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Children′s Preferences for the Dishes Offered by School Lunch Programs

  • Kim, Hyeon-A;Kim, Yoo-Kyeong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.412-418
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    • 2003
  • To evaluate the school lunch program served by elementary schools in Muan, Korea, we examined children's preference for the dishes offered on the menus. School lunch program menus showing the food composition of 400 meals (100 meals in each season) were collected. The serving frequency of each dish on the menus was counted. Eighty-seven representative dishes were selected based on the serving frequency and preference for each dish was determined by a survey of 414 elementary school students who were served by the school lunch program. We also analyzed the nutrient contents of each representative dish. Among the prepared foods, children indicated the highest preference for desserts. Steamed rice was served more frequently as a main course than one dish meals, although children preferred one dish meals to steamed rice. Among side dishes, those that were deep-fried were the most preferred. Children indicated high preference for fruits, milk, and eggs, and low preference for fish and clams, vegetables, and beans. The serving frequency with which main courses, soups, and side dishes were served showed no correlation with children's preference for each. Preference for dishes correlated positively with nutrient contents of calories and lipids, but negatively with nutrient contents of fiber, calcium and vitamin A. According to these results we can suggest that dietitian should consider children's preference into greater consideration to increase menu acceptability and thereby reduce waste. Children need to be educated about the roles and contents of nutrients in food and the fact that preference for foods affects nutrient intake.

Menu Analysis of the National School Lunch Program : The Comparisons of the Frequency of Menu with the Students' Food Preferences (학교급식 식단 분석 : 초등학교 급식식단의 음식제공빈도와 학생의 음식기호도 비교 연구)

  • Im, Gyeong-Suk;Lee, Tae-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.188-199
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    • 1998
  • The menu planning is closely tied to the acceptability of the food and the satisfaction of the food service system to its client, therefore national school lunch program(NSLP) menu should consider the food preferences of the students. To provide appropriate information and guidelines about desirable NSLP menu planning, the comparison between the frequency of NSLP menus and food preferences of the students was performed, NSLP menus with cooking method of 776 meals were collected from 10 elementary NSLP schools in Seoul and Kyunggi province, and food preference data was surveyed with 1618 elementary school students from 4 NSLP schools in Korea in 1995. According to the cooking methods, NSLP menus served Kimchi(98.3%), rice(71.4%) and soup(71.1%) frequently. Based on the food groups, NSLP menus served vegetables most frequently(188%), followed by grains(101.4%), milk(100%), meat(57.3%), fruits(50.3%), and so on. By Spearman Rank Correlations analysis, the serving frequencies of vegetable side dishes(r=.33, p=.05) were positively correlated with the students' preference score. According to the cooking method, the serving frequencies of steamed dishes(r=1.0, p=.00), salads(r=1.0, p=.00), Kimchi(r=.85, p=.01) and rice one-dish meal(r=.80, p=.10) were positively correlated with the students' preference score. However, the serving frequencies of the main dishes(r=.13, p=.57) and soup group(r=.15, p=.57) were not significantly correlated with the students' preference score. Even though the serving frequency of fruit were negatively correlated with the students' preference score(r= -.80, p=.10). These results indicated that the NSLP menu planned the vegetable side dishes in accordance with the students' food preferences, but it planned the main dish, soup group, and meat side dish group discordantly. Therefore further efforts are needed to involve the preferred cooking methods for increasing the food acceptability. It could be used for the basic guidelines for menu planning of NSLP, and for the future improvement of NSLP in Korea.

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A Study on the Kimchi Consumption of Korean Adults: Using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010~2012) (한국성인의 김치 섭취에 관한 연구: 국민건강영양조사 5기(2010~2012) 자료를 이용하여)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung;Park, Yoo-Kyung;Ju, Se-Young;Choi, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.406-412
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze average kimchi intake, general characteristics, frequency of daily meal intake, intakes of vegetables and fruits, and nutrient intakes in four serving size groups based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010~2012. The results showed an average amount of kimchi intake in subjects of 115.6 g, ranging from 0 g to 605.94 g. For daily meal intake except snacking according to kimchi serving size, all daily meal intakes increased significantly with increasing kimchi serving size (p<0.0001), and tendency of kimchi intake increased with more eating-out. As kimchi serving size increased, total intakes of vegetables and salted vegetables increased significantly (p<0.0001). However, unsalted vegetables intake did not show significant difference. Intake of fruits also increased with increasing kimchi serving size. As the serving size of kimchi increased, intakes of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, sodium, and potassium increased significantly (p<0.0001). For intake of sodium, intakes of all groups exceeded 2,000 mg, which is the recommended level for Koreans. Moreover, the fourth serving size group consumed three times (6,546.35 mg) more sodium than the recommended level.

