• Title/Summary/Keyword: sediments

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The Resting Eggs of Marine Cladocerans in the Intertidal Sea-bottom Sediments of Gomso Bay, Korea: Distribution and Evidence of Egg Banks

  • Jo Soo-Gun;Park Jeong-Ok;Suh Hae-Lip
    • Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.126-134
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    • 2000
  • We investigated the distribution of the marine cladoceran resting eggs in the intertidal sediments of Gomso Bay, Korea and compared the data with those in the subtidal sediments. The abundance of the eggs in the top 6cm of the sediments was higher than that in the other depths. The abundances of the eggs in seaward intertidal sediments below mean sea level (MSL) were higher than those in the sediments over MSL, but were not significantly different from those in the subtidal sediments. The distribution of the resting eggs of cladocerans in the intertidal sediments was affected by the grain-size and moisture content of sediments. The results of the present study suggest that the intertidal sediments as well as the subtidal sediments are a potential egg bank which plays important roles in population dynamics of zooplankton in coastal waters, in particular, recruitment of eggs into plankton.

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A Laboratory Study for Erosional Properties of Cohesive Sediments from Mokpo Coast (목포해역 점착성 퇴적물의 침식특성에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Man-Kon;Yang, Su-Hyun;Tae, Dong-Hyeon;Hwang, Kyu-Nam
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.14-21
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to quantify the erosional parameters, such as the critical shear stress for erosion and the erosion rate coefficient for cohesive sediments from the Mokpo coast. Using Chonbuk annular flume, five erosion tests were conducted under the uniform bed condition but a different bed density respectively. Erosion test results for Mokpo sediments have shown increases in the range of $0.16{\sim}0.43\;N/m^2$ but decreases exponentially in the range of $272{\sim}4.64\;mg/cm^2{\cdot}hr$ for the given bed shear stress of $1.14{\sim}1.34\;g/cm^3$. The erosional parameters of Mokpo sediments are found to vary remarkably in quantity compared with those for cohesive sediments from other sites. On the whole, the value of Mokpo coast sediments appears to be similar to Kunsan sediments but smaller than Saemankeum and Okeechobee sediments. On the other hand, Mokpo sediments have been shown to be larger than Saemankeum and Okeechobee sediments but smaller than Kunsan sediments.

Distribution Characteristics of Surface Sediments and Metal Elements in Hampyong Bay, the Southwestern Coast of Korea (함평만 표층퇴적물과 금속원소들의 분포 특성)

  • Youn Seok-Tai;Koh Yeong-Koo;Ryu Sang-Ock
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.677-684
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    • 1999
  • To investigate size distribution and metallic elements of surface sediments in Hampyong Bay, the southwestern coast of Korea, sedimentological and geochemical studies on surface sediments are carried out. The surface sediments of Hampyong Bay are classified into gravel, muddy sandy gravel, gravelly muddy sand, gravelly sandy mud, mud facies in accordance with areal characteristics. The coarse sediments are distributed on the subtidal zone along the main tidal channel and southeast intertidal flat of Hampyong Bay. On the other hand, the fine sediments are dominated in northeast and west intertidal flat of Hampyong Bay. Most metallic elements except for Ba in the sediments are closely interrelated with fine sediments and mutually with each element. Ba is maybe related with sandy sediments and inversely related with carbonate contents. Normalized by Al content, the sediment do not show any remarkable metal enrichments influenced by resonable artificial or environmental factors.

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Substrate Selection for Larval Settlement and Spat Growth in the Purple Clam, Saxidomus purpuratus (Sowerby) in Laboratory Culture

  • Lee, Chang-Hoon;Han, Gi-Myung;Choi, Jin-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.65-70
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the appropriate substrate for larval settlement and spat growth in the purple clam, Saxidomus purpuratus in laboratory culture. Larvae were reared with 3 different types of sediments (mud, sand, and mixed) for 46 days in settlement experiment, and settled spats were further grown in 3 types of sediments for 36 weeks in growth experiment. The density of settled spats in muddy sediments was more than 2 times higher than those in mixed or sandy sediments. But, the average size of settled spats in muddy sediments was smaller than those in mixed or sandy sediments. After 36 weeks of growth period, growth rate decreased as shell length increased. When shell length was less than 2 mm, growth rate in mixed sediments was significantly higher than that in sandy sediments. When shell length was more than 2 mm, there was no significant difference in growth rate among different substrates. Sediment type affected growth rate only when the spats were relatively small (less than 2 mm). Muddy sediments seems better for larval settlement, while mixed sediments is best for spat growth. We suggest the laboratory procedure for enhancing seedling production of S. purpuratus.

