• Title, Summary, Keyword: seismic attribute analysis

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Seismic Attribute Analysis of the Indicators for the Occurrence of Gas Hydrate in the Northwestern Area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 북서지역 가스하이드레이트 부존 지시자의 탄성파 속성 분석)

  • Kim, Kyoung Jin;Yi, Bo Yeon;Kang, Nyeon Keon;Yoo, Dong Geun;Shin, Kook Sun;Cho, Young Ho
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.216-230
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    • 2014
  • Based on the interpretation of 3D seismic profiles acquired in the northwestern area of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, the shallow sediments consist of five seismic units separated by regional reflectors. An anticline is present in the study area that documents activity of many faults. Bottom simulating reflectors are characterized by high RMS amplitude. Acoustic blanking with low RMS amplitude is distinctively recognized in the gas hydrate stability zone. Seismic attribute analysis shows that if gas hydrates are underlain by free gas, the high reflection strength and the low instantaneous frequency are displayed below the boundary between them. Whereas, if not, the reflection strength is low and instantaneous frequency is high continuously below the gas hydrate zone. Based on the spectral decomposition of the bottom simulating reflector, the high envelope at the specific high frequency range indicates the generation of the tuning effect due to the lower free gas content. Four models for the occurrence of the gas hydrate are suggested considering the slope of sedimentary layers as well as the presence of gas hydrate or free gas.

Integrated approach using well data and seismic attributes for reservoir characterization

  • Kim Ji- Yeong;Lim Jong-Se;Shin Sung-Ryul
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.723-730
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    • 2003
  • In general, well log and core data have been utilized for reservoir characterization. These well data can provide valuable information on reservoir properties with high vertical resolution at well locations. While the seismic surveys cover large areas of field but give only indirect features about reservoir properties. Therefore it is possible to estimate the reservoir properties guided by seismic data on entire area if a relationship of seismic data and well data can be defined. Seismic attributes calculated from seismic surveys contain the particular reservoir features, so that they should be extracted and used properly according to the purpose of study. The method to select the suitable seismic attributes among enormous ones is needed. The stepwise regression and fuzzy curve analysis based on fuzzy logics are used for selecting the best attributes. The relationship can be utilized to estimate reservoir properties derived from seismic attributes. This methodology is applied to a synthetic seismogram and a sonic log acquired from velocity model. Seismic attributes calculated from the seismic data are reflection strength, instantaneous phase, instantaneous frequency and pseudo sonic logging data as well as seismic trace. The fuzzy curve analysis is used for choosing the best seismic attributes compared to sonic log as well data, so that seismic trace, reflection strength, instantaneous frequency, and pseudo sonic logging data are selected. The relationship between the seismic attribute and well data is found out by the statistical regression method and estimates the reliable well data at a specific field location derived from only seismic attributes. For a future work in this study, the methodology should be checked an applicability of the real fields with more complex and various reservoir features.

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Complex Analyses for Gas Hydrate Seismic Reflection Data (가스하이드레이트 탄성파 자료의 복소분석)

  • Hien, D.H.;Jang, Seong-Hyung;Kim, Young-Wan;Suh, Sang-Yong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.208-212
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    • 2008
  • Gas hydrate has been paid attention to study for because: 1) it can be considered as a new energy resources; 2) one of reasons causing the instability of sea floor slope and 3) a factor to the climate change. Bottom simulating reflector (BSR) defined as seismic boundary between the gas hydrate and free gas zone has been considered as the most common evidence in the seismic reflection data for the gas hydrate exploration. BSR has several characteristics such as parallel to the sea bottom, high amplitude, reducing interval velocity between above and below BSR and reversing phase to the sea bottom. Moreover, instantaneous attribute properties such as amplitude envelop, instantaneous frequency, phase and first derivative of amplitude of seismic data from the complex analysis could be used to analyze properties of BSR those would be added to the certain properties of BSR in order to effectively find out the existence of BSR of the gas hydrate stability zone. The output of conventional seismic data processing for gas hydrate data set in Ulleung basin in the East sea of Korea will be used for complex analyses to indicate better BSR in the seismic reflection data. This result of this analysis implies that the BSR of the analyzed seismic profile is clearly located at the two ways time (TWT) of around 3.1 seconds.

