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Effects of Feeding Patterns and Sexes on Growth Rate, Carcass Trait and Grade in Korean Native Cattle

  • Choi, B.H.;Ahn, B.J.;Kook, K.;Sun, S.S.;Myung, K.H.;Moon, S.J.;Kim, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.838-843
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    • 2002
  • The objectives of this study were to examine growth performance and meat quality by three different feeding patterns in Korean native cattle (KNC). In each of 3 years, fifteen KNC were randomly assigned in a (3 feeding management)${\times}$(3 sex) factorial design experiment; thus, in total, there were 5 animals in each of the 9 treatments. The three feeding management treatments were longterm (24 month) restriction feeding (LTFR), long-term restriction feeding-hormone implant (LTFR-tH), and short-term (18 month) nonrestriction feeding (STFNR). Three sexes were bull, steer, and heifer. Concentrate diet was fed restriction-feeding method based on body weight in LTFR and LTFR-tH. However, the diet was fed ad libitum in STFNR. Hormonal implantation was made three times with M-$PO^{TM}$ for bulls and with F-$TO^{TM}$ for heifers at 18, 20, 22 month of age in LTFR-tH. Animal were purchased from the local cattle market and managed in two local farms and at the university research unit. Animals were slaughtered at 24 months for long-term trial and at 18 month for short-term trial. The growth rate was the highest in bulls and the lowest in heifers. However, the differences were diminished in F-$TO^{TM}$ implanted heifers. The average daily gain was high in STFNR due to ad libitum feeding. The carcass grade was similar among the treatments on percentage bases. Hormonal implants improved significantly the meat quality grade in all sexes. Castration increased body fat content and improved meat quality grade by intramuscular fat deposition. In conclusion, long-term feeding and hormone treatment increased meat quality grade more than short-term feeding. However, ADG was higher in the short-term trial although feedefficiency was lower.

Short-term Toxicity Assay Based on Daphnid Feeding on the Microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus

  • Lee Sang-Ill;Park Jong-Ho;Lee Won-Ho;Yeon Ik-Jun;Lee Byoung-Chan;Cho Kyu-Seok;Choi Hyun-Ill
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2006
  • We developed and evaluated a method of short-term acute toxicity testing based on the feeding behavior of Ceriodaphnia dubia. In prior toxicity tests, neonates of C. dubia were hatched and cultivated with the addition of yeast only for the preparation of the transparent daphnid's gut. Scenedesmus subspicatus was supplied as food after 1 to 6 h of exposure to toxicants. The effects of 1-h and 6-h exposure time on test sensitivity did not significantly differ. A comparison of the short-term l-h acute toxicity test developed in this study to the standard 48-h acute toxicity test using heavy metals, cyanide, and pentachlorophenol indicated that the 1-h test provided an acceptable sensitivity level in toxicity testing of C. dubia..

The Short-Term Effects of Soft Pellets on Lipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats

  • Bae, Cho-Rong;Hasegawa, Kazuya;Akieda-Asai, Sayaka;Kawasaki, Yurie;Cha, Youn-Soo;Date, Yukari
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the short-term effects of a 12-day, soft pellet (SP) diet with a 3-h restricted feeding schedule on caloric intake, body weight, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Glucose and insulin levels were measured pre-, mid-, and post-feeding. The SP rats exhibited postprandial hyperglycemia compared to rats fed control pellets (CP). The insulin response of SP rats during a meal was significantly higher than that of CP rats. There were no significant differences in the hepatic triacylglycerol contents and lipogenesis gene mRNA levels of SP and CP rats. However, the hepatocytes of SP rats were slightly hypertrophic. In addition, histological analysis revealed that the pancreases of SP rats had more islet areas than those of CP rats. This study demonstrated that feeding an SP-only diet for 12 days induces glucose intolerance, suggesting that the consumption of absorbable food, like a soft diet, may trigger glucose metabolism insufficiency and lead to life-threatening diseases.

Meat Quality Traits of Longissimus Muscle of Hanwoo Steers as a Function of Interaction between Slaughter Endpoint and Chiller Ageing

  • Dashdorj, Dashmaa;Oliveros, Maria Cynthia R.;Hwang, In-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.414-427
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    • 2012
  • Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits as a function of endpoint months of slaughter age (26 vs 32 mon) and chiller ageing (1 vs 10 d) were evaluated for m. longissmus of 26 Hanwoo steers fed with commercial diets including whole crop barley silage. Totally twenty six Hanwoo steers for 6 mon of age that were fed until 26 mon of age constituted the short term-fed group and fed until 32 mon of age constituted long-term fed group. Carcasses were chilled for 24 h and were graded. Strip loin samples were divided into two age groups (1 d and 10 d). Long-term feeding increased carcass weight, rib-eye area, yield grade, marbling score, firmness and quality grade of the meat. The feeding for 32 mon produced tender, juicy meat (p<0.01) with lower cooking loss and higher rating score (p<0.05) than short term feeding, while other quality traits were not influenced by the length of feeding. Intramuscular fat content and oxidative stability (TBARS value) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in beef from long-term feeding however the length of feeding did not alter the fatty acid composition. Chiller aging reduced instrumental tenderness (WBSF value), improved color, sensory tenderness, acceptability and rating of beef. The results of the present study mirrors that Hanwoo steers until 32 mon of age overall improved carcass traits and palatability compared to that for 26 mon. However, from the viewpoints of economical and environmental aspects, cost of the additional feeding for 6 mon for value-adding of eating quality was relatively high and the effects in turn were limited.

