• Title, Summary, Keyword: senescence

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Cellular senescence: a promising strategy for cancer therapy

  • Lee, Seongju;Lee, Jae-Seon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2019
  • Cellular senescence, a permanent state of cell cycle arrest, is believed to have originally evolved to limit the proliferation of old or damaged cells. However, it has been recently shown that cellular senescence is a physiological and pathological program contributing to embryogenesis, immune response, and wound repair, as well as aging and age-related diseases. Unlike replicative senescence associated with telomere attrition, premature senescence rapidly occurs in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic insults. Thus, cellular senescence has also been considered suppressive mechanism of tumorigenesis. Current studies have revealed that therapy-induced senescence (TIS), a type of senescence caused by traditional cancer therapy, could play a critical role in cancer treatment. In this review, we outline the key features and the molecular pathways of cellular senescence. Better understanding of cellular senescence will provide insights into the development of powerful strategies to control cellular senescence for therapeutic benefit. Lastly, we discuss existing strategies for the induction of cancer cell senescence to improve efficacy of anticancer therapy.

Exploiting tumor cell senescence in anticancer therapy

  • Lee, Minyoung;Lee, Jae-Seon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2014
  • Cellular senescence is a physiological process of irreversible cell-cycle arrest that contributes to various physiological and pathological processes of aging. Whereas replicative senescence is associated with telomere attrition after repeated cell division, stress-induced premature senescence occurs in response to aberrant oncogenic signaling, oxidative stress, and DNA damage which is independent of telomere dysfunction. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence provides a barrier to tumorigenesis and is a determinant of the outcome of cancer treatment. However, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which contributes to multiple facets of senescent cancer cells, may influence both cancer-inhibitory and cancer-promoting mechanisms of neighboring cells. Conventional treatments, such as chemo- and radiotherapies, preferentially induce premature senescence instead of apoptosis in the appropriate cellular context. In addition, treatment-induced premature senescence could compensate for resistance to apoptosis via alternative signaling pathways. Therefore, we believe that an intensive effort to understand cancer cell senescence could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for improving the efficacy of anticancer therapies. This review summarizes the current understanding of molecular mechanisms, functions, and clinical applications of cellular senescence for anticancer therapy.

Autophagy Is Pro-Senescence When Seen in Close-Up, but Anti-Senescence in Long-Shot

  • Kwon, Yoojin;Kim, Ji Wook;Jeoung, Jo Ae;Kim, Mi-Sung;Kang, Chanhee
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.607-612
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    • 2017
  • When mammalian cells and animals face a variety of internal or external stresses, they need to make homeostatic changes so as to cope with various stresses. To this end, mammalian cells are equipped with two critical stress responses, autophagy and cellular senescence. Autophagy and cellular senescence share a number of stimuli including telomere shortening, DNA damage, oncogenic stress and oxidative stress, suggesting their intimate relationship. Autophagy is originally thought to suppress cellular senescence by removing damaged macromolecules or organelles, yet recent studies also indicated that autophagy promotes cellular senescence by facilitating the synthesis of senescence-associated secretory proteins. These seemingly opposite roles of autophagy may reflect a complex picture of autophagic regulation on cellular senescence, including different types of autophagy or a unique spatiotemporal activation of autophagy. Thus, a better understanding of autophagy process will lead us to not only elucidate the conundrum how autophagy plays dual roles in the regulation of cellular senescence but also helps the development of new therapeutic strategies for many human diseases associated with cellular senescence. We address the pro-senescence and anti-senescence roles of autophagy while focusing on the potential mechanistic aspects of this complex relationship between autophagy and cellular senescence.

Recent Advances in Cellular Senescence, Cancer and Aging

  • Lim, Chang-Su;Judith Campisi
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2001
  • How much do we know about the biology of aging from cell culture studies Most normal somatic cells have a finite potential to divide due to a process termed cellular or replicative senescence. A growing body evidence suggests that senescence evolved to protect higher eu-karyotes, particularly mammals, from developing cancer, We now know that telomere shortening due to the biochemistry of DNA replication, induces replicative senescence in human cells. How-ever in rodent cells, replicative senescence occurs despite very long telomeres. Recent findings suggest that replicative senescence is just the tip of the iceberg of a more general process termed cellular senescence. It appears that cellular senescence is a response to potentially oncogenic in-sults, including oxidative damage. In young orgainsms, growth arrest by cell senescence sup-presses tumor development, but later in life, due to the accumulation of senescent cells which se-cret factors that can disrupt tissues during aging, cellular senescence promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, antagonistic pleiotropy may explain, if not in whole the apparently paradoxical effects of cellular senescence, though this still remains an open question.

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Juxtacrine regulation of cellular senescence

  • Narita, Masashi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.3-4
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    • 2019
  • Cellular senescence is defined as a state of stable cell cycle exit in response to various stimuli, which include both cytotoxic stress and physiological cues. In addition to the core non-proliferative aspect, senescence is associated with diverse functionalities, which contribute to the role of senescence in a wide range of pathological and physiological processes. Such functionality is often mediated by the capability of senescent cells to communicate with their surroundings. Emerging evidence suggests that senescence is not a single entity, but a dynamic and heterogeneous collective phenotype. Understanding the diverse nature of senescence should provide insights into the complexity of tissue homeostasis and its disruption, such as in aging and tumorigenesis.

