• Title, Summary, Keyword: signaling pathway

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Regulation of the Hippo signaling pathway by ubiquitin modification

  • Kim, Youngeun;Jho, Eek-hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2018
  • The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. Abnormal regulation of Hippo signaling can be a cause for multiple types of human cancers. Since the awareness of the importance of the Hippo signaling in a wide range of biological fields has been continually grown, it is also understood that a thorough and well-rounded comprehension of the precise dynamics could provide fundamental insights for therapeutic applications. Several components in the Hippo signaling pathway are known to be targeted for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitination by E3 ligases. ${\beta}-TrCP$ is a well-known E3 ligase of YAP/TAZ, which leads to the reduction of YAP/TAZ levels. The Hippo signaling pathway can also be inhibited by the E3 ligases (such as ITCH) which target LATS1/2 for degradation. Regulation via ubiquitination involves not only complex network of E3 ligases but also deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from its targets. Interestingly, non-degradative ubiquitin modifications are also known to play important roles in the regulation of Hippo signaling. Although there has been much advanced progress in the investigation of ubiquitin modifications acting as regulators of the Hippo signaling pathway, research done to date still remains inadequate due to the sheer complexity and diversity of the subject. Herein, we review and discuss recent developments that implicate ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms at multiple steps of the Hippo signaling pathway.

Inhibitors of AKT Signaling Pathway and their Application

  • WONG, Chin Piow
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.33-33
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    • 2019
  • The AKT signaling pathway is a highly regulated cell signaling system that forms a network with other cell signaling pathways. Hence, the AKT signaling pathway mediates several important cellular functions that include cell survival, proliferation, cell migration, and et cetera. Irregularities that led overactive AKT signaling have been linked to many diseases such as cancer and metabolic-associated diseases. Hence, modulating the overactive AKT signaling pathway via inhibitor is a tantalizing prospect for treatment of cancer and metabolic-associated diseases. Two inhibitors of the AKT signaling pathway will be presented in this symposium: 1) Bisleuconothine A (BisA), a bisindole alkaloid that inhibit autophagy and 2) Ceramicine B (CerB), a limonoid that inhibit adipogenesis. The first topic is on a bisindole alkaloid, BisA and its mechanism in inducing autophagosome formation in lung cancer cell line, A549.(1) Since most autophagy inducing agents generally induce apoptosis, we found that BisA does not induce apoptosis even in high dose. BisA up-regulation of LC3 lipidation is achieved through mTOR inactivation. The phosphorylation of PRAS40, a mTOR repressor was suppressed by BisA. This observation suggested that BisA inactivates mTOR via suppression of PRAS40 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the phosphorylation of AKT, an upstream regulator of PRAS40 phosphorylation was also down-regulated by BisA. These findings suggested that Bis-A induces autophagosomes formation by interfering with the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. The second topic is on CerB and its mechanism in inhibiting adipogenesis in preadipocytes cell line, MC3T3-G2/PA6.(2,3) CerB inhibits the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) at the Thr308 position but not the Ser473. Consequently, the phosphorylation of FOXO3 which is located downstream of AKT is also inhibited. Considering that FOXO3 is an important regulator of PPARγ which is a key factor in adipogenesis, CerB may inhibit adipogenesis via the AKT-FOXO3 signaling pathway. Taken together, both BisA and CerB highlighted the potential of AKT signaling pathway modulation as an approach to induce autophagy and inhibit the formation of fat cells, respectively.

