• Title, Summary, Keyword: signaling pathway

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The role of extracellular biophysical cues in modulating the Hippo-YAP pathway

  • Mo, Jung-Soon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2017
  • The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult-tissue homeostasis and organ-size control. In Drosophila and vertebrates, it consists of a highly conserved kinase cascade, which involves MST and Lats that negatively regulate the activity of the downstream transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. By interacting with TEADs and other transcription factors, they mediate both proliferative and antiapoptotic gene expression and thus regulate tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation or mutation of the Hippo pathway is linked to tumorigenesis and cancer development. Recent studies have uncovered multiple upstream inputs, including cell density, mechanical stress, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, and nutrients, that modulate Hippo pathway activity. This review focuses on the role of the Hippo pathway as effector of these biophysical cues and its potential implications in tissue homeostasis and cancer.

Isolation and Characterization of Salt Street Signaling Components from Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Yun, Dae-Jin;Lee, Jiyoung;Shin, Dongjin;Lee, Boyoung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.30-33
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    • 2001
  • To identify novel components involved in the salt stress signaling pathway of yeast cells, we used mTn3-mediated transposon tagging library and screened mutants displaying enhanced tolerance to NaCl. Southern blot analysis indicated that more than 80% of the sre (salt resistant) mutants possessed only one insertion of the tagged transposon, suggesting that the NaCl resistant phenotype was mediated by a single gene in the majority of the mutants. To define the role of SRE genes in the salt stress signaling pathway, we introduced NaCl stress-inducible ENA1::LacZ construct into the sre mutants and examined the expression of ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity. Interestingly, we could detect high level of ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity without any NaCl treatment in the sre-3, 4, 6 and 7 mutants. These results indicate that SRE-3, 4, and 7 gene are components of salt stress signaling pathway of yeast cells.

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Curcumin Stimulates Proliferation of Spinal Cord Neural Progenitor Cells via a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

  • Son, Sihoon;Kim, Kyoung-Tae;Cho, Dae-Chul;Kim, Hye-Jeong;Sung, Joo-Kyung;Bae, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.1-4
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    • 2014
  • Objective : The aims of our study are to evaluate the effect of curcumin on spinal cord neural progenitor cell (SC-NPC) proliferation and to clarify the mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways in SC-NPCs. Methods : We established cultures of SC-NPCs, extracted from the spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 g to 350 g. We measured proliferation rates of SC-NPCs after curcumin treatment at different dosage. The immuno-blotting method was used to evaluate the MAP kinase signaling protein that contains extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), p38, c-Jun $NH_2$-terminal kinases (JNKs) and ${\beta}$-actin as the control group. Results : Curcumin has a biphasic effect on SC-NPC proliferation. Lower dosage (0.1, 0.5, $1{\mu}M$) of curcumin increased SC-NPC proliferation. However, higher dosage decreased SC-NPC proliferation. Also, curcumin stimulates proliferation of SC-NPCs via the MAP kinase signaling pathway, especially involving the p-ERK and p-38 protein. The p-ERK protein and p38 protein levels varied depending on curcumin dosage (0.5 and $1{\mu}M$, p<0.05). Conclusion : Curcumin can stimulate proliferation of SC-NPCs via ERKs and the p38 signaling pathway in low concentrations.

Suppression of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of toll-like receptors by (E)-isopropyl 4-oxo-4-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-butenoate

  • Park, Se-Jeong;Park, Hye-Jeong;Kim, Soo-Jung;Shin, Hwa-Jeong;Min, In-Soon;Koh, Kwang-Oh;Kim, Dae-Young;Youn, Hyung-Sun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.468-472
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    • 2011
  • Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that recognize molecular structures derived from microbes and initiate innate immunity. TLRs have two downstream signaling pathways, the MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways. Dysregulated activation of TLRs is closely linked to increased risk of many chronic diseases. Previously, we synthesized fumaryl pyrrolidinone, (E)-isopropyl 4-oxo-4-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-butenoate (IPOP), which contains a fumaric acid isopropyl ester and pyrrolidinone, and demonstrated that it inhibits the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by inhibiting the MyD88-dependent pathway of TLRs. However, the effect of IPOP on the TRIF-dependent pathway remains unknown. Here, we report the effect of IPOP on signal transduction via the TRIF-dependent pathway of TLRs. IPOP inhibited lipopolysaccharide- or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acidinduced interferon regulatory factor 3 activation, as well as interferon-inducible genes such as interferon inducible protein-10. These results suggest that IPOP can modulate the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway of TLRs, leading to decreased inflammatory gene expression.

