• Title, Summary, Keyword: semi-fermented tea

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Isolation of Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from Semi-fermented Tea and Its Effects on Oxidative Stress

  • Chung, Ha-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.49-53
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    • 2009
  • Antioxidative activities of major pentacyclic terpenoids from the semi-fermented tea of Camellia sinensis L. were investigated. The free radical scavenging activities of triterpenoids $1{\sim}3$ were examined with of DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The $IC_{50}$ of compounds 1 and 2 for DPPH radical scavenging activities were 23.1 and $37.2{\mu}g/mL$ respectively, and for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were 37.2 and $35.2{\mu}g/mL$, respectively. According to this result, compounds 1 or 2 in semi-fermented tea could be the candidates for bioactive material having antioxidant activity.

Antimicrobial Activity of Korean Wild Tea Extract According to the Degree of Fermentation (발효정도에 따른 국내산 야생차 추출물의 항균활성)

  • Choi, Ok-Ja;Rhee, Haeng-Jae;Choi, Kyeong-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.148-157
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    • 2005
  • This study was investigated to determine antimicrobial activity of the water and ethanol extracts of Korean wild green tea, semi-fermented tea, and fermented tea. Antimicrobial activity was examined against 8 kinds of several microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the water and ethanol extracts of green tea showed the most active antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis 0.2 mg/mL in Gram positive bacteria and P. fluorescens 0.3∼0.5 mg/mL in Gram negative bacteria. But the extracts did not show antimicrobial activity against lactic acid bacteria and yeast at the level of less than 1 mg/mL. Antimicrobial activity got lower as tea got more fermented. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts from green tea, semifermented tea, and fermented tea was stronger than that of water extracts. Antimicrobial activity of the water and ethanol extracts of green tea, semi-fermented tea, and fermented tea was not destroyed at 50∼121$^{\circ}C$, and pH 3∼11, which proved to be very stable when given over heat, acid & alkali treatment. The ethanol extract of green tea, semi-fermented tea, and fermented tea was fractionated in the order of hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and water fraction. The highest antimicrobial activity was found in the water fraction, but not found in hexane fraction, while antimicrobial activity of fermented tea was not found in ether fraction.

The Physicochemical Properties of Korean Wild Teas (Green tea, Semi-fermented tea, and Black tea) According to Degree of Fermentation (발효정도에 따른 국내산 야생차(녹차, 반발효차, 홍차)의 이화학적 특성)

  • 최옥자;최경희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2003
  • The present study was conducted to know the physicochemical properties of non fermented tea and fermented teas with the fermented time of 0 hr (non fermented tea), 10 hrs, 17 hrs (semi-fermented tea), 24 hrs (black tea), respectively The moisture content of non fermented tea, semi fermented, and black tea was 3.01% ~ 3.29%. The contents of reducing sugar, crude lipid, crude protein were increased and that of ascorbic acid was decresed with fermentation. The total contents of those increased as tea was more fermented. The contents of the citric acid and the malic acid were increased with fermentation, but the content of the succinic acid was decreased. However, the total content of organic acid was generally increased with fermentation. The total content of the amino acid was increased with fermentation. In non fermented tea, Thr+theanine, the Asp, and the Glu, were determined in order of content. In semi-fermented tea and black tea, Ter+theanine, Glu, and Asp were determined in order of content. The rate of essential amino acid in the total content of free amino acid was increased with fermentation. The content of theanine was 1.21% in non fermented tea and 1.50% in black tea. The contents of theanine were increased as tea was more fermented. The content of caffein was 3.57% in non fermented tea and 3.55 ~ 3.60% in semi-fermented tea and black tea. These results were inconsistent in the content of caffein. Five kinds of catechin, that is, cathechin, epigallocathechin, epicathechin, epigallocathechin gallate, and epicathechin gallate were extracted. The content of catechin was 14.18% in non fermented tea, but decreased sharply as tea was more fermented.