A Study on nutritional status and one serving size of commonly comsumed dish in Korean college women (여대생의 영양섭취 실태 및 주요섭취음식의 1인 1회 분량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Jee-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.401-409
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    • 1994
  • The use of food frequency questionnaire to estimate dietary intake has become widespread in epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that knowledge about a person's usual serving size of each food, in addition to consumption frequency, will improve the accuracy of this method. This study was performed to investigate the nutritional status and one sowing sizes of commonly consumed dishes in Korean college women. Intakes of dish or food in 156 college women were measured by 7-day weighed food records in May, 1992 and May, 1993. For each dish or food, variance in one serving size was partitioned into within-person(intraindividual) and between-person(interindividual) components. All nutrient intakes except vitamin A and vitamin C were less adequate. The major dish groups which contributed to the most daily nutrient intakes were boiled rice, bread, fruits, dairy product, and biscuit and snack groups. In more than 50% of dishes, the within-person variation was greater than between-person variation. And the variety and amount of food which was used in one dish were too variable to make standard recipe.

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Korean Female Adolescents' Food Attitudes and Food Intake Relative to the Korean Food Tower (I) : Food Intake

  • Kim, Kyeung-Eun;Resalie J. Amos
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.164-179
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    • 2002
  • A survey was conducted to examine the food intake of 285 Korean female students attending a secondary school in Seoul. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency based on the Korean Food Tower which consists of five food groups, i.e., grain products, vegetables and fruits, meat, milk, and fats and sweets. To describe food intake descriptive statistics were obtained using SPSS. The food frequency analysis indicated that the participants ate rice, cabbage kimchi, radish, and soybean/red pepper paste most frequently along with milk, ice cream, tea, and seasonal fruits such as citrus fruits, apples, watermelon, and grapes for snacks. Distributions of the total standardized serving frequency for each food group indicated that approximately 84, 83, 45, 60, and 34%, respectively, of the respondents met the recommended serving frequency for grain products, vegetables and fruits, meat, milk, and fats and sweets groups(mean servings per day 5.5, 10.6, 5.5, 2.1, 3.5). Income was the only demographic factor that affected food intake, particularly with respect to meat, milk, and fats and sweets(p < .01). In Korea, these food groups are generally more expensive than the other ones. (J Community Nutrition 4(3) : 164∼179, 2002)

Relationship between Intake of Milk and Milk Products and Bone Health by Sex and Age-Group in Koreans - Using Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008~2011 (성별, 연령별에 따른 우유·유제품 섭취와 골 건강과의 관련성 - 2008~2011 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Baek, Sang Woo;Lee, Heon Ok;Kim, Hyun Ja;Won, Eun Sook;Ha, Young Sik;Shin, Yong Kook;Om, Ae Son
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.513-522
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to examine the relationships between milk and milk product intake and bone health. The data from the 2008~2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used for data analysis. Subjects included 4,626 men and 6,144 women aged 19 to 64 years. Daily intake frequency of milk and milk products was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and divided into two categories: less than one serving per day and more than one serving per day. Bone mineral density (BMD) values of total femur, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were compared based on daily intake frequency, and relationships between milk and milk product daily intake frequency and osteoporosis risk were evaluated based on logistic regression. In men aged 30~39, BMDs of total femur and femoral neck were significantly higher in the group that consumed milk more than one serving per day (P<0.05). Intake frequency of milk and milk products was also significantly related to both BMDs of total femur and femoral neck. The odds ratio (OR) for milk intake frequency (more than one serving per day) compared to intake frequency less than one serving per day was 0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21~0.62], and the OR for milk and milk products intake frequency (more than one serving per day) was 0.49 (95% CI 0.28~0.86) in women aged 50~64. These results indicate that increased consumption of milk and its products is associated with reduced risk of bone health disease, and adequate intakes of milk and milk products might play an important role in maintaining optimum bone health. Further research on the causal relationship and dose-response association between milk intake and bone heath using prospective cohort data is required prior to applying the observed results to programs that prevent bone health problems.

