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Shake table test of Y-shaped eccentrically braced frames fabricated with high-strength steel

  • Lian, Ming;Su, Mingzhou
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.501-513
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the seismic performance of Y-shaped eccentrically braced frames fabricated with high-strength steel (Y-HSS-EBFs), a shake table test of a 1:2 scaled three-story Y-HSS-EBF specimen was performed. The input wave for the shake table test was generated by the ground motions of El Centro, Taft, and Lanzhou waves. The dynamic properties, acceleration, displacement, and strain responses were obtained from the test specimen and compared with previous test results. In addition, a finite element model of the test specimen was established using the SAP2000 software. Results from the numerical analysis were compared with the test specimen results. During the shake table test, the specimen exhibited sufficient overall structural stiffness and safety but suffered some localized damage. The lateral stiffness of the structure degenerated during the high seismic intensity earthquake. The maximum elastic and elastoplastic interstory drift of the test specimen for different peak ground accelerations were 1/872 and 1/71, respectively. During the high seismic intensity earthquake, the links of the test specimen entered the plastic stage to dissipate the earthquake energy, while other structural members remained in the elastic stage. The Y-HSS-EBF is a safe, dual system with reliable seismic performance. The numerical analysis results were in useful agreement with the test results. This finding indicated that the finite element model in SAP2000 provided a very accurate prediction of the Y-HSS-EBF structure's behavior during the seismic loadings.

Statistical reference values for control performance assessment of seismic shake table testing

  • Chen, Pei-Ching;Kek, Meng-Kwee;Hu, Yu-Wei;Lai, Chin-Ta
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.595-603
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    • 2018
  • Shake table testing has been regarded as one of the most effective experimental approaches to evaluate seismic response of structural systems subjected to earthquakes. However, reproducing a prescribed acceleration time history precisely over the frequency of interest is challenging because shake table test systems are eventually nonlinear by nature. In addition, interaction between the table and specimen could affect the control accuracy of shake table testing significantly. Various novel control algorithms have been proposed to improve the control accuracy of shake table testing; however, reference values for control performance assessment remain rare. In this study, reference values for control performance assessment of shake table testing are specified based on the statistical analyses of 1,209 experimental data provided by the Seismic Simulator Laboratory of National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering in Taiwan. Three individual reference values are considered for the assessment including the root-mean-square error of the achieved acceleration time history; the percentage of the spectral acceleration that exceeds the determined tolerance range over the frequency of interest; and the error-ratio of the achieved peak ground acceleration. Quartiles of the real experimental data in terms of the three objective variables are obtained, providing users with solid and simple references to evaluate the control performance of shake table testing. Finally, a set of experimental data of a newly developed control framework implementation for uni-axial shake tables are used as an application example to demonstrate the significant improvement of control accuracy according to the reference values provided in this study.

Performance of an isolated simply supported bridge crossing fault rupture: shake table test

  • Xiang, Nailiang;Yang, Huaiyu;Li, Jianzhong
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.665-677
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    • 2019
  • This study utilizes large-scale shake table test to investigate the seismic performance of an isolated bridge with lead rubber bearings crossing an active fault. Two transverse restraining systems with and without shear keys are tested by applying spatially varying ground motions. It is shown that the near-fault span exhibits larger bearing displacement than the crossing-fault span. Bridge piers away from the fault rupture are more vulnerable than those adjacent to the fault rupture by attracting more seismic demand. It is also verified that the shear keys are effective in restraining the bearing displacement on the near-fault span, particularly under the large permanent ground displacement.

Triaxial Shake Table Test about Seismic Performance of Ceiling System with Gypsum Panels (석고 패널이 부착된 천장 시스템의 내진성능 평가를 위한 3축 진동실험)

  • Park, Hae-Yong;Jeon, Bub-Gyu;Kim, Jae-Bong;Gim, Min-Uk
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.143-153
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    • 2019
  • In this study, a full scale 3-axes shake table test for M-bar and T-bar type ceilings commonly used in the country was conducted. Through damage inspection during the test, seismic performance of ceilings according to variables, such as clearance between wall mold and ceiling as well as existence of facilities, was evaluated. A test frame consisted of square hollow section members was used for the shake table test. The experimental method was performed as a fragility test using required response spectrum described in ICC-ES AC156. In the case of architectural nonstructural component that contain ceilings, it mainly is evaluated the performance by post-test visual inspection. For the evaluation of seismic performance of ceilings, this study classified and defined damaged items for targeted ceiling system referring to illustrative damage according to nonstructural performance levels accordance with ASCE 41 and previous studies. And proposed illustrative damage items classification was utilized to compare the degree of the damage according to experimental variables. The experiment results confirmed that differences in boundary conditions due to the clearance at wall mold and the installation of facilities had a significant effect on the seismic performance of the ceiling.

