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A case study of reinforced concrete short column under earthquake using experimental and theoretical investigations

  • Chen, Chen-Yuan;Liu, Kuo-Chiang;Liu, Yuh-Wehn;Huang, Wehn-Jiunn
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to carry out both experimental and theoretical investigations of R.C. short column subjected to horizontal forces under constant compressive loading. Eight specimens with section of 40 cm ${\times}$ 40 cm, height 40 cm and 50 cm and different type hoop were used of the steel cage to detect the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete short columns. Hoop spacing of column, strength of concrete, and the axial load of experiments were the three main parameters in this test. A series of equations were derived to reveal the theory could be used on analysis short column, too. Through test failure model of R.C short column being established, the type of hoop affects the behavior R.C short column in ductility rather than in strength. And the effect of analysis by Truss Model is evident and reliable in shear failure model of short column.

Investigation of short column effect of RC buildings: failure and prevention

  • Cagatay, Ismail H.;Beklen, Caner;Mosalam, Khalid M.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.523-532
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    • 2010
  • If an infill wall in a reinforced concrete frame is shorter than the column height and there is no initial gap between the column and the infill wall, the short column effect can occur during an earthquake shaking. This form of damage is frequently observed in many earthquake-damaged buildings all around the world and especially in Turkey. In this study, an effective method, which consists of placing additional infill wall segments surrounding the short column, to prevent this type of failure is examined. The influence of adding infill wall in the reduction of the shear force in the short column is also investigated. A parametric study is carried out for one-storey infilled frames with one to five bays using the percentage of the additional infill wall surrounding the short column and the number of spans as the parameters. Then the investigation is extended to a case of a multistorey building damaged due to short column effect during the 1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake in Turkey. The results show that the addition of the infill walls around the potential short columns is an effective way to significantly reduce the shear force.

Failure analysis of reinforced concrete frames with short column effect

  • Caglar, Naci;Mutlu, Mahir
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.403-419
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    • 2009
  • Short column effect is cause to failure of columns which may result in severe damages or even collapse during earthquakes. The scope of the study is mainly to reveal the effect of short column on the holistic behaviour of the buildings. The nonlinear analysis of 31 different frame buildings containing short column problem are carried out using finite element method. The finite element models were selected by 2 bays and 3 stories. Since the short columns are generally seen in the first storey of the buildings, in the study, they are only constructed in the same storey. The adverse effect of the short column on the response of buildings was shown in terms of the total load factor and displacement capacity of building. The response of buildings in terms of ground storey displacements is presented in figures and discussed. It is revealed that if the window openings are constructed along the bays, the total load capacity is decreased 85% compared with reference model in which all of bays are filled with infill walls.

Experimental research on seismic behavior of steel reinforced high-strength concrete short columns

  • Zhu, Weiqing;Jia, Jinqing;Zhang, Junguang
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.603-615
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    • 2017
  • This experimental research presents the seismic performance of steel reinforced high-strength concrete (SRHC) short columns. Eleven SRHC column specimens were tested under simulated earthquake loading conditions, including six short column specimens and five normal column specimens. The parameters studied included the axial load level, stirrup details and shear span ratio. The failure modes, critical region length, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity, stiffness and strength degradation and shear displacement of SRHC short columns were analyzed in detail. The effects of the parameters on seismic performance were discussed. The test results showed that SRHC short columns exhibited shear-flexure failure characteristics. The critical region length of SRHC short columns could be taken as the whole column height, regardless of axial load level. In comparison to SRHC normal columns, SRHC short columns had weaker energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity, and experienced faster stiffness degradation and strength degradation. The decrease in energy dissipation and deformation capacity due to the decreasing shear span ratio was more serious when the axial load level was higher. However, SRHC short columns confined by multiple stirrups might possess good seismic behavior with enough deformation capacity (ultimate drift ratio ${\geq}2.5%$), even though a relative large axial load ratio (= 0.38) and relative small structural steel ratio (= 3.58%) were used, and were suitable to be used in tall buildings in earthquake regions.

Seismic performance of RC short columns with light transverse reinforcement

  • Tran, Cao Thanh Ngoc;Li, Bing
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.67 no.1
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    • pp.93-104
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    • 2018
  • The seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) short columns with limited transverse reinforcement is investigated in this paper through an experimental program. The experimental program consists of four small-scale RC columns with an aspect ratio of 1.7, which are tested to the axial failure stage. The cracking patterns, hysteretic responses, strains in reinforcing bars, displacement decomposition and cumulative energy dissipation of the tested specimens are reported in detail in the paper. The effects of column axial load are investigated to determine how this variable might influence the performance of the short columns with limited transverse reinforcement. Brittle shear failure was observed in all tested specimens. Beneficial and detrimental effects on the shear strength and drift ratio at axial failure of the test specimens due to the column axial load are found in the experimental program, respectively.

