• Title, Summary, Keyword: siRNA

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BCR/ABL mRNA Targeting Small Interfering RNA Effects on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

  • Zhu, Xi-Shan;Lin, Zi-Ying;Du, Jing;Cao, Guang-Xin;Liu, Gang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4773-4780
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting BCR/ABL mRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in the K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line and to provide a theoretical rationale and experimental evidence for its potential clinical application for anti-CML treatment. Materials and Methods: The gene sequence for BCR/ABL mRNA was found from the GeneBank. The target gene site on the BCR/ABL mRNA were selected according to Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) and rational siRNA design rules, the secondary structure of the candidate targeted mRNA was predicted, the relevant thermodynamic parameters were analyzed, and the targeted gene sequences were compared with BLAST to eliminate any sequences with significant homology. Inhibition of proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and colony-formation inhibiting test. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and the morphology of apoptotic cells was identified by Giemsa-Wright staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of BCR/ABL fusion protein in K562 cells after siRNA treatment. Results: The mRNA local secondary structure calculated by RNA structure software, and the optimal design of specific siRNA were contributed by bioinformatics rules. Five sequences of BCR/ABL siRNAs were designed and synthesized in vitro. Three sequences, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786, which showed the most effective inhibition of K562 cell growth, were identified among the five candidate siRNAs, with a cell proliferative inhibitory rate nearly 50% after exposure to 12.5nmol/L~50nmol/L siRNA1384 for 24,48 and 72 hours. The 50% inhibitory concentrations ($IC_{50}$) of siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786 for 24hours were 46.6 nmol/L, 59.3 nmol/L and 62.6 nmol/L, respectively, and 65.668 nmol/L, 76.6 nmol/L, 74.4 nmol/L for 72 hours. The colony-formation inhibiting test also indicated that, compared with control, cell growth of siRNA treated group was inhibited. FCM results showed that the rate of cell apoptosis increased 24 hours after transfecting siRNA. The results of annexinV/PI staining indicated that the rate of apoptosis imcreased (1.53%, 15.3%, 64.5%, 57.5% and 21.5%) following treamtne with siRNAs (siRNA34, siRNA372, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786). Morphological analysis showed td typical morphologic changes of apoptosis such as shrunken, fragmentation nucleus as well as "apoptotic bodies" after K562 cell exposure to siRNA. Western blot analysis showed that BCR/ABL protein was reduced sharply after a single dose of 50nmol/L siRNA transfection. Conclusions: Proliferation of K562 cells was remarkbly inhibited by siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, with effective induction of apoptosis at a concentration of 50 nmol/L. One anti-leukemia mechanism in K562 cells appeared that BCR/ABL targeted protein was highly down-regulated. The siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) may prove valuable in the treatment of CML.

Designing An Effective siRNA (효과적인 siRNA의 디자인)

  • Gu, Nam-Jin;Jo, Gwang-Hwi
    • Bioinformatics and Biosystems
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2007
  • Shot interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to silence specific gene expression and have many potential therapeutic applications. However, how to design an effective siRNA is still not clear. Highly effective siRNA has sequence-specific properties which are low G/C content, low internal stability at the sense strand 3'-terminus, sense strand base bias(position 1 is G/C, position 19 is /AU). Recently, mRNA secondary structure playsan important role in RNAi. Target site of siRNA in high-ordered structure (i.e hairpin loop, multi loop) or base pair of many hydrogen bonds dramatically reduce function of siRNA mediated gene silencing. Possible off-target effects of siRNA is detecting from BLAST search.

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siRNA-mediated Inhibition of hTERC Enhances Radiosensitivity of Cervical Cancer

  • Chen, Min;Xing, Li-Na
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.5975-5979
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    • 2012
  • Background: To investigate the influence of telomerase activity, apoptosis, radiosensitivity of cervical cancer after siRNA-mediated knockdown of telomerase RNA and evaluate in vivo growth with gene interference. Methods: We studied siRNA-targeting-telomerase RNA transfection into the Hela cell line. Expression of hTERC mRNA was detected by RT-PCR and telomerase activity was measured by the TRAP assay. Growth inhibition was determined by MTT assay and radiosensitivity of the cervical cancer cells was examined by colony formation assay. In addtion, effects of hTERC inhibition in vivo were studied by injection of siRNA-transfected Hela cells into nude mice. Results: The hTERC siRNA effectively downregulated the expression of hTERC mRNA and also reduced the telomerase activity to 30% of the untreated control vlaue. The viability of hTERC siRNA transfected Hela cells was reduced by 44.7% after transfection. After radiation treatment, the radiosensitivity of Hela cells with hTERC knockdown was increased. In vivo, the tumors developing from the hTERC siRNA-transfected cells were of reduced size, indicating that the hTERT siRNA also depressed the tumorigenic potential of the Hela cells. Conclusions: Our results supported the concept of siRNA-mediated inhibition of telomerase mRNA which could inhibit the expression of hTERC and telomerase activity. Furthermore, radiosensitivity was upregulated after knockdown the hTERC in vivo and in vitro.