Effects of Dietary Treatment, Gender, and Implantation on Calpain/Calpastatin Activity and Meat Tenderness in Skeletal Muscle of Korean Native Cattle

  • Choi, B.H.;Ahn, B.J.;Kook, K.;Sun, S.S.;Myung, K.H.;Moon, S.J.;Kim, K.H.;Kim, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1653-1658
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    • 2002
  • The objectives of this study were to examine calpain activity and meat tenderness by three different feeding patterns in Korean native cattle (KNC). Total forty-five animals were assigned each fifteen in long term restriction feeding (LTFR), long-term restriction feeding and hormone treatment (LTFR-tH), and short term non-restriction feeding (STFNR), respectively. Concentrate was restricted based on body weight in exp 1 and 2. However, it was fed ad libitum in exp. 3. Hormonal implantation was made with $M-PO^{TM}$ for bulls and with $F-TO^{TM}$ for heifers at 18, 20, 22 months of age in exp. 2. Animals were purchased (3-5 month old) from local cattle market and managed in two local farms and university research unit at three different years. Animals were slaughtered at 24 months for long-term trial and at 18 month for short term-trial. Loin and tender loin muscle was used for calpain activity and meat quality. Calpain proteolytic system was not changed by treatment. However, calpastatin activity was low in short-term trial. The calpain and calpastatin activity is reciprocal relationship, therefore, the high calpain activity may effect on quality grade. The shear force value was decreased as the processing of aging after postmortem. On the other hand, the cooking loss was significantly higher in short-term than in long-term trial, and then gradually decreased by the aging. Hormone implants to increase meat yield influenced to calpastatin activity more powerfully than calpain activity to meat tenderness. In meat color-a*, there was not significant difference in loin. Meat color-b* was decreased as postmortem aging time increased in tenderloin. Western blots were done to learn whether these proteins are degraded during postmortem storage and whether this degradation temporally parallels the decrease of shear force value. Vinculin was detected at 0 day and 1 day and degraded after 3 day. In conclusion, Calpain activity was affected slightly on meat tenderness. But meat tenderness was influenced by calpastatin, more effectively.

The Relationship of Bone Mineral Densities and Period of Breast feeding in Premenopausal Women (폐경 전 여성의 모유수유기간과 골밀도와의 관련성 연구)

  • 이은남;이은옥;이광혜
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2000
  • To determine whether personal history of lactation in premenopausal women influence bone mineral density, a cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred eighty-four premenopausal women were selected from women who had been checked for bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absortiometry in lumbar spine, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric site at general hospitals in Seoul and Pusan. They completed a questionnaire including life style factors and reproductive history. In the data analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to test any association between individual variables and bone mineral density and a statistical comparisons between long term lactation(>24 months) and short term lactation(<24 months) were made by one way analysis of covariance. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There was no significant difference in the bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae in premenopausal women between the long term lactation group(>24months) and the short term lactation group(<24months). 2) There was no significant difference in the bone mineral density of the femur neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanteric site in premenopausal women between the long term lactation group (>24months) and the short term lactation group (<24months). Considering these results, we suggest prospective studies that measure bone mineral density before and after, in addition to those during lactation. We also suggest the further study with premenopausal women less than 35 who have achieved peak adult bone mass.

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Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by shortterm and long-term ethanol treatment in rats

  • Seo, Su-Jeong;Cho, Jae Youl;Jeong, Yeon Ho;Choi, Yong-Soon
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 2013
  • Korean red ginseng (KRG) is prepared by the process of steaming the roots of Panax ginseng. In this study, the feeding effects of KRG-water extract (KRGE) on ethanol-induced liver damage were elucidated by measuring serum biomarkers in rats. Serum ${\gamma}$-glutamyltranspeptidase (g-GT) activity and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats, whereas the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) did not respond. Pretreatment with KRGE maintained the activity of serum GPT, and the MDA concentration induced by short-term ethanol ingestion remained within the normal range. However, co-feeding of KRGE to rats decreased the concentration of MDA but failed to modulate the serum ${\gamma}$-GT activity induced by long-term ethanol treatment. Our studies suggest that in rats, it appears that KRGE does not sufficiently reverse the physiological response evoked by long-term ethanol ingestion to maintain normal conditions, in view of the serum biomarker ${\gamma}$-GT, regardless of KRGE's favorable antioxidant activity.