The Protein Kinase A Pathway Regulates Zearalenone Production by Modulating Alternative ZEB2 Transcription

  • Park, Ae Ran;Fu, Minmin;Shin, Ji Young;Son, Hokyoung;Lee, Yin-Won
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.967-974
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    • 2016
  • Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that is produced by several Fusarium species, including Fusarium graminearum. One of the ZEA biosynthetic genes, ZEB2, encodes two isoforms of Zeb2 by alternative transcription, forming an activator (Zeb2L-Zeb2L homooligomer) and an inhibitor (Zeb2L-Zeb2S heterodimer) that directly regulate the ZEA biosynthetic genes in F. graminearum. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling regulates secondary metabolic processes in several filamentous fungi. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PKA signaling pathway on ZEA biosynthesis. Through functional analyses of PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits (CPKs and PKR), we found that the PKA pathway negatively regulates ZEA production. Genetic and biochemical evidence further demonstrated that the PKA pathway specifically represses ZEB2L transcription and also takes part in posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB2L during ZEA production. Our findings reveal the intriguing mechanism that the PKA pathway regulates secondary metabolite production by reprograming alternative transcription.

Gene Targeting of Low Density Lipoprotein(LDL) Receptor Related Protein 5(LRP5) Involved in the Wnt Signaling Pathway

  • Jeong, Young-Hee;Kim, Suck-Ho;Kim, Dong-Ho;Moon, Seung-Ju;Tokuo Yamamoto;Kang, Man-Jong
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.82-82
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    • 2002
  • The Wnt signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in embryonic development and oncogenesis through various signaling molecules inculding Frizzled receptor, recently characterized LRP5/6 and Dickkopf protein. Although Wnt signaling has been characterized in both developmental and oncogenic processes, little is known about its function in the normal adult. The ability of LRP5 to bind apolipoprotein E(apoE) and the abundant expression of LRP5 transcripts in hepatocytes, raise the possibility that LRP5 plays a role in the hepatic clearance of ApoE-containing chylomicron remonants, a major plasma lipoprotein carrying diet-derived cholesterol. (omitted)

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c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Inhibitors Under Development

  • Han, Sun-Young
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2008
  • Targeting protein kinases has been active area in drug discovery. The c-Jun N-terminal kinases(JNKs) have also been target for development of novel therapy in various diseases, since the roles of JNK signaling in pathological conditions were revealed in studies using jnk-deficient mice. Small molecule inhibitors and peptide inhibitors are identified for therapeutic intervention of JNK signaling pathway. SP-600125, an anthrapyrazole small molecule inhibitor for JNK with high potency and selectivity has been widely used for dissecting JNK signaling pathway. CC-401 is the first JNK inhibitor that went into clinical trial for inflammation and leukemia. Inhibitor for mixed lineage kinase (MLK), CEP-1347 also negatively regulates JNK signaling, and tried for potential use in Parkinson's disease. Cell-permeable peptide inhibitor D-JNKI-1 is being developed for the treatment of hearing loss. The current status of these JNK inhibitors and safety issue is discussed in the minireview.

Regulation of adductor muscle growth by the IGF-1/AKT pathway in the triploid Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Choi, Youn Hee
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.22 no.9
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    • pp.19.1-19.10
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    • 2019
  • We investigated the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/AKT signaling pathway involved in muscle formation, growth, and movement in the adductor muscle of triploid Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Large and small triploid oysters (LTs and STs) cultured under identical conditions were screened, and the signaling pathways of individuals with superior growth were compared and analyzed. mRNA and protein expression levels of actin, troponin, tropomyosin, and myosin, proteins important in muscle formation, were higher in LTs compared with STs. Expression levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP), and IGFBP complex acid-labile subunit were also higher in LTs compared with STs. Phosphorylation of the IGF receptor as well as that of AKT was high in LTs. In addition, the expression of phosphomammalian target of rapamycin and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase $3{\beta}$ was increased and the expression of Forkhead box O3 was decreased in LTs. Therefore, we suggested that the IGF-1/AKT signaling pathway affects the formation, growth, and movement of the adductor muscle in triploid oysters.

Simulation for Signaling Pathway of MAPK Hypotonic Shock (MAPK Hypotonic Shock의 Signaling Pathway에 대한 시뮬레이션)

  • Jo, Mi-Kyung;Seo, Jeong-Man;Park, Hyun-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.175-182
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    • 2009
  • We extracted protein signal delivery path from protein interaction data, using location information and weight of protein. We obtained the protein interaction data by experimenting in two-hybrid system using Yeast. We simulated function's data of Hypotonic Shock comparing to signal delivery path provided in KEGG from the results. We measured process running period as well. In future, this research can be key to discover the origin of various genetic diseases and develop treatment.

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Protein Kinase A Functions as a Negative Regulator of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase but not of p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase in PC12 Cells

  • Hur, Kyu-Chung
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2005
  • Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) seems to function as a negative regulator of the c-Jun $NH_2-terminal$ kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. We demonstrate here that the activity of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) is reduced in apoptotic PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Apoptotic progress was inhibited by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), an analog of cAMP. The rescue by dbcAMP was attributable to inhibition of the JNK but not of the p38 signaling pathway, due to the induction of PKA activity. JNK was present in immunocomplexes of PKAc, and PKAc phosphorylated JNK in vitro. Presence of p38 kinase, however, was not prominent in immunocomplexes of PKAc. Our data suggest that JNK is a target point of negative regulation by PKAc in the JNK signaling pathway.