New paradigms on siRNA local application

  • Pan, Meng;Ni, Jinwen;He, Huiming;Gao, Shan;Duan, Xiaohong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2015
  • Small interfering RNA (siRNA) functions through pairing with specific mRNA sequences and results in the mRNA's degradation. It is a potential therapeutic approach for many diseases caused by altered gene expression. The delivery of siRNA is still a major problem due to its rapid degradation in the circulation. Various strategies have been proposed to help with the cellular uptake of siRNA and short or small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Here, we reviewed recently published data regarding local applications of siRNA. Compared with systemic delivery methods, local delivery of siRNA/shRNA has many advantages, such as targeting the specific tissues or organs, mimicking a gene knockout effect, or developing certain diseases models. The eye, brain, and tumor tissues are 'hot' target tissues/organs for local siRNA delivery. The siRNA can be delivered locally, in naked form, with chemical modifications, or in formulations with viral or non-viral vectors, such as liposomes and nanoparticles. This review provides a comprehensive overview of RNAi local administration and potential future applications in clinical treatment.

Enhanced Delivery of siRNA Complexes by Sonoporation in Transgenic Rice Cell Suspension Cultures

  • Cheon, Su-Hwan;Lee, Kyoung-Hoon;Kwon, Jun-Young;Choi, Sung-Hun;Song, Mi-Na;Kim, Dong-II
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.781-786
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    • 2009
  • Small interfering synthetic double-stranded RNA (siRNA) was applied to suppress the expression of the human cytotoxic-T-Iymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) gene transformed in transgenic rice cell cultures. The sequence of the 21-nucleotide siRNA was deliberately designed and synthesized with overhangs to inactivate the expression of hCTLA4Ig. The chemically synthesized siRNA duplex was combined with polyethyleneimine (PEl) at a mass ratio of 1:10 (0.33 ${\mu}g$ siRNA:3.3 ${\mu}g$ PEl) to produce complexes. The siRNA complexes (siRNA+PEI) were labeled with Cy3 in order to subsequently confirm the delivery by fluorescent microscopy. In addition, the cells were treated with sonoporation at 40 kHz and 419W for 90 s to improve the delivery. The siRNA complexes alone inhibited the expression of hCTLA4Ig to 45% compared with control. The siRNA complexes delivered with sonoporation downregulated the production of hCTLA4Ig to 73%. Therefore, we concluded that the delivery of siRNA complexes into plant cells could be enhanced successfully by sonoporation.

Reduction of Oncogene Expression in Cancer Cells Using siRNA Delivery Systems

  • Kim, Eun-Joong;Kim, Young-Bong;Choi, Han-Gon;Shim, Chang-Koo;Oh, Yu-Kyoung
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2005
  • Recently, siRNA has been emerging as new therapeutic agents for various diseases such as cancers and infectious diseases. However, the evaluation for delivery systems for siRNA has not been fully done. In this study, we designed and delivered siRNA of oncogenic E6 and E7 proteins to several cell lines and tested the delivery efficiencies of various cationic nonviral delivery vectors. Of cationic delivery systems tested in this study, lipid-based Lipofectamine revealed higher delivery efficiency of siRNA to cervical cancer cell line, SiHa, compared to other delivery systems. Notably, the polyethylenimine, which showed the comparable delivery efficiencies in plasmid DNA, did not show significant delivery of siRNA in cervical cancer cells. These results indicate that the mechanisms involved in siRNA delivery might be different from those in plasmid DNA delivery, and that cationic lipid-based delivery vehicles deliver siRNA with higher efficiency to intracellular target sites.

Local Silencing of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by siRNA/Peptide Improves Dermal Collagen Arrangements

  • Cho Lee, Ae-Ri;Woo, Inhae
    • Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.711-719
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND: Collagen organization within tissues has a critical role in wound regeneration. Collagen fibril diameter, arrangements and maturity between connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and mismatch scrambled siRNA-treated wound were compared to evaluate the efficacy of CTGF siRNA as a future implement for scar preventive medicine. METHODS: Nanocomplexes of CTGF small interfering RNA (CTGF siRNA) with cell penetrating peptides (KALA and $MPG^{{\Delta}NLS}$) were formulated and their effects on CTGF downregulation, collagen fibril diameter and arrangement were investigated. Various ratios of CTGF siRNA and peptide complexes were prepared and down-regulation were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Control and CTGF siRNA modified cells-populated collagen lattices were prepared and rates of contraction measured. Collagen organization in rabbit ear 8 mm biopsy punch wound at 1 day to 8 wks post injury time were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and histology was investigated with Olympus System and TS-Auto software. CONCLUSION: CTGF expression was down-regulated to 40% of control by CTGF siRNA/KALA (1:24) complexes (p<0.01) and collagen lattice contraction was inhibited. However, down-regulated of CTGF by CTGF $siRNA/MPG^{{\Delta}NLS}$ complexes was not statistically significant. CTGF KALA-treated wound appeared with well formed-basket weave pattern of collagen fibrils with mean diameter of $128{\pm}22nm$ (n = 821). Mismatch siRNA/KALA-treated wound showed a high frequency of parallel small diameter fibrils (mean $90{\pm}20nm$, n = 563). CONCLUSION: Controlling over-expression of CTGF by peptide-mediated siRNA delivery could improve the collagen orientation and tissue remodeling in full thickness rabbit ear wound.