An Assessment Study of Seismic Resistance of Two-story Wood-frame Housing by Shaking Table Tests

  • Ni, Chun;Kim, Sang-Yeon;Chen, Haijiang;Lu, Xilin
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.79-82
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    • 2012
  • While there exists a relatively large body of technical information for the engineered design of wood-frame buildings to resist seismic ground motions, the quantitative assessment of seismic resistance of conventional houses built by prescriptive requirements is less well understood. Forintek Canada Corp., in collaboration with other research and industry partners, has embarked on a research project to address this topic. This paper will report on the seismic shake table tests of a full-scale wood-frame building. The two-story specimen, $6m{\times}6m$ in plan, was built on the seismic shake table at Tongji University in Shanghai, China, according to Part 9 of the 1995 National Building Code of Canada and shaken uni-directionally in each of the two principal directions. Three different seismic table motions were applied at increasing peak ground motion amplitudes up to 0.40 and 0.50 g. The specimen was repaired after the above sets of seismic table motions, and successive runs were conducted for increased door openings. Measurements included specimen accelerations, displacements and anchorage forces. Static stiffness of the specimen was measured at low force levels, and natural frequencies were measured after each seismic loading stage by applying low-level random excitation. The results presented consist of the capacity spectra of the shake table tests, changes in specimen stiffness and natural frequencies with increasing seismic loading. These results and those from other recent shake table tests elsewhere will be compared with simplified engineering calculations based on codified values of strength, and on that basis preliminary conclusions will be drawn on the adequacy of the current code provisions and design guides in Canada and the USA for conventional wood-frame construction.

Seismic Capacity Test of Nuclear Piping System using Multi-platform Shake Table (다지점 진동대를 이용한 원자력발전소 배관계통의 내진성능실험)

  • Cheung, Jin-Hwan;Gae, Man-Soo;Seo, Young-Deuk;Choi, Hyoung-Suk;Kim, Min-Kyu
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2013
  • In this study, dynamic characteristics and seismic capacity of the nuclear power plant piping system are evaluated by model test results using multi-platform shake table. The model is 21.2 m long and consists of straight pipes, elbows, and reducers. The stainless steel pipe diameters are 60.3 mm (2 in.) and 88.9 mm (3 in.) and the system was assembled in accordance with ASME code criteria. The dynamic characteristics such as natural frequency, damping and acceleration responses of the piping system were estimated using the measured acceleration, displacement and strain data. The natural frequencies of the specimen were not changed significantly before and after the testing and the failure and leakage of the piping system was not observed until the final excitation. The damping ratio was estimated in the range of 3.13 ~ 4.98 % and it is found that the allowable stress(345 MPa) according to ASME criteria is 2.5 times larger than the measured maximum stress (138 MPa) of the piping system even under the maximum excitation level of this test.

Real-time hybrid substructuring of a base isolated building considering robust stability and performance analysis

  • Avci, Muammer;Botelho, Rui M.;Christenson, Richard
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.155-167
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    • 2020
  • This paper demonstrates a real-time hybrid substructuring (RTHS) shake table test to evaluate the seismic performance of a base isolated building. Since RTHS involves a feedback loop in the test implementation, the frequency dependent magnitude and inherent time delay of the actuator dynamics can introduce inaccuracy and instability. The paper presents a robust stability and performance analysis method for the RTHS test. The robust stability method involves casting the actuator dynamics as a multiplicative uncertainty and applying the small gain theorem to derive the sufficient conditions for robust stability and performance. The attractive feature of this robust stability and performance analysis method is that it accommodates linearized modeled or measured frequency response functions for both the physical substructure and actuator dynamics. Significant experimental research has been conducted on base isolators and dampers toward developing high fidelity numerical models. Shake table testing, where the building superstructure is tested while the isolation layer is numerically modeled, can allow for a range of isolation strategies to be examined for a single shake table experiment. Further, recent concerns in base isolation for long period, long duration earthquakes necessitate adding damping at the isolation layer, which can allow higher frequency energy to be transmitted into the superstructure and can result in damage to structural and nonstructural components that can be difficult to numerically model and accurately predict. As such, physical testing of the superstructure while numerically modeling the isolation layer may be desired. The RTHS approach has been previously proposed for base isolated buildings, however, to date it has not been conducted on a base isolated structure isolated at the ground level and where the isolation layer itself is numerically simulated. This configuration provides multiple challenges in the RTHS stability associated with higher physical substructure frequencies and a low numerical to physical mass ratio. This paper demonstrates a base isolated RTHS test and the robust stability and performance analysis necessary to ensure the stability and accuracy. The tests consist of a scaled idealized 4-story superstructure building model placed directly onto a shake table and the isolation layer simulated in MATLAB/Simulink using a dSpace real-time controller.