A Survey on the Hand Washing Awareness and Behavior in Elementary Schools Serving Food in a Classroom in Busan (부산지역 교실배식 초등학교생들의 손 씻기 인식 및 이행 실태)

  • Lee, Kyung-A;Lee, Min-Yung;Park, In-Shik
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.220-231
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to evaluate elementary students' awareness of the importance of hand washing, as well as their hand-washing behavior. The data was collected by self-reported questionnaire from 697 students in elementary schools with serving food in a classroom in Busan. Their hand-washing frequency was high, at '3~4 times per day (37.0%)'. 51.0% of the respondents did not wash their hands that often because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands, and 35.9% of respondents regarded washing their hands as 'annoying'. The most frequently reported hand washing agent was 'soap and water (71.4%)'. Approximately 95~98% of the respondents always washed their hands after using the bathroom, 87.9% of them washed their hands before eating food, and 86.7% of them washed their hands upon returning home. However, 27.3%, 34.1% and 65.9% of the respondents did not wash their hands after handling money, after eating, and after coughing or sneezing, respectively. Significant factors related to increased hand-washing frequency were gender (p<0.001) and the period of attendance at kindergarten (p<0.05). The mean scores of importance and performance of hand washing were significantly higher for girls than for boys. The group with higher rate (over 4.5/5.0) for the importance of sanitary hand-washing behavior showed significantly higher scores in hand-washing behavior before serving food and before eating than those of the lower rated group (below 4.0/5.0). This study shows that sanitation education is required not only for food handlers but also for students in school foodservices.

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Food Consumption Patterns of First Generation Korean-Americans in Hawaii

  • Han, ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1998
  • To evaluate food consumption patterns of first generation Korean-American in Hawaii, questionnaires were developed using sociodemographic questions and food frequency questionnaire, which included 139 food items most often consumed among Korean foods and American foods. The questionnaires surveyed 157 first generation Korean-Americans in Hawaii. Mean daily servings for the first generation Korean-Americans were calculated for 139 food items combined into 41 food groups based on similarity in nutrient composition and serving size. The food groups which were consumed in amounts over one serving per day for all subjects were rice, Kimchi , non-citrus fruit , vegetables, organge/green vegetables. oil. margarine and coffee/tea. All subjects consumed less than one serving of hotdogs, hamburgers, pizza and pancakes per week(0.14 serving per day). The most notable characteristic of food consumption for first generation Korean-Americans was that they consumed more Korean food such as rice, Kimchi, soybean paste(Deenjang), soybean curd and seaweed than American foods. Compared with other groups based on age and gender, younger men showed significantly(p<0.05) more frequent consumption of beef/pork, sausages /hams /bacons and hambergers. Older men were significantly(p<0.05) more likely to consume Doenjang and less likely to consume pizza and hamburgers. Daily servings were below the recommended level for thegrains /bread/cereals group and fats/oils/sweets group for all subjects . Fruits/vegetables group servings exceeded the recommeded 5 daily servings for younger men. In correlations of daily servings of selected foods among Korean foods and American food with sociodemographic characteristics, this study showed that the older the subjects and the shorter the stay in Hawaii, subjects were more likely to consume Kroean foods.

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A Study on the School Milk Program among Elementary, Middle and High School Students in Korea (전국 초.중.고등학생의 학교우유급식 실태조사)

  • 정인경;권성욱
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out in order to facilitate the consumption of milk which tend to decrease in recent years and to improve the school milk program. The survey by means of prepared questionnaire was conducted to investigate a perception and satisfaction of school milk program, and milk intake at home and school with elementary, middle, and high school students. Most of the subjects thought drinking milk is important for their health but only 50.2% of them were actually drinking milk everyday. In particular, the frequency of consuming milk at home was significantly lower in students being provided with school milk program than the students without school milk program. Most of the students commonly drunk plain milk rather than flavored milk, however actually they preferred flavored milk to plain milk. The frequency of consuming milk and the degree of satisfaction for milk being served in the school milk program was lowered. The major reason of disliking milk being served in school milk program was ‘poor taste’. And to promote milk consumption in school milk program, the subjects anticipated the serving of various milk and dairy products, flavored milk and yogurt etc. Thus, it was suggested that to improve the school milk program and promote milk consumption among the students, serving various products that can satisfy their preferences and demands and the proper food guide and education on nutrition are called for.

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Adaptive Multiuser MIMO Transmission in Wireless Systems with Cooperating Cells (셀간 협력 통신 기반의 적응적 다중 사용자 다중 안테나 전송 기법)

  • Lee, Jin-Hee;Ko, Young-Chai
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2011
  • In multicell wireless systems with insufficient frequency reuse, user transmission will suffer other-cell interference (OCI). Cell cooperation is an effective way to mitigate OCI and increase the system sum rate. An adaptive scheme for serving one user in each cell was proposed in [1]. In this paper, we generalize that scheme by serving two users in each cell with adaptive zeroforcing beamforming (ZF) strategies. Based on our derived statistics of the signal-to-noise plus interference ratios, we choose the scheme to maximize the total ergodic sum-rate based on user locations. Through the numerical examples, we show that the total system sum rate can be improved by selecting appropriate transmitting strategy adaptively. As a result, our proposed system can explore spatial multiplexing gain without additional power and thus improves total system sum rate significantly.