Studying the Effect of Downregulating Autophagy-Related Gene LC3 on TLR3 Apoptotic Pathway Mediated by dsRNA in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

  • Wang, Guilan;Zhang, Maona;Li, Yunlong;Zhou, Jiaming;Chen, Li
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.230-245
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    • 2017
  • Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the role of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activated Toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon ${\beta}$ (TRIF) signal pathway in triggering apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Materials and Methods First, siRNA targeted autophagy-related gene LC3 (pU6H1-LC3 siRNA and siLC3) and a dsRNA used as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand was constructed and synthesized, respectively. Then, a human HCC cell line was transfected with dsRNA, siLC3, and cotransfected with siLC3 and dsRNA (siLC3+dsRNA), respectively. Finally, quantification real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used in the HCC line (SMMC7721), and MTT assay, flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling, and transmission electron microscopy were used in an HCC xenograft model of nude mice. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube forming assay, color Doppler ultrasonographic flow image examination, and CD34-positive microvessel density were used in vitro and in vivo. Results Compared with untreated cells, the protein and mRNA expression of TLR3 and TRIF was up-regulated, in order, siLC3+dsRNA, dsRNA, and siLC3. Expression of LC3 was obviously down-regulated and the autophagosomes were significantly decreased in siLC3+dsRNA and siLC3, whereas in dsRNA (p < 0.05). LC3 and TRIF colocation was observed in HepG2 cells. Decreased cell viability, increased apoptosis, decrease in xenograft tumor volume, and angiogenesis potential were also observed in order (p < 0.05). Conclusion Suppression of intracellular autophagy resulted in decreased degradation of TRIF protein, which can promote triggering of apoptosis by the TLR3-TRIF pathway. dsRNA and siLC3 could play anticancer roles in coordination.

Inhibition of melanogenesis by tyrosinase siRNA in human melanocytes

  • An, Sang-Mi;Koh, Jae-Sook;Boo, Yong-Chool
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.178-183
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    • 2009
  • Tyrosinase (TYR) plays a critical role in cellular melanogenesis and, thus, has been the major target of pharmacological approaches for the control of skin pigmentation. This study examined an alternative molecular approach using TYR-small interfering RNA (siRNA) to control melanogenesis in the human melanocytes. Both the mRNA and protein levels of TYR were significantly lowered by TYR-siRNA treatment, whereas TYR-related protein 1 and TYR-related protein 2 displayed no such changes. TYR-siRNA treatment inhibited the cellular melanin synthesis from the externally supplied TYR substrate L-tyrosine. TYR-siRNA also suppressed melanin synthesis and decreased the viability of cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation, supporting a critical role of melanin in protection against ultraviolet radiation. These results suggest that molecular approaches using siRNA targeted to the enzymes of melanogenic pathway may provide a novel strategy for the control of cell pigmentation.

Small Interfering RNA-Mediated Suppression of Fas Modulate Apoptosis and Proliferation in Rat Intervertebral Disc Cells

  • Park, Jong-Beom;Park, Chanjoo
    • Asian Spine Journal
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.686-693
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    • 2017
  • Study Design: In vitro cell culture model. Purpose: To investigate the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) on Fas expression, apoptosis, and proliferation in serum-deprived rat disc cells. Overview of Literature: Synthetic siRNA can trigger an RNA interference (RNAi) response in mammalian cells and precipitate the inhibition of specific gene expression. However, the potential utility of siRNA technology in downregulation of specific genes associated with disc cell apoptosis remains unclear. Methods: Rat disc cells were isolated and cultured in the presence of either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (normal control) or 0% FBS (serum deprivation to induce apoptosis) for 48 hours. Fas expression, apoptosis, and proliferation were determined. Additionally, siRNA oligonucleotides against Fas (Fas siRNA) were transfected into rat disc cells to suppress Fas expression. Changes in Fas expression were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and semiquantitatively analyzed using densitometry. The effect of Fas siRNA on apoptosis and proliferation of rat disc cells were also determined. Negative siRNA and transfection agent alone (Mock) were used as controls. Results: Serum deprivation increased apoptosis by 40.3% (p<0.001), decreased proliferation by 45.3% (p<0.001), and upregulated Fas expression. Additionally, Fas siRNA suppressed Fas expression in serum-deprived cultures, with 68.5% reduction at the mRNA level compared to the control cultures (p<0.001). Finally, Fas siRNA-mediated suppression of Fas expression significantly inhibited apoptosis by 9.3% and increased proliferation by 21% in serum-deprived cultures (p<0.05 for both). Conclusions: The observed dual positive effect of Fas siRNA might be a powerful therapeutic approach for disc degeneration by suppression of harmful gene expression.