Experimental and numerical analysis of RC structure with two leaf cavity wall subjected to shake table

  • Onat, Onur;Lourenco, Paulo B.;Kocak, Ali
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.1037-1053
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents finite element (FE) based pushover analysis of a reinforced concrete structure with a two-leaf cavity wall (TLCW) to estimate the performance level of this structure. In addition to this, an unreinforced masonry (URM) model was selected for comparison. Simulations and analyses of these structures were performed using the DIANA FE program. The mentioned structures were selected as two storeys and two bays. The dimensions of the structures were scaled 1:1.5 according to the Cauchy Froude similitude law. A shake table experiment was implemented on the reinforced concrete structure with the two-leaf cavity wall (TLCW) at the National Civil Engineering Laboratory (LNEC) in Lisbon, Portugal. The model that simulates URM was not experimentally studied. This structure was modelled in the same manner as the TLCW. The purpose of this virtual model is to compare the respective performances. Two nonlinear analyses were performed and compared with the experimental test results. These analyses were carried out in two phases. The research addresses first the analysis of a structure with only reinforced concrete elements, and secondly the analysis of the same structure with reinforced concrete elements and infill walls. Both researches consider static loading and pushover analysis. The experimental pushover curve was plotted by the envelope of the experimental curve obtained on the basis of the shake table records. Crack patterns, failure modes and performance curves were plotted for both models. Finally, results were evaluated on the basis of the current regulation ASCE/SEI 41-06.

Shake table tests on a non-seismically detailed RC frame structure

  • Sharma, Akanshu;Reddy, G.R.;Vaze, K.K.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 2012
  • A reinforced concrete (RC) framed structure detailed according to non-seismic detailing provisions as per Indian Standard was tested on shake table under dynamic loads. The structure had 3 main storeys and an additional storey to simulate the footing to plinth level. In plan the structure was symmetric with 2 bays in each direction. In order to optimize the information obtained from the tests, tests were planned in three different stages. In the first stage, tests were done with masonry infill panels in one direction to obtain information on the stiffness increase due to addition of infill panels. In second stage, the infills were removed and tests were conducted on the structure without and with tuned liquid dampers (TLD) on the roof of the structure to investigate the effect of TLD on seismic response of the structure. In the third stage, tests were conducted on bare frame structure under biaxial time histories with gradually increasing peak ground acceleration (PGA) till failure. The simulated earthquakes represented low, moderate and severe seismic ground motions. The effects of masonry infill panels on dynamic characteristics of the structure, effectiveness of TLD in reducing the seismic response of structure and the failure patterns of non-seismically detailed structures, are clearly brought out. Details of design and similitude are also discussed.

Global seismic performance of a new precast CFST column to RC beam braced frame: Shake table test and numerical study

  • Xu, S.Y.;Li, Z.L.;Liu, H.J.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.805-827
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    • 2016
  • A new type of precast CFST column to RC beam braced frame is proposed in this paper. A series of shake table tests were conducted to excite a one-third scale six-story model for investigating the global seismic performance of this type of structure against earthquake actions. Particular emphasis was given to its dynamic property, global seismic responses and failure path. Correspondingly, a numerical model built on the basis of fiber-beam-element model, multi-layer shell model and element-deactivation method was developed to simulate the seismic performance of the prototype structure. Numerical results were compared with the measured values from shake table tests to verify the validity and reliability of the numerical model. The results demonstrated that the proposed novel precast CFST column to RC beam braced frame performs excellently under strong earthquake excitations; the "strong CFST column-weak RC beam" and "strong connection-weak member" anti-seismic design principles can be easily achieved; the maximum deflections of precast CFSTC-RCB braced frame satisfied the deflection limitations proposed in national code; the numerical model can properly simulate the dynamic property and responses of the precast CFSTC-RCB braced frame that are highly concerned in engineering practice.