Anti-allergic Effects of Castanea crenata Leaf Tea (밤나무 잎차(茶)의 항알레르기 효과)

  • Choi, Ok-Beom;Kim, Kyung-Man;Yoo, Gyurng-Soo;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.468-471
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    • 1998
  • Regarding the characterstics of allergic diseases, preventive and continuous treatment is desirable, and tea would be the one of the best functional food formula for it. Here we report the development of tea processing method for the leaves of Castnaea crenata. Two forms of Castnaea crenata leaf tea were prepared, non-fermented steaming tea and semi-fermented rolling tea. Anti-allergic actions of Castanea crenata leaf tea were asessed by testing their effects on the degranulation of mast cells. For this, hexosaminidase release (degranulation marker) from RBL-2H3 cells (mast cell line) was used. At the concentration of $300\;{\mu}g/mL$ of the water extract, the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells were inhibited 50.4% and 35.4% by non-fermented steaming tea and semi-fermented rolling tea, respectively. These results suggest that the tea processing method we developed could provide a valuable resource for the treatment of allergic diseases.

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The Nitrite-Scavenging Effects by Component of Oolong and Black Tea Extracts (오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 아질산염 분해작용)

  • 안철우;여생규
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 1996
  • The present study was conducted to elucidate the functional property of tea extract obtained from tea extracts, semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea). Tea extracts exhibited remarkable nitrite-scavenging actions, and the action increased with the increased of the amount of tea extracts. The nitrite-scavenging actionof tea extracts showed pH dependent, highest at pH 1.2 and lowest at pH6.0. The nitrite-scavenging rate in tea extracts/amine/nitrite systems proved to be faster than that in amine/nitrite systems. To screen the nitrite-scavenging factors, tea extracts were fractionated into water-soluble, methanol-soluble, methanol-precipitate and crude catechin fraction. Among these fractions of tea extracts, the crude catechin fraction possessed greater nitrite-scavenging action than the other fractions. The nitrite-scavenging action of tea extracts increased with the contents of total phenols and an absorbance at 280nm, nitrite-scavenging factors were supposed to be and catechins in tea polyphenol compounds.

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Volatile Aroma Components of Korean Semi-fermented Teas (국내산 반발효차의 향기성분)

  • Choi, Sung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.529-533
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    • 2001
  • This study was carried out to characterize aroma of semi-fermented teas made traditionally in Korea temple. These teas had favorable floral aroma. The extraction of aroma compounds was accomplished by a simultaneous distillation and extraction method using a Likens and Nickerson's extraction apparatus. The concentrated extract was analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MSD. The main aroma components of these teas were 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, (E)-2-hexenal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol, geraniol, ${\beta}-ionone$ and nerolidol. Particularly, the concentration of phenylacetaldehyde was much higher concentration in semi-fermented teas than in green tea prepared from same place. The GC patterns of the aroma components in the semi-fermented teas were slightly different, though they were prepared in same place.

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Inhibitin of Xanthine Oxidase by Tea Extracts from Green Tea, Oolong Tea and Black Tea (녹차, 오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 Xanthine Oxidase 억제작용)

  • 김선봉;여생규;박영범;김인수;박영호
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.154-159
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    • 1995
  • Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by tea extracts obtained from non-fermented tea(steamed green tea and roasted green tea), semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea) were investigated. The crude catechin fraciton had a hgher inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase, and the effect was increased with the addition of tea extracts. Their inhibitory effect were hardly influenced until extracted three times with hot water. According to the investigation of catechins in the crude catechin fraction obtained from tea extracts, (-)-epicatechin-(EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate(ECg). (-)-epigallocatechin(EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate(EGCg) were 80.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg 113.5$\mu\textrm{g}$ /mg, 186.3$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 367.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in steamed green tea, and 75.6$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 114.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 193.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 381.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in roasted green tea, and 69.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 110.0$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 127.1$\mu\textrm{g}$.mg and 464.9$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in oolong tea, and 78.1$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 171.8$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg, 80.7$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg and 51.4$\mu\textrm{g}$/mg in black tea, respectively. Order of the content of these catechins was (-)-EGCg>(-)-EGC>(-)-ECg>(-)-EC in steamed green tea, roasted green tea and oolong tea, and was (-)-ECg>(-)-EGC>(-)-EC>(-)-EGCg in black tea. Also the concentration of catechins was hardly influeced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by autherntic catechins was hardly influenced until extracted three times. The inhibition ratio of xanthine oxidase by authentic catechins was 94.9% and 87.6% by addition of 5.0$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of (-)-EGCg and (-)-ECg, respectively. the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase were supposed to be due to (-)-ECg and (-)-EGCg in tea polyphenol compounds.

