• Title, Summary, Keyword: selective removal

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Spent SCR Catalyst Leach Liquor Processed for Valuable Metals Extraction by Solvent Extraction Technique (SCR 폐촉매 침출액으로부터 용매추출법에 의한 유가금속의 추출)

  • Sola, Ana Belen Cueva;Jeon, Jong-Hyuk;Lee, Jin-Young;Parhi, Pankaj Kumar;Jyothi, Rajesh Kumar
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2020
  • Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been a promising technology to reduce the air pollution caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) in several industries. The consumption of SCR catalysts increases every year as technology evolves, however those have a limited lifespan and usually end up in landfills after they deactivate. Currently, the most widely used catalyst for and stationary applications is V2O5-WO3/TiO2 which can contain around 50% wt V2O5 and 7-10% wt of WO3. The vast uses for both vanadium and tungsten and the worldwide interest in recycling methods that allow for the extraction of metals from secondary sources represent the major motivation for this research. The extraction time, pH dependency, extraction concentration studies were carried out using Aliquat 336 in exxol D80 as the extractant. It was determined that to optimize the extraction of both metals 30min of contact time with an organic phase containing 0.5mol/L of Aliquat 336 are needed at a slightly acidic pH (~5.0). In addition, counter McCabe-Thiele studies allowed us to determine that one stage is necessary for the removal of 99% of vanadium while 2 stages are necessary for the extraction of tungsten and counter current simulations proved that the theoretical approach was correct.

Development of Water-Resistant O/W Emulsion-Typed Sunscreening Cosmetics through Triblock Polymeric Surfactant-Mediated Re-emulsification Inhibition (삼중블록 고분자 계면활성제의 재유화 억제 기능을 이용한 지속내수성 O/W 에멀젼형 자외선 차단용 화장품 개발)

  • Lee, Ji Hyun;Hong, Sung Yun;Lee, Jin Yong;An, So Youn;Lee, Hyo Jin;Kim, Sung Yong;Lee, Jun Bae;Kim, Jin Woong;Shin, Kyounghee
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.199-208
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    • 2019
  • This study reports water-resistant oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-based sunscreening formulations prepared using a poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(${\varepsilon}$-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG) triblock polymeric surfactant. As a result of a variety of outdoor recreational activities such as swimming and hiking, consumer needs for development of advanced water-resistant sunscreen formulations are increasing. Water-resistant sunscreens are mostly based on water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions, because they should not be wiped off by water or sweat. However, the W/O emulsion formulations have a disadvantage in that the feeling of use is oily and difficult to remove. On the other hand, the O/W emulsion formulations are excellent in achieving the better skin feel as well as the easier removal. However, it is difficult to provide the O/W emulsion formulations with the water-repelling performance, since re-emulsification likely occurs upon getting touch with water. To solve this problem, this study proposes a O/W emulsion-based sunscreen formulation, a triblock polymeric surfactant having relatively high interfacial tension HLB value (~ 10). This allows the sunscreen formulations to exhibit the improved water repellence function by preventing their re-emulsification. The sunscreen formation system prepared in this study would be useful for diversification of functional sunscreen products, taking advantages of its excellent emulsion stability, UV protection performance, long lasting water-resistant function and selective cleansing effect with only foam cleanser.

Development of Practical Advanced Oxidation Treatment System for Decontamination of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvent (TCE, PCE) : Phase I (염소계 화합물(TCE, PCE)로 오염된 토양 및 지하수 처리를 위한 실용적 고도산화처리시스템 개발 (I))

  • Sohn, Seok-Gyu;Lee, Jong-Yeol;Jung, Jae-Sung;Lee, Hong-Kyun;Kong, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.105-114
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    • 2007
  • The most advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are based on reactivity of strong and non-selective oxidants such as hydroxyl radical (${\cdot}OH$). Decomposition of typical DNAPL chlorinated compounds (TCE, PCE) using various advanced oxidation processes ($UV/Fe^{3+}$-chelating agent/$H_2O_2$ process, $UV/H_2O_2$ process) was approached to develop appropriate methods treating chlorinated compound (TCE, PCE) for further field application. $UV/H_2O_2$ oxidation system was most efficient for degrading TCE and PCE at neutral pH and the system could remove 99.92% of TCE after 150 min reaction time at pH 6($[H_2O_2]$ = 147 mM, UVdose = 17.4 kwh/L) and degrade 99.99% of PCE within 120 min ($[H_2O_2]$ = 29.4 mM, UVdose = 52.2 kwh/L). Whereas, $UV/Fe^{3+}$-chelating agent/$H_2O_2$ system removed TCE and PCE ca. > 90% (UVdose = 34.8 kwh/L, $[Fe^{3+}]$ = 0.1 mM, [Oxalate] = 0.6 mM, $[H_2O_2]$ = 147 mM) and 98% after 6hrs (UVdose = 17.4 kwh/L, $[Fe^{3+}]$ = 0.1 mM, [Oxalate] = 0.6 mM, $[H_2O_2]$ = 29.4 mM), respectively. We improved the reproduction system with addition of UV light to modified Fenton reaction by increasing reduction rate of $Fe^{3+}$ to $Fe^{2+}$. We expect that the system save the treatment time and improve the removal efficiencies. Moreover, we expect the activity of low molecular organic compounds such as acetate or oxalate be effective for maintaining pH condition as neutral. This oxidation system could be an economical, environmental friendly, and practical treatment process since the organic compounds and iron minerals exist in nature soil conditions.