How to reduce short column effects in buildings with reinforced concrete infill walls on basement floors

  • Bikce, Murat
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.249-259
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    • 2011
  • Band windows are commonly used in reinforced concrete structures for the purpose of ventilation and lighting. These applications shorten the lengths of the columns and, consequently, they are subject to higher shear forces as compared with those of hollow frames. Such short columns may cause some damages during earthquakes. Hence, these effects of short columns should be minimized by choosing the dimensions of the band windows properly in order to prevent serious damages in the structure. This can be achieved by taking into account the parameters that are crucial in causing short column effect. Hence, in this study, the effects of those parameters such as the widths and heights of the band windows, the number of bays and storeys within the frame, and the heights of storeys are examined. The effects of the parameters are analyzed using time history analysis. One of the important results of these analyses, is that, the widths of the band windows should be less than 60% of the clear span between the columns, whereas, their heights should be greater than 35% of the clear storey height in order to decrease the short column effects substantially during the design of the reinforced concrete structures.

Theoretical study of UHPCC composite column behaviors under axial compression

  • Wu, Xiang-Guo;Zou, Ruofei;Zhao, Xinyu;Yu, Qun
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.931-951
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    • 2015
  • To improve the durability and service life of reinforced concrete column such as bridge piers, an advanced composite column made of Ultra High Performance Cementitious Composites (UHPCC) permanent form is proposed. Based on elasticity plasticity theory, axial compression behavior of the composite column was studied theoretically. The first circumferential cracking load and ultimate limit loading capacity are derived for the composite column. Short composite column compression tests and numerical simulations using FEM method were carried out to justify the theoretical formula. The effects of UHPCC tube thickness on the axial compression behavior were studied. Using the established theoretical model and numerical simulation, the large dimension composite columns are calculated and analyzed with different UHPCC tube thickness. These studies may provide a reference for advanced composite column design and application.

Embodiment of Low Operating Voltage in Positive Column AC-PDPs

  • Kim, Hyun;Tae, Heung-Sik;Chien, Sung-Il
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.95-98
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    • 2003
  • The positive column discharge characteristics in the long gap (440 ${\mu}m$) are investigated based on the voltage distribution among three electrodes. In particular, the effects of the amplitude and width of the short pulse applied to the address electrode on the positive column discharge characteristics are examined intensively. By proper controlling of the amplitude and width of the address short pulse, it is found that the positive column discharge in the long gap is well constructed. As a result, under the stable static voltage margin condition, the firing and sustaining voltages are as low as those of conventional short gap(60 ${\mu}m$) discharge($V _f=220V$, $V_s=150V$) and the color purity is improved. Moreover, the luminous efficiency increases up to 60% in comparison with the conventional case.

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Earthquake performance of FRP retrofitting of short columns around band-type windows

  • Kocak, Ali
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2015
  • Due to design codes and regulations and the variety of building plans in Turkey, it is very often seen that band-type windows are left for ventilation and lightening of the basements of buildings which are used for various purposes such as workplaces and storage. Therefore when the necessary support measures cannot be given, short columns are subjected to very high shear forces and so damage occurs. One of the precautions to avoid the damage of short column mechanisms in buildings where band-type windows are in the basement is to strengthen the short columns with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP). In this study, the effect of the FRP retrofitting process of the short columns around band-windowed structures, which are found especially in basement areas, is analyzed in accordance with Turkish Seismic Code 2007 (TSC 2007). Three different models which are bare frame, frame with short columns and retrofitted short columns with FRP, are created and analyzed according to TSC 2007 performance analysis methods to understand the effects of band windows in basements and the effect of FRP retrofitting.

Seismic Behavior of High-Strength Concrete Square Short Columns Confined in Thin Steel Shell

  • Han, Byung-Chan;Yun, Hyun-Do;Chung, Soo-Young
    • KCI Concrete Journal
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2000
  • Experiments were carried out to investigate the seismic behaviors, such as lateral strength, ductility and energy-dissipation capacity. of high-strength concrete (HSC) square short column confined in thin steel shell. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the suitability of using HSC square columns confined in thin steel shell in region of moderate-to-high seismic risk. A total of six columns, consisting of two ordinarily reinforced concrete square short columns and four reinforced concrete square short columns confined in thin steel shell was tested. Column specimens, short columns in a moment resisting frame with girder. were tested under a constant axial and reversed cyclic lateral loads. To design the specimens. transverse reinforcing methods, level of axial load applied, and the steel tube width-thickness ratio (D/t) were chosen as main parameters. Test results were also discussed and compared in the light of improvements in general behaviors, ductility, and energy-absorption capacities. Compared to conventionally reinforced concrete columns, the HSC columns confined in thin steel shell had similar load-displacement hysteretic behavior but exhibited greater energy-dissipation characteristics . It is concluded that, in strong earthquake areas, the transverse reinforcing method by using a thin steel shell (D/t=125) is quite effective to make HSC short columns with very strong and ductile.

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