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Amplitude Variation Analysis for Deep Sea Seismic Data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 심해 탄성파 탐사자료 진폭변화분석)

  • Cheong, Snons;Kim, Youngjun;Kim, Byungyup;Koo, NamHyung;Lee, Ho-Young
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2013
  • The amplitude variation with offset of seismic data can detect fluids in the sediment and resolve the petrophysical properties of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. We analyzed and described the amplitude variation in deep sea seismic data obtained from the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. By inspecting seismic CDP-offset and CDP-angle gathers which show a bright reflection event, we decided a target zone for amplitude variation analysis. From the seismic angle gather at the middle of Ulleung Basin, we recognized amplitude increase or decrease versus offset on the intercept-gradient curve. Using the product attribute and Poisson's ratio change attribute computed in terms of intercept with gradient, the top and the base of gas saturated sediments were described. The area of amplitude variation suggestive of the presence of gas saturated sediments is shown at the depth of 3 s traveltime. Anomalous features of seismic amplitude in the Ulleung Basin were classified by the crossplot of intercept and gradient. The background trend of crossplot between intercept and gradient shows an inverse proportional relation that is common for wet sediments. Anomalous amplitudes of Class III fall into the first and the third quadrants on crossplots. We inferred regional gas/water saturated area with the horizontal dimension of 150 m in the Ulleung Basin by cross-section with respect to cross-plot anomaly.

Aquifer Characterization Using Seismic Data on the Aquistore CCS Project, Canada (캐나다 아퀴스토어 탄성파자료를 통한 이산화탄소 지중저장 연구지역 대수층 특성화)

  • Cheong, Snons;Kim, Byoung-Yeop;Shinn, Young Jae;Lee, Ho-Yong;Park, Myung-Ho
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2014
  • The Aquistore project is the world's first commercial capture, transportation, utilization and storage project of post-combustion $CO_2$ from a coal-fired thermo electric power plant, and the proposed storage is a saline aquifer at a depth of about 3,500 m. Deep saline aquifer, compared to hydrocarbon reservoir, provides the great volumetric potential for storage of $CO_2$ anywhere in the world, therefore the research results from the project may be exported globally to other sites. Geological $CO_2$ storage characterization for saline aquifer instead of hydrocarbon reservoir needs to estimate the geophysical properties of subsurface geology. This study calculated the geophysical property of water-saturated formation by applying amplitude variation analysis developed from oil and gas exploration. We correlated horizon tops at the well logs to seismic traveltime of 1,815 and 1,857 ms as Winnipeg and Deadwood formations. Gradient analysis from seismic traces showed correlation coefficient of 45 - 81 % on amplitude variation with respect to incident angle. Crossplot of intercept and gradient shows the inverse proportional trend which represents typical water saturated sediments. Product attribute of intercept and gradient described the base of wet sediment. Poisson's ratio change attribute increased at the top of target area satisfying with wet sediment and decreased at the top of basement in a dry rock bed.

Generation of Pseudo Porosity Logs from Seismic Data Using a Polynomial Neural Network Method (다항식 신경망 기법을 이용한 탄성파 탐사 자료로부터의 유사공극률 검층자료 생성)

  • Choi, Jae-Won;Byun, Joong-Moo;Seol, Soon-Jee
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.665-673
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    • 2011
  • In order to estimate the hydrocarbon reserves, the porosity of the reservoir must be determined. The porosity of the area without a well is generally calculated by extrapolating the porosity logs measured at wells. However, if not only well logs but also seismic data exist on the same site, the more accurate pseudo porosity log can be obtained through artificial neural network technique by extracting the relations between the seismic data and well logs at the site. In this study, we have developed a module which creates pseudo porosity logs by using the polynomial neural network method. In order to obtain more accurate pseudo porosity logs, we selected the seismic attributes which have high correlation values in the correlation analysis between the seismic attributes and the porosity logs. Through the training procedure between selected seismic attributes and well logs, our module produces the correlation weights which can be used to generate the pseudo porosity log in the well free area. To verify the reliability and the applicability of the developed module, we have applied the module to the field data acquired from F3 Block in the North Sea and compared the results to those from the probabilistic neural network method in a commercial program. We could confirm the reliability of our module because both results showed similar trend. Moreover, since the pseudo porosity logs from polynomial neural network method are closer to the true porosity logs at the wells than those from probabilistic method, we concluded that the polynomial neural network method is effective for the data sets with insufficient wells such as F3 Block in the North Sea.