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Cross-talk between Wnt/β-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways: a brief review

  • Kim, Minseong;Jho, Eek-hoon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.10
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    • pp.540-545
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    • 2014
  • Balanced cell growth is crucial in animal development as well as tissue homeostasis. Concerted cross-regulation of multiple signaling pathways is essential for those purposes, and the dysregulation of signaling may lead to a variety of human diseases such as cancer. The time-honored Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and recently identified Hippo signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved in both Drosophila and mammals, and are generally considered as having positive and negative roles in cell proliferation, respectively. While most mainstream regulators of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin signaling pathway have been fairly well identified, the regulators of the Hippo pathway need to be more defined. The Hippo pathway controls organ size primarily by regulating cell contact inhibition. Recently, several cross-regulations occurring between the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways were determined through biochemical and genetic approaches. In the present mini-review, we mainly discuss the signal transduction mechanism of the Hippo signaling pathway, along with cross-talk between the regulators of the Wnt/${\beta}$-catenin and Hippo signaling pathways.

The hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling pathway as a therapeutic target to inhibit angiogenesis

  • You, Weon-Kyoo;McDonald, Donald M.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.41 no.12
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    • pp.833-839
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    • 2008
  • Angiogenesis in tumors is driven by multiple growth factors that activate receptor tyrosine kinases. An important driving force of angiogenesis in solid tumors is signaling through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFRs). Angiogenesis inhibitors that target this signaling pathway are now in widespread use for the treatment of cancer. However, when used alone, inhibitors of VEGF/VEGFR signaling do not destroy all blood vessels in tumors and do not slow the growth of most human cancers. VEGF/VEGFR signaling inhibitors are, therefore, used in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or radiation therapy. Additional targets for inhibiting angiogenesis would be useful for more efficacious treatment of cancer. One promising target is the signaling pathway of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (HGFR, also known as c-Met), which plays important roles in angiogenesis and tumor growth. Inhibitors of this signaling pathway have been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. The HGF/c-Met signaling pathway is now recognized as a promising target in cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis.

Dynamical Analysis of Cellular Signal Transduction Pathways with Nonlinear Systems Perspectives (비선형시스템 관점으로부터 세포 신호전달경로의 동역학 분석)

  • Kim Hyun-Woo;Cho Kwang-Hyun
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
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    • v.10 no.12
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    • pp.1155-1163
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    • 2004
  • Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is one of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways. This pathway is known as pivotal in many signaling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. The ERK signaling pathway comprises positive and negative feedback loops, depending on whether the terminal kinase stimulates or inhibits the activation of the initial level. In this paper, we attempt to model the ERK pathway by considering both of the positive and negative feedback mechanisms based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In addition, we propose a fraction ratio model based on the mass action law. We first develop a mathematical model of the ERK pathway with fraction ratios. Secondly, we analyze the dynamical properties of the fraction ratio model based on simulation studies. Furthermore, we propose a concept of an inhibitor, catalyst, and substrate (ICS) controller which regulates the inhibitor, catalyst, and substrate concentrations of the ERK signal transduction pathway. The ICS controller can be designed through dynamical analysis of the ERK signaling transduction pathway within limited concentration ranges.

Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in human adipose-derived stem cells via ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway

  • Wang, Yuli;Chen, Xichen;Yin, Ying;Li, Song
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2018
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great potential in treating bone deficiency. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with multi-lineage differentiation potential. Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) are capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. In this study, we investigated the effect of HAMSCs on HASCs by a transwell co-culture system. HAMSCs promoted proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, angiogenic potential and adiponectin (APN) secretion of HASCs. Moreover, the positive effect of HAMSCs was significantly inhibited by U0126, a highly selective inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. These observations suggested that HAMSCs induced bone regeneration in HASCs via ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

The Gene Expression Profile of LPS-stimulated Microglial Cells

  • Sohn, Sung-Hwa;Ko, Eun-Jung;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Kim, Yang-Seok;Shin, Min-Kyu;Hong, Moo-Chang;Bae, Hyun-Su
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the inflammatory mechanisms of LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. The inflammation mechanism was evaluated in BV-2 cells with or without LPS treated using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. The microarray analysis revealed that B cell receptor signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Neuro-active ligand-receptor interaction, TLR signaling path-way, and T cell receptor signaling pathway-related genes were up-regulated in LPS stimulated BV-2 cells. Selected genes were validated using real time RTPCR. These results can help an effective therapeutic approach to alleviating the progression of neuro-in-flammatory diseases.