Genetic Monomorphism of the Natural Ilex cornuta Community at the Northern Range Limit in Buan, Jeollanam-do in Korea Revealed by AFLP Markers (AFLP 표지자에서 나타난 전라남도 부안의 북방한계지에 자생하는 호랑가시나무 군락의 유전적 단형성)

  • Hong, Kyung Nak;Park, Yu Jin;Lee, Jei Wan;Kim, Young Mi
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.104 no.2
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 2015
  • Individuals in the population under a particular environmental condition influencing recurrently for a long time could locally adapted and local adaptation is of a fundamental importance in a breeding program, conservation activities of genetic resources or evolutionary biology. Plants at northern range limits have higher probability of expressing an adaptative genetic trait. The natural community at the northern range limit of Ilex cornuta (Chinese holly) in Buan, Jeollanam-do in Korea was composed of adults of 744 and seedlings of 211 (hereafter Community) and is designated as the Korean Natural Monument (No. 122) by the law. At two adjacent areas to Community, 85 (hereafter Plantation I) and 27 hollies (hereafter Plantation II) were planted respectively for preparations of the next generation. Eighty-five trees were sampled for genetic analysis in the three groups. Fifty-two (36%) of the total 143 amplicons were polymorphic from four AFLP primer combinations. A total of thirteen genotypes was identified and just one genotype was for 52 trees of Community. Seven and five genotypes were shown for Plantation I and II, respectively. There was no identical genotype between Community and Plantation (I or II) or between two plantation groups. Number of private loci was 2 for Community, 6 for Plantation I and 4 for Plantation II. We presumed their genetic backgrounds were quite different with one another and the plantation groups were made independently because they were different not only the genetic compositions but also their ages. Considering the genetic monomorphism by AFLP markers, observations of only male trees and asexual propagation as layerage or cuttage, the hollies in Community might be a genet by root suckering from a single male tree, not the results of selective removal of female trees for ornamental use in the past.

Disinfection of Fusarium-infected Rice Seeds by Prochloraz and Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide

  • Jeon, Young-ah;Lee, Young-yi;Lee, Ho-sun;Sung, Jung-sook;Lee, Seokyoung
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.25-25
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    • 2014
  • Three species of Fusarium, F. fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, are known to be associated with bakanae disease of rice [1, 2]. F. fujikuroi infects rice flowers and survive in endosperm and embryo of the seeds. Infected seed is an important source of primary inoculum of pathogens [3]. Seeds of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Boramchan) collected from bakanae-infected field were found to be 96% infected with Fusarium sp., 52% with F. fujikuroi, 42% with F. verticillioides, and 12% with F. proliferatum as determined by incubation method and species-specific PCR assays. F. fujikuroi was detected at lemma/palea, endosperm and embryo whereas F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were recovered only from lemma/palea by means of component plating test. Seed disinfection methods have been developed to control bakanae disease and prochloraz has been most widely used for rice seeds. Two chemicals formulated with prochloraz (PC 1) and prochloraz + hexaconazole (PC 2) that inhibit biosynthesis of ergosterol strongly reduced the incidence of Fusarium spp. on selective media to 4.7% and 2.0%, respectively. Disease symptoms of rice seedlings in nursery soil were alleviated by chemical treatment; seedlings with elongated leaves or wide angle between leaf and stem were strikingly reduced from 15.6 to 3.2% (PC 1) and 0 (PC 2), stem rots were reduced from 56.9 to 26.2% (PC 1) and 32.1% (PC 2), and normal seedling increased from 0.4 to 13.3% (PC 2). Prochloraz has some disadvantages and risks such as the occurrence of tolerant pathogens [4] and effects on the sterol synthesis in animals and humans [5]. For these reasons, it is necessary to develop new disinfection method that do not induce fungal tolerance and are safe to humans and animals. Chlorine dioxide ($ClO_2$), that is less toxic, produces no harmful byproducts, and has high oxidizing power, has been reported to be effective at disinfection of several phytopathogenic fungi including Colletotrichum spp. and Alternaria spp. [6]. Gaseous $ClO_2$ applied to rice seeds at a concentration of 20 ppm strongly suppressed mycelial growth of Fusarium fujikuroi, F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. The incidence of Fusarium spp. in dry seed with 8.7% seed moisture content (SMC) tended to decrease as the concentration of $ClO_2$ increased from 20 to 40 ppm. Applying 40 ppm $ClO_2$ at 90% relative humidity, incidence was reduced to 5.3% and resulted in significant reduction of disease symptoms on MS media. In nursery soil, stem rot was reduced from 56.9 to 15.4% and the number of normal seedlings increased from 0.4 to 25.5%. With water-soaked seeds (33.1% SMC) holding moisture in the endosperm and embryo, the effectiveness of disinfection using $ClO_2$ increased, even when treated with only 20 ppm for four hours. This suggests that moisture was a key element for action of $ClO_2$. Removal of the palea and lemma from seeds significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium spp. to 3.0%. Seed germination appeared to decrease slightly by water-soaking at $30^{\circ}C$ because of increased SMC and by physical damage of embryos from hulling. These results indicate that the use of gaseous $ClO_2$ was effective as a means to disinfect rice seeds infected with Fusarium spp. and that moisture around the pathogens in the seed was an important factor for the action of $ClO_2$. Further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the best conditions for complete disinfection of Fusarium spp. that infect deep site of rice seeds.

