish the standard of criteria for differential diagnosis of signs and symptoms. This study selected signs and symptoms related to heart which stands for Fire(火) as a kind of five phase(五行). Eleven experts was asked to evaluate the adequateness of criteria which was developed by Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine(KIOM) and to suggest the amendment of them. To implement the study, we used the questionnaire which asks about the diagnosis criteria for an insufficiency of the heart-qi(心氣虛證), deficiency of the heart blood(心血氣證), deficiency of the heart-yin(心陰虛證), insufficiency of the heart-yang(心陽虛證), exuberant fire due to hyperactivity of the heart(心火亢盛證), stagnation of the heart blood(心血瘀阻證), heart disturbed by phlegm-fire(痰火擾心證), attack of the heart by retainedfluid(水氣凌心證). Every criteria consists of primary symptoms, secondary symptoms, tongue findings. and pulse findings. In perspectives of the classification of patterns for signs and symptoms and criteria for diagnosis, the result shows that the previous standard doesn't have so many problem. So many of experts were agree with the criteria which was suggested but the trend is that they use, in their actual practice, less than the criteria. Additionally, they pointed that every element in a criterion should have the different weight value, criteria for the overlapped pattern should be added, and, in future, criteria which are based on clinical investigation should be established.
Al-Azri, Mohammed;Al-Hamedi, Ibtisam;Al-Awisi, Huda;Al-Hinai, Mustafa;Davidson, Robin
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Background: The majority of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle income countries, partly due to poor public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer. Materials and Methods: A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three different communities in Oman. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. Results: A total of 345 responded from 450 invited participants (response rate=76.7%). The majority of respondents were unable to identify the common signs and symptoms of cancer identified in the CAM (average awareness was 40.6%). The most emotional barrier to seeking help was worry about what the doctor might find (223, 64.6%); a practical barrier was too busy to make an appointment (259, 75.1%) and a service barrier was difficulty talking to the doctor (159, 46.1%). The majority of respondents (more than 60% for seven out of ten symptoms) would seek medical help in two weeks for most signs or symptoms of cancer. Females were significantly more likely than males to be embarrassed (p<0.001), scared (p=0.001), and lack confidence talking about their symptoms (p=0.022). Conclusions: Urgent strategies are needed to improve public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer in Oman. This might leads to earlier diagnosis, improved prognosis and reduced mortality from cancer.
Objective : This study was to investigate diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of signs and symptoms on a hyperthyroid patient. Methods : The observation of the clinical progress was carried out by conducting diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of signs and symptoms with the patient diagnosed hyperthyroidism. Results : Treatments such as the invigoration of qi (益氣) nourishing m (養陰) was given because the patient showed the qi deficiency (氣虛) and m deficiency (陰虛). Conclusion : Diagnosis and treatment based on an overall analysis of signs and symptoms of a hyperthyroid patient had moderate effects on the improvement of the patients condition.
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