Identification of Three Genetic Loci Required for Progression of Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

  • Oh, Sung-Aeong;Park, Joon-Hyun;Lee, Gyu-In;Paek, Kyung-Hee;Park, Soon-Ki;Nam, Hong-Gil
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 1996
  • Three key genetic loci required for proper progression of leaf senescence were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutations in these loci cause delay in all senescence symptoms examined, including both anabolic and catabolic activities, during natural senescence and upon artificial senescence induced by various senescence-inducing treatments. The result provides a decisive evidence that leaf senescence is a genetically programmed phenomenon controlled by several monogenic loci in Arabidopsis thaliana. The result further indicates that leaf senescence caused by various senescence signals occurs, at least in part, through common pathways in Arabidopsis and that the threed genetic loci function at the common steps.

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Molecular Genetic Analysis of Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

  • Woo, Hye-Ryun;Lee, Ung;Cho, Sung-Whan;Lim, Pyung-Ok;Nam, Hong-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 2000
  • Senescence is a sequence of biochemical and physiological events that lead to death of a cell, organ, or whole organism. Senescence is now clearly regarded as a genetically determined and evolutionarilly acquired developmental process comprising the final stage of development. However, in spite of the biological and practical importance, genetic mechanism of senescence has been very limited. Through forward and reverse genetic approaches, we are trying to reveal the molecular and genetic mechanism of senescence in plants, employing leaf organs of Arabidopsis as a model system. Using forward genetic approach, we have initially isolated several delayed senescence mutants either from T-DNA insertional lines or chemical-mutagenized lines. In the case of ore 4 and ore 9 mutants, the mutated genes were identified. The recent progress on characterization of mutants and identification of the mutated genes will be reported. We are also screening mutations from other various sources of mutant pools, such as activation tagging lines and promoter trap lines. Two dominant senescence-delayed mutants were isolated from the activation tagging pool. Cloning of the genes responsible for this phenotype is in progress. For reverse genetic approach, the genes that induced during leaf senescence were first isolated by differential screening method. We are currently using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization, designed to enrich a cDNA library for rare differentially expressed transcripts. Using this method, we have identified over 35 new sequences that are upregulated at leaf senescence stage. We are investigating the function of these novel genes by systemically generating antisense lines.

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Replicative Senescence in Cellular Aging and Oxidative Stress (세포 노화에 있어서 복제 세네센스 현상과 산화적 스트레스의 영향)

  • 박영철
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 2003
  • Explanted mammalian cells perform a limited number of cell division in vitro and than are arrested in a state known as replicative senescence. Such cells are irreversibly blocked, mostly in the G1 phase of cell cycle, and are no longer sensitive to growth factor stimulation. Thus replicative senescence is defined as a permanent and irreversible loss of replicative potential of cells. For this characteristic, replicative senescence seems to evolve to protect mammalian organism from cancer. However, senescence also contributes to aging. It seems to decrease with age of the cell donor and, as a form of cell senescence, is thought to underlie the aging process. Extensive evidence supports the idea that progressive telomere loss contributes to the phenomenon of cell senescence. Telomeres are repetitive structures of the sequence (TTAGGG)n at the ends of linear chromosomes. It has been shown that the average length of telomere repeats in human somatic cells decreases by 30∼200 bp with each cell division. It is generally believed that when telomeres reach a critical length, a signal is activated to initiate the senescent program. This has given rise to the hypothesis that telomeres act as mitotic clocks to regulate lifespan. One proposes that cumulative oxidative stress, mainly reactive oxygen species generated from mitochondria, may mainly cause telomere shortening, accelerating aging. Here, the biological importance and mechanism of replicative senescence were briefly reviewed. Also it was summarized that how oxidative stress affects replicative senescence and telomere shortening.

Nicotinamide Exerts Antioxidative Effects on Senescent Cells

  • Kwak, Ju Yeon;Ham, Hyun Joo;Kim, Cheol Min;Hwang, Eun Seong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.229-235
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    • 2015
  • Nicotinamide (NAM) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in primary human fibroblasts, thereby extending their replicative lifespan when added to the medium during long-term cultivation. Based on this finding, NAM is hypothesized to affect cellular senescence progression by keeping ROS accumulation low. In the current study, we asked whether NAM is indeed able to reduce ROS levels and senescence phenotypes in cells undergoing senescence progression and those already in senescence. We employed two different cellular models: MCF-7 cells undergoing senescence progression and human fibroblasts in a state of replicative senescence. In both models, NAM treatment substantially decreased ROS levels. In addition, NAM attenuated the expression of the assessed senescence phenotypes, excluding irreversible growth arrest. N-acetyl cysteine, a potent ROS scavenger, did not have comparable effects in the tested cell types. These data show that NAM has potent antioxidative as well as anti-senescent effects. Moreover, these findings suggest that NAM can reduce cellular deterioration caused by oxidative damage in postmitotic cells in vivo.

Melatonin Rescues Human Dental Pulp Cells from Premature Senescence Induced by H2O2

  • Park, Sera;Bak, Kwang Je;Ok, Chang Youp;Park, Hyun-Joo;Jang, Hye-Ock;Bae, Moon-Kyoung;Bae, Soo-Kyung
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2017
  • Although anti-aging activities of melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, have been reported in senescence-accelerated mouse models and several types of cells, its impact and mechanism on the senescence of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) remains unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of melatonin on cellular premature senescence of HDPCs. Here, we found that melatonin markedly inhibited senescent characteristics of HDPCs after exposure to hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$), including the increase in senescence-associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase (SA-${\beta}$-gal)-positive HDPCs and the upregulation of p21 protein, an indicator for senescence. In addition, as melatonin attenuated $H_2O_2$-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), while selective inhibition of JNK activity with SP600125 significantly attenuated $H_2O_2$-induced increase in SA-beta-gal activity. Results reveal that melatonin antagonizes premature senescence of HDPCs via JNK pathway. Thus, melatonin may have therapeutic potential to prevent stress-induced premature senescence, possibly correlated with development of dental pulp diseases, and to maintain oral health across the life span.