Structural damping for soil-structure interaction studies

  • Lutes, Loren D.;Sarkani, Shahram
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.107-120
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    • 1995
  • A soil-structure interaction formulation is used here which is based on consideration of the dynamics of the structure with a free, rather than a fixed, base. This approach is shown to give a quite simple procedure for coupling the dynamic characteristics of the structure to those of the foundation and soil in order to obtain a matrix formulation for the complete system. In fixed-base studies it is common to presume that each natural mode of the structure has a given fraction of critical damping, and since the interaction formulation uses a free-base model, it seems natural for this situation to assign the equal modal damping values to free-base modes. It is shown, though, that this gives a structural model which is significantly different than the one having equal modal damping in the fixed-base modes. In particular, it is found that the damping matrix resulting in equal modal damping values for free-based modes will give a very significantly smaller damping value for the fundamental distortional mode of the fixed-base structure. Ignoring this fact could lead one to attribute dynamic effects to interaction which are actually due to the choice of damping.

Baseline Survey Seismic Attribute Analysis for CO2 Monitoring on the Aquistore CCS Project, Canada (캐나다 아퀴스토어 CCS 프로젝트의 이산화탄소 모니터링을 위한 Baseline 탄성파 속성분석)

  • Cheong, Snons;Kim, Byoung-Yeop;Bae, Jaeyu
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.485-494
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    • 2013
  • $CO_2$ Monitoring, Mitigation and Verification (MMV) is the essential part in the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) project in order to assure the storage permanence economically and environmentally. In large-scale CCS projects in the world, the seismic time-lapse survey is a key technology for monitoring the behavior of injected $CO_2$. In this study, we developed a basic process procedure for 3-D seismic baseline data from the Aquistore project, Estevan, Canada. Major target formations of Aquistore CCS project are the Winnipeg and the Deadwood sandstone formations located between 1,800 and 1,900 ms in traveltime. The analysis of trace energy and similarity attributes of seismic data followed by spectral decomposition are carried out for the characterization of $CO_2$ injection zone. High trace energies are concentrated in the northern part of the survey area at 1,800 ms and in the southern part at 1,850 ms in traveltime. The sandstone dominant regions are well recognized with high reflectivity by the trace energy analysis. Similarity attributes show two structural discontinuities trending the NW-SE direction at the target depth. Spectral decomposition of 5, 20 and 40 Hz frequency contents discriminated the successive E-W depositional events at the center of the research area. Additional noise rejection and stratigraphic interpretation on the baseline data followed by applying appropriate imaging technique will be helpful to investigate the differences between baseline data and multi-vintage monitor data.

Weathering Characteristics of On-Yang Gneiss using Ground Penetrating Radar (지표투과레이다(Ground Penetrating Radar)를 이용한 온양편마암의 풍화특성 고찰)

  • Shin, Sung-Ryul;Park, Boo-Seong;Jang, Won-Il
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1999
  • We investigated the weathering characteristics of On-Yang gneiss by means of geological survey and Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR). The results of geological survey and boring show the two sets of vertical joint and horizontal joint developed by foliation which is composed of salic and melanic layers. GPR section evidently shows foliation direction and differential weathering due to discontinuity and mineral composition of metamorphic rock. The GPR section for instantaneous phase attribute based on complex trace analysis evidently shows continuity and foliation direction of metamorphic rock. The strong reflection amplitude which is derived from the banded structure of weathered rock can be incorrectly interpreted as a reflection of bedrock. The depth of rock basement should be estimated from the overall exploration result such as boring, seismic method, and electrical resistivity method.

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