• Title, Summary, Keyword: signaling pathway

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Transmembrane Signaling Model of a Serine Chemotaxis Receptor

  • Kim, Kyeong-Kyu;Hisao Yokota;Kim, Sung-Hou
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.20-20
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    • 1999
  • Bacterial chemotaxis receptors are some of the simplest and most studied transmembrane receptors. Their simple signaling pathway has elements relevant for understanding the mechanisms for signal recognition, transduction through the membrane, relays among the molecules in the pathway, and adaptation to a persistent signal.(omitted)

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Lightening up Light Therapy: Activation of Retrograde Signaling Pathway by Photobiomodulation

  • Kim, Hong Pyo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.491-496
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    • 2014
  • Photobiomodulation utilizes monochromatic (or quasimonochromatic) light in the electromagnetic region of 600~1000 nm for the treatment of soft tissues in a nondestructive and nonthermal mode. It is conceivable that photobiomodulation is based upon the ability of the light to alter cell metabolism as it is absorbed by general hemoproteins and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in particular. Recently it has been suggested radiation of visible and infrared (IR) activates retrograde signaling pathway from mitochondria to nucleus. In this review, the role of COX in the photobiomodulation will be discussed. Further a possible role of water as a photoreceptor will be suggested.

Tilianin Inhibits MUC5AC Expression Mediated Via Down-Regulation of EGFR-MEK-ERK-Sp1 Signaling Pathway in NCI-H292 Human Airway Cells

  • Song, Won-Yong;Song, Yong-Seok;Ryu, Hyung Won;Oh, Sei-Ryang;Hong, JinTae;Yoon, Do-Young
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2017
  • In the human airway, mucus exists to protect the respiratory system as a primary barrier of the innate immune system. However, hyperexpressed mucus limits airflow, resulting in a decrease of lung function. Among more than 20 mucin family members, MUC5AC and MUC5B are major glycoproteins in human airway mucus. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the mechanisms of these mucins expression and specificity protein-1 (Sp1) transcription factor is the downstream signal of this pathway, playing pivotal roles in mucin expression. Even though there are some drugs for treating mucus hypersecretion, no drug has proven effects on humans. We found that the flavonoid tilianin regulated MUC5AC expression and also inhibited Sp1 phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated how tilianin would modulate EGFR signaling and regulate mucin production. In conclusion, tilianin inhibited MUC5AC expression mediated via modulating the EGFR-MEK-ERK-Sp1 signaling pathway in NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cells. This study may provide the basis for the novel treatment of mucus hypersecretion.

Melatonin Induces Akt Phosphorylation through Melatonin Receptor- and PI3K-Dependent Pathways in Primary Astrocytes

  • Kong, Pil-Jae;Byun, Jong-Seon;Lim, So-Young;Lee, Jae-Jun;Hong, Sung-Jun;Kwon, Kwang-Jun;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2008
  • Melatonin has been reported to protect neurons from a variety of neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanism by which melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property has not yet been clearly understood. We previously demonstrated that melatonin protected kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in mouse hippocampus, accompanied by sustained activation of Akt, a critical mediator of neuronal survival. To further elucidate the neuroprotective action of melatonin, we examined in the present study the causal mechanism how Akt signaling pathway is regulated by melatonin in a rat primary astrocyte culture model. Melatonin resulted in increased astrocytic Akt phosphorylation, which was significantly decreased with wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, suggesting that activation of Akt by melatonin is mediated through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, increased Akt activation was also significantly decreased with luzindole, a non-selective melatonin receptor antagonist. As downstream signaling pathway of Akt activation, increased levels of CREB phoshorylation and GDNF expression were observed, which were also attenuated with wortmannin and luzindole. These results strongly suggest that melatonin exerts its neuroprotective property in astrocytes through the activation of plasma membrane receptors and then PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

Epac2 contributes to PACAP-induced astrocytic differentiation through calcium ion influx in neural precursor cells

  • Seo, Hyunhyo;Lee, Kyungmin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2016
  • Astrocytes play a critical role in normal brain functions and maintaining the brain microenvironment, and defects in astrocytogenesis during neurodevelopment could give rise to severe mental illness and psychiatric disorders. During neuro-embryogenesis, astrocytogenesis involves astrocytic differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) induced by signals from ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) or pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). However, in contrast to the CNTF signaling pathway, the exact mechanism underlying astrocytic differentiation induced by PACAP is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to verify a signaling pathway specific to PACAP-induced astrocytogenesis, using exchange protein directly activated by cAMP2 (Epac2)-knockout mice. We found that PACAP could trigger astrocytic differentiation of NPCs via Epac2 activation and an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration via a calcium ion influx. Taken together, we concluded that astrocytogenesis stimulated by PACAP occurs through a novel signaling pathway independent from CNTF-JAK/STAT signaling, that is the well-known pathway of astrocytogenesis.

Nectandrin A Enhances the BMP-Induced Osteoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization by Activation of p38 MAPK-Smad Signaling Pathway

  • Kim, Do Yeon;Kim, Go Woon;Chung, Sung Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.447-453
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    • 2013
  • Osteoblastic activity of nectandrin A was examined in C2C12 cells. Nectandrin A enhances the BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization, manifested by the up-regulation of differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase and osteogenic genes) and increased calcium contents. In C2C12 cells co-transfected with expression vector encoding Smad4 and Id1-Luc reporter, nectandrin A increased Id1 luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, when compared to that in BMP-2 treated cells, indicating that Smad signaling pathway is associated with nectandrin A-enhanced osteoblastic differentiation in C2C12 cells. In addition, nectandrin A activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in time- and concentration-dependent manners, and phosphorylated form of pSmad1/5/8 and alkaline phosphatase activity were both decreased when the cells were pretreated with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, suggesting that p38 MAPK might be an upstream kinase for Smad signaling pathway. Taken together, nectandrin A enhances the BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of C2C12 cells via activation of p38 MAPK-Smad signaling pathway, and it has a therapeutic potential for osteoporosis by promoting bone formation.