Rapamycin-Induced Abundance Changes in the Proteome of Budding Yeast

  • Shin, Chun-Shik;Chang, Yeon-Ji;Lee, Hun-Goo;Huh, Won-Ki
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.203-207
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    • 2009
  • The target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway conserved from yeast to human plays critical roles in regulation of eukaryotic cell growth. It has been shown that TOR pathway is involved in several cellular processes, including ribosome biogenesis, nutrient response, autophagy and aging. However, due to the functional diversity of TOR pathway, we do not know yet some key effectors of the pathway. To find unknown effectors of TOR signaling pathway, we took advantage of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged collection of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed protein abundance changes by measuring the GFP fluorescence intensity of 4156 GFP-tagged yeast strains under inhibition of TOR pathway. Our proteomic analysis argues that 83 proteins are decreased whereas 32 proteins are increased by treatment of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of TOR complex 1 (TORC1). We found that, among the 115 proteins that show significant changes in protein abundance under rapamycin treatment, 37 proteins also show expression changes in the mRNA levels by more than 2-fold under the same condition. We suggest that the 115 proteins indentified in this study may be directly or indirectly involved in TOR signaling and can serve as candidates for further investigation of the effectors of TOR pathway.

SDC4 Gene Silencing Favors Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition via Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

  • Chen, Liang-Liang;Gao, Ge-Xin;Shen, Fei-Xia;Chen, Xiong;Gong, Xiao-Hua;Wu, Wen-Jun
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.9
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    • pp.853-867
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    • 2018
  • As the most common type of endocrine malignancy, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers. In this study, we presented the hypothesis that SDC4 gene silencing could effectively attenuate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote cell apoptosis via the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway in human PTC cells. Bioinformatics methods were employed to screen the determined differential expression levels of SDC4 in PTC and adjacent normal samples. PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were prepared and their respective levels of SDC4 protein positive expression, in addition to the mRNA and protein levels of SDC4, $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway, EMT and apoptosis related genes were all detected accordingly. Flow cytometry was applied in order to detect cell cycle entry and apoptosis. Finally, analyses of PTC migration and invasion abilities were assessed by using a Transwell assay and scratch test. In PTC tissues, activated $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway, increased EMT and repressed cell apoptosis were determined. Moreover, the PTC K1 and TPC-1 cell lines exhibiting the highest SDC4 expression were selected for further experiments. In vitro experiments revealed that SDC4 gene silencing could suppress cell migration, invasion and EMT, while acting to promote the apoptosis of PTC cells by inhibiting the activation of the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway. Besides, $si-{\beta}-catenin$ was observed to inhibit the promotion of PTC cell migration and invasion caused by SDC4 overexpression. Our study revealed that SDC4 gene silencing represses EMT, and enhances cell apoptosis by suppressing the activation of the $Wnt/{\beta}-catenin$ signaling pathway in human PTC.

Hippo Signaling Circuit and Divergent Tissue Growth in Mammalian Eye

  • Moon, Kyeong Hwan;Kim, Jin Woo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.257-263
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    • 2018
  • Vertebrate organ development is accompanied by demarcation of tissue compartments, which grow coordinately with their neighbors. Hence, perturbing the coordinative growth of neighboring tissue compartments frequently results in organ malformation. The growth of tissue compartments is regulated by multiple intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways, including the Hippo signaling pathway that limits the growth of various organs. In the optic neuroepithelial continuum, which is partitioned into the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ciliary margin (CM) during eye development, the Hippo signaling activity operates differentially, as it does in many tissues. In this review, we summarize recent studies that have explored the relationship between the Hippo signaling pathway and growth of optic neuroepithelial compartments. We will focus particularly on the roles of a tumor suppressor, neurofibromin 2 (NF2), whose expression is not only dependent on compartment-specific transcription factors, but is also subject to regulation by a Hippo-Yap feedback signaling circuit.