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Effects of FK224, a $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ Receptor Antagonist, on Plasma Extravasation of Neurogenic Inflammation in Rat Airways (미주 신경의 전기적 자극으로 유발된 백서의 기도내 혈장 유출에 대한 FK224의 효과)

  • Shim, Jae-Jeong;Lee, Sang-Yeub;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Park, Sang-Myun;Seo, Jeong-Kyung;Cho, Jae-Yun;In, Kwang-Ho;Yoo, Se-Hwa;Kang, Kyung-Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.744-751
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    • 1995
  • Background: Asthma is an inflammatory disease because there are many inflammatory changes in the asthmatic airways. Axon reflex mechanisms may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Sensory neuropeptides are involved in this inflammation, which is defined as neurogenic inflammation. Substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B may be main neuropeptides of neurogenic inflammation in airways. These tachykinins act on neurokinin receptors. Three types of neurokinin receptors, such as $NK_1$, $NK_2$, and $NK_3$, are currently recognized, at which substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B may be the most relevant natural agonist of neurogenic inflammation in airways. The receptor subtypes present in several tissues have been characterized on the basis of differential sensitivity to substance p, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B. Plasma extravasation and vasodilation are induced by substance p more potently than by neurokinin A, indicating NK1 receptors on endothelial cells mediate the response. But airway contraction is induced by neurokinin A more potently than by substance P, indicating the $NK_2$ receptors in airway smooth muscles. These receptors are used to evaluate the pathogenesis of brochial asthma. FK224 was identified from the fermentation products of Streptomyces violaceoniger. FK224 is a dual antagonist of both $NK_1$ and $NK_2$ receptors. Purpose: For a study of pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the effect of FK224 on plasma extravasation induced by vagal NANC electrical stimulation was evaluated in rat airway. Method: Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180~450gm were anesthetized by i.p. injection of urethane. Plasma extravasation was induced by electrical stimulation of cervical vagus NANC nerves with 5Hz, 1mA, and 5V for 2 minutes(NANC2 group) and for sham operation without nerve stimulation(control group). To evaluate the effect of FK224 on plasma extravasation in neurogenic inflammation, FK224(1mg/kg, Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide; DMSO, Sigma Co.) was injected 1 min before nerve stimulation(FK224 group). To assess plasma exudation, Evans blue dye(20mg/kg, dissolved in saline) was used as a plasma marker and was injected before nerve stimulation. After removal of intravascular dye, the evans blue dye in the tissue was extracted in formamide($37^{\circ}C$, 24h) and quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring dye absorbance at 629nm wavelength. Tissue dye content was expressed as ng of dye per mg of wet weight tissue. The amount of plasma extravasation was measured on the part of airways in each groups. Results: 1) Vagus nerve(NANC) stimulation significantly increased plasma leakage in trachea, main bronchus, and peripheral bronchus compared with control group, $14.1{\pm}1.6$ to $49.7{\pm}2.5$, $17.5{\pm}2.0$ to $38.7{\pm}2.8$, and $12.7{\pm}2.2$ to $19.1{\pm}1.6ng$ of dye per mg of tissue(mean ${\pm}$ SE), respectively(p<0.05). But there was not significantly changed in lung parenchyma(p>0.05) 2) FK224 had significant inhibitory effect upon vagal nerve stimulation-induced airway plasma leakage in any airway tissues of rat,such as trachea, main bronchus, and peripheral bronchus compared with vagus nerve stimulation group, 49%, 58%, and 70%, respectively(p<0.05). Inhibitory effect of FK224 on airway plasma leakage in neurogenic inflammation was revealed the more significant in peripheral bronchus, but no significant in lung parenchyma. Conclusion: These results suggest that FK224 is a selective NK receptor antagonist which effectively inhibits airway plasma leakage induced by the endogenous neurotransmitters relased by neurogenic inflammation in rat airway. Tachykinin receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of brochial asthma.

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