Effects of Acute Changes in the Energy and Protein Intake Levels over the Short-term on the Maternal Milk Amino Acid Concentrations in Lactating Mares

  • Matsui, A.;Inoue, Y.;Asai, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.855-860
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    • 2005
  • This study was designed to test the effects of changes in energy and protein intake levels on the maternal milk amino acid concentrations over the short-term in lactating mares. Three lactating mares were enrolled for the study 7 weeks after parturition. A low-energy and low-protein diet (LEP) was administered during the first week of the study, followed by administration of a high-energy and high-protein diet (HEP), again for a week (day 1 to day 7), and milk was sampled thrice daily at intervals of 8 h during the study period. The mean amino acid concentrations in the maternal milk, except for those of proline, serine and valine, were significantly higher in the HEP feeding period than during the LEP feeding period (p<0.05). The sum of the concentrations of all the amino acids (TAA) in the maternal milk samples during the HEP and LEP feeding periods was 1,644.9${\pm}$26.9 and 1,542.3${\pm}$36.0 mg/100 g, respectively, the difference between the two was not significant. When the ratio of each amino acid concentration to the TAA in the maternal milk was analyzed, there were significant differences between the HEP and LEP feeding periods for all amino acids, except glycine, serine, alanine and histidine. It was found that the concentrations of glutamic acid+glutamine, serine, threonine, arginine and valine were significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 1 than on day 7 during the LEP feeding period, and there were no such differences during the HEP feeding period. In regard to the effects of changes in the energy and protein intake levels in lactating mares, no changes in milk amino acid concentrations were found following administration of HEP for a week, whereas 7 days of administration of LEP was associated with a decrease in the amino acid concentrations.

Comparison of Short-Term Toxicity Tests Based on Feeding Behavior and Temperature Control by Ceriodaphnia dubia (Ceriodaphnia dubia의 먹이섭생 기작과 온도조절에 근거한 급성독성조사법의 비교)

  • Park, Jong-Ho;Lee, Sang-Ill;Cho, Young-Oak
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2004
  • Two methods, a Ceriodaphnia algal uptake suppression test (CAUST) and a new toxicity test based on temperature control (TTBTC) which are based on feeding behaviour and temperature control, respectively, were developed and compared for the adoption as the better methodology for short-term toxicity screening. As previously published by Lee et aI., (1997), the CAUST method is based on the feeding behaviour of C. dubia and requires as little as 1 hour of contact time between C. dubia neonates and toxicant. However, even though CAUST requires only 1 hour of contact time, this method still take many hours for the preparation and measurement. Before the test starts, neonate digestive tracts were cleared by feeding yeast to the daphnids, Neonates were then exposed to toxicant, followed by addition of Scenedesmus subspiatus into the bioassay vessels. Daphnids were examined under the bright-field microscope with the presence of algae (indicated by a green colored digestive tract) or the absence of algae. Uptake indicated no toxic effect, whereas, absence of uptake indicated toxic inhibition. Unlike CAUST, the newly developed method (TTBTC) is based on just temperature control for the toxicity test of C. dubia. Initially, neonates are exposed to toxicants while the temperature of water bath containing media increased to $35.5^{\circ}C$. After 1.25 hour of contact time, the number of the daphnids, either live (no toxic effect) or dead (toxic effect), is counted without the aid of any instrument. In both methods, median effective concentrations ($EC_{50}$ values) were computed based on the results over a range of dosed toxicant concentrations. It showed that TTBTC was as sensitive as the standard 48-hour acute bioassay and CAUST. TTBTC and CAUST were much more sensitive than the I-hour I.Q. test and 30-minute Microtox. This study indicates that TTBTC is an easier and more rapid toxicity test than the standard 48-hour acute bioassay and even CAUST.

Recovery of Trichloroethylene Removal Efficiency through Short-term Toluene Feeding in a Biofilter Enriched with Pseudomonas putida F1

  • Jung In-Gyung;Park Ok-Hyun;Woo Hae-Jin;Park Chang-Ho
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2005
  • Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an environmental contaminant provoking genetic mutation and damages to liver and central nerve system even at low concentrations. A practical scheme is reported using toluene as a primary substrate to revitalize the biofilter column for an extended period of TCE degradation. The rate of trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by Pseudomonas putida F1 at $25^{\circ}C$ decreased exponentially with time, without toluene feeding to a biofilter column ($11\;cm\;I.D.{\times}95\;cm$ height). The rate of decrease was 2.5 times faster at a TCE concentration of $970\;{\mu}g/L$ compared to a TCE concentration of $110\;{\mu}g/L$. The TCE itself was not toxic to the cells, but the metabolic intermediates of the TCE degradation were apparently responsible for the decrease in the TCE degradation rate. A short-term (2 h) supply of toluene ($2,200\;{\mu}g/L$) at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 6.4 min recovered the relative column activity by $43\%$ when the TCE removal efficiency at the time of toluene feeding was $58\%$. The recovery of the TCE removal efficiency increased at higher incoming toluene concentrations and longer toluene supply durations according to the Monod type of kinetic expressions. A longer duration ($1.4{\sim}2.4$ times) of toluene supply increased the recovery of the TCE removal efficiency by $20\%$ for the same toluene load.