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The Sensory Characteristics of Korean Wild Teas According to the Degree of Fermentation (발효정도에 따른 국내산 야생차의 기호적 특성)

  • 최옥자;이행재;김경수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1011-1020
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    • 2003
  • The present study was conducted to examine sensory characteristics of non-fermented tea and fermented teas with fermented times of 0 hr (green tea), 10 hrs (mild fermented tea), 17 hrs (medium fermented tea), 24 hrs (black tea), respectively. The lightness of tea powder and tea extract got lower, and the redness and the yellowness of those got higher as tea was more fermented. The result of sensory evaluation about the extracts of non fermented tea and fermented teas showed that the preference of flavor got higher in the more fermented tea but one got lower in a mild fermented tea according to temperatures, respectively. The preference of taste got higher at 60∼7$0^{\circ}C$ extracts in the green tea and got the highest at 80∼9$0^{\circ}C$ extracts in the medium fermented tea and black tea. A total of 76 flavor components was detected in non fermented tea and the total contents of those were 129.9 mg/kg. The major components were linalool, geraniol, nerolidol, benzyl alcohol, and linalool oxide. A total of 76 flavor components was detected in the mild fermented tea and total contents of those were 159.1 mg/kg. The major components were geraniol, linalool, linalool oxide, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, etc and were similar in those to the non fermented tea. A total of 79 flavor components was detected in the medium fermented tea and total contents of those were 455.6mg/kg. The major components were ethyl acetate, 3-methylbutanal, ethanol, (E)-2-hexenal, geraniol, linalooloxide. A total of 79 flavor components was detected in the Black tea and total contents of those were 680.5 mg/kg. The major components were 3-methylbutanal, ethyl acetate, geraniol, ethanol, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanal, linalooloxide. The amounts of flavor components was increased, but the amounts of aldehyde compounds was remarkably increased according to the degree of fermentation.

Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Effects of Water Extracts with Castanea crenata Leaf Tea (밤잎차(茶) 물추출물의 항산화 및 항미생물 효과)

  • Choi, Ok-Beom;Yoo, Gyurng-Soo;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.1128-1131
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    • 1999
  • Antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of the extracts of Castanea crenata leaf tea, steamed tea and semi-fermented tea were investigated. Antioxidative effects were by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)-radical scavening activity of the extracts. The effects were stronger than that of synthetic antioxidant such as BHT at the same concentration. The $SC_{50}$ value (50% radical scavening effects of $1{\times}10^{-4}$ M DPPH) of steamed tea, semi-fermented tea and BHT were 53.3 ${\mu}g/mL$, 49.9 ${\mu}g/mL$ and 101.0 ${\mu}g/mL$, respectively. The antimicrobial effects of methanol extracts (8 mg, 20 mg) of 0.2 g and 0.5 g. eq. of Castanea crenata leaf tea were stronger than those of 0.65 mg of benzoic acid, against gram(+) bacteria such as S. aureus, S. epidermidis, M. luteus, L. mesenteroides and B. subtilis and gram(-) bacteria such as E. coli, S. typhimurium, and P. aeruginosa.

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Effects of Tea Powder with Different Fermentation Status on the Quality Characteristics of Yukwa during Storage (발효정도가 다양한 녹차의 첨가가 유과의 저장 중 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Nam;Kweon, Seok-Yim;Park, Jin-Gyu;Han, In-Jun;Song, Beom-Seok;Choi, Jong-Il;Kim, Jae-Hun;Byun, Myung-Woo;Kim, Jong-Gun;Lee, Ju-Woon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.367-372
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    • 2008
  • Yukwa were added with non-fermented tea (Bucho-cha and Okro-cha), semi-fermented tea (Ooreung-cha), and fermented tea (black tea) to investigate the effect of different kinds of tea powder on quality characteristics of Yukwa during storage. Yukwa samples were used for analysis such as crude lipid, moisture, texture, antioxidative property (TBA value), and sensory test. There were no significant differences on crude lipid, moisture, and texture analysis. Green tea powder treatment showed strong antioxidant activity. In particular, antioxidant property of non-fermented tea exhibited a higher antioxidative effect than that of the other samples. Sensory evaluation showed that sensory scores of samples added with non-fermented tea were significantly higher than the other samples, indicating that the addition with 0.1% of non-fermented tea powder could contribute to the improvement of quality and shelf-life of Yukwa during storage.