Silybin Synergizes with Wnt3a in Activation of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin Signaling Pathway through Stabilization of Intracellular ${\beta}$-Catenin Protein (Silybin에 의한 Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin 신호전달체계의 활성화)

  • Kim, Tae-Yeoun;Oh, Sang-Taek
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2012
  • The Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway regulates diverse developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis. Inappropriate regulation of this pathway has been associated with human diseases, such as cancers, osteoporosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Using a cell-based chemical screening with natural compounds, we discovered silybin, a plant flavonoid isolated from the Silybum marianum, which activated the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway in a synergy with Wnt3a-conditioned medium (Wnt3a-CM). In the presence of Wnt3a-CM, silybin up-regulated ${\beta}$-catenin response transcription (CRT) in HEK293-FL reporter cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes through stabilization of intracellular ${\beta}$-catenin protein. Silybin and Wnt3a-CM synergistically reduced expression of important adipocyte marker genes including peroxisome-proliferator-activated $receptor{\gamma}$ ($PPAR{\gamma}$) and CAATT enhancer-binding protein ${\alpha}$ (C/$EBP{\alpha}$) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, accompanied by the activation of Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that silybin is a small-molecule synergist of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway and can be used as a controllable reagent for investigating biological processes that involve the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway.

Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 on Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Expression in Hepatic Carcinoma SMMC7721 Cells through the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

  • Xu, Guan-Jun;Cai, Sheng;Wu, Jian-Bing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.1183-1186
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    • 2012
  • Objective: To observe the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells. Methods: Cells were divided into blank control, IGF-1, IGF-1 + SB203580, and SB203580 groups. SB203580 was used to block the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Changes in the expression of BMP-2, p38 MAPK, and phosphorylated p38, MERK, ERK and JNK were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Results: Protein expression of phosphorylated BMP-2, MERK, ERK, and JNK was significantly up-regulated by IGF-1 compared with the control group ($1.138{\pm}0.065$ vs. $0.606{\pm}0.013$, $0.292{\pm}0.005$ vs. $0.150{\pm}0.081$, $0.378{\pm}0.006$ vs. $0.606{\pm}0.013$, and $0.299{\pm}0.015$ vs. $0.196{\pm}0.017$, respectively; P<0.05). Levels of BMP-2 and phosphorylated MERK and JNK were significantly reduced after blocking of the p38MAPK signaling pathway ($0.494{\pm}0.052$ vs. $0.165{\pm}0.017$, $0.073{\pm}0.07$ vs. $0.150{\pm}0.081$, and $0.018{\pm}0.008$ vs. $0.196{\pm}0.017$, respectively; P<0.05), but such a significant difference was not observed for phosphorylated ERK protein expression ($0.173{\pm}0.07$ vs. $0.150{\pm}0.081$, P>0.05). Conclusion: IGF-1 can up-regulate BMP-2 expression, and p38 MAPK signaling pathway blockage can noticeably reduce the up-regulated expression. We can conclude that the up-regulatory effect of IGF-1 on BMP-2 expression is realized through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

Antitumor Activity of Combination Therapy with Metformin and Trametinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

  • Ko, Eunjeong;Baek, Seungjae;Kim, Jiwon;Park, Deokbae;Lee, Youngki
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 2020
  • Metformin has been widely used as an antidiabetic drug, and reported to inhibit cell proliferation in many cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In NSCLC cells, metformin suppresses PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, but effect of metformin on RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is controversial; several studies showed the inhibition of ERK activity, while others demonstrated the activation of ERK in response to metformin exposure. Metformin-induced activation of ERK is therapeutically important, since metformin could enhance cell proliferation through RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and lead to impairment of its anticancer activity suppressing PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, requiring blockade of both signaling pathways for more efficient antitumor effect. The present study tested the combination therapy of metformin and trametinib by monitoring the alterations of regulatory effector proteins of cell signaling pathways and the effect of the combination on cell viability in NCI-H2087 NSCLC cells with NRAS and BRAF mutations. We show that metformin alone blocks PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway but induces the activation and phosphorylation of ERK. The combination therapy synergistically decreased cell viability in treatment with low doses of two drugs, while it gave antagonistic effect with high doses. These findings suggest that the efficacy of metformin and trametinib combination therapy may depend on the alteration of ERK activity induced by metformin and specific cellular context of cancer cells.

The role of extracellular biophysical cues in modulating the Hippo-YAP pathway

  • Mo, Jung-Soon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2017
  • The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult-tissue homeostasis and organ-size control. In Drosophila and vertebrates, it consists of a highly conserved kinase cascade, which involves MST and Lats that negatively regulate the activity of the downstream transcription coactivators, YAP and TAZ. By interacting with TEADs and other transcription factors, they mediate both proliferative and antiapoptotic gene expression and thus regulate tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation or mutation of the Hippo pathway is linked to tumorigenesis and cancer development. Recent studies have uncovered multiple upstream inputs, including cell density, mechanical stress, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, and nutrients, that modulate Hippo pathway activity. This review focuses on the role of the Hippo pathway as effector of these biophysical cues and its potential implications in tissue homeostasis and cancer.