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Sedimentary Environments, Geochemical Characteristics of Sediments and River waters, Hwasun-cheon (화순천의 퇴적환경 및 퇴적물과 하천수의 지구화학적 특성)

  • 오강호;고영구;김주용;김해경
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.881-895
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    • 2002
  • Sediments and river waters form the channel of Hwasun-cheon were studied in sedimentological size and geochemical analyses of metallic elements for the purposes of identification of depositional environments and geochemical characteristics. The sizes of sediments are assigned to pebble to coarse sand in mean size and polymodal in distribution. And the sediments are poorly to very poorly sorted and positively skewed. According to the grain size distributions of the sediments, the Hwasun-cheon belongs to gravel-bed river on the basis of the grain size distribution of the sediments. The behaviors of metallic elements in the sediments mainly depend on not grain size distribution but the geology connected with geomorphological reliefs near the stream. Contamination indices(CI) of Zn, Cu and Pb are 2.83 to 6.96 with average 4.31 in the sediments. Hwasun-cheon is assigned to general stream type in accordance with water quality of physical factors and chemical characteristics by Piper's diagram. Though meaningful values of BOD, T-N, T-P were locally depicted near Masan-ri, Hwasun-eup and Jiseok-cheon areas, artificial metal concentration do not represent in the most area of the stream. Sediments and river water are considered that the relatively more or less high metallic contents in the stream are originated from coal mine and urban area.

Distribution Characteristics of Organotin Compounds in Sediments inside Jeju Harbor of Jeju Island (제주도 제주항내 퇴적물 중의 유기주석화합물의 분포 특성)

  • Kam, Sang-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Min-Gyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.385-394
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    • 2011
  • Organotin compounds (OTs), namely butyltins compounds (BTs) and phenyltin compounds (PhTs), were measured in surface and core sediments collected in Jeju harbor. The horizontal and vertical distribution was examined and the relationship between the concentration of OTs and organic matter content and particle size distribution was also studied. BTs were detected in significant concentrations in sediments inside Jeju harbor. PhTs were detected in very low concentrations, compared to BTs. The main species in BTs and PhTs were dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), respectively. In the relationships between the concentrations of total BTs and organic carbon content, the significant correlations ($r^2$=0.4898 in surface sediments, $r^2$=0.53 in one core sediments) and no correlation in another core sediments obtained, which is estimated that the distribution of BTs in sediments were affected by several factors, such as their physicochemical properties including organic carbon content, and a tide, etc. In the relationships between the concentrations of total BTs and particle size (mud, sand, and gravel) in sediments, the concentrations of total BTs were higher in the sediments with higher mud content, indicating that higher BTs were distributed with increasing sediments of fine granules.

Geochemical Relationship Between Shore Sediments and Land Geology in Keum River Area, West Coast of Korea (한반도 서해안 금강하구 연안퇴적물과 육상지질과의 지화학적 상관관계)

  • 지정만;장윤호;오재경;이연희
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.447-467
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out geochemically and mineralogically to define how Kunsan shore sediments are related to their terrestrial source rocks in the region of Keum River Basin, western Korea. As a whole the chemical composition for major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements analysis from shore sediments and river bed sediments doesn't show the big difference, and especially rare earth elements chondrite normalized patterns are almost same. Heavy minerals of shore sediments are identified as hornblende, epidote, ilmenite, garnet, hematite, magnetite, sphene and rutile. Compared with Taean Area of Seo et al. (1998) and Byeonsan Area of Kwon et al. (1999), Kunsan shore sediments of this study area were origined mostly from Keum River Basin.

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Distributions and Textural Characters of the Bottom Sediments on the Continental shelves, Korea (한반도 대륙붕 퇴적물의 분포와 조직특성)

  • 최진용;박용안
    • 한국해양학회지
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.259-271
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    • 1993
  • The distributions of bottom sediments and the depositional processes on the continental shelves of Korean Seas are interpreted. Generally the continental shelf sediments can be classified into the sand-facies and mud-facies, showing the typical bimodal size distributions Most of the sandy and gravelly sediments on the outer shelf floor are interpreted as "relict" sediments that were deposited during the last glacial times when the sea level was lower than the present. On the other hand the muddy sediments on the inner shelf area are interpreted as "recent" sediments that are deposited under the present environment conditions. It is understood that most of the fine materials cannot escape the inner shelf area due to the strong tidal and coastal fronts, and are transported eastward from the West Sea along the southern coast of Korean Peninsula. The dark-colored muddy sediments in the Hupo Basin of the East Sea are, however, considered to be "relict" sediments. In the midshelf area fine materials are mixed with the relict coarse sediments, and some of the relict sediments are continuously reworked under the present environmental conditions forming the "palimpsest" sediments.

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Variation in Microbial Biomass and Community Structure in Sediments of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan/East Sea), as Estimated from Fatty Acid Biomarkers

  • Zhukova Natalia V.
    • Ocean Science Journal
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.145-153
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    • 2005
  • Variation in the microbial biomass and community structure found in sediment of heavily polluted bays and the adjacent unpolluted areas were examined using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Total microbial biomass and microbial community structure were responding to environmental determinants, sediment grain size, depth of sediment, and pollution due to petroleum hydrocarbons. The marker fatty acids of microeukaryotes and prokaryotes - aerobic, anaerobic, and sulfate-reducing bacteria - were detected in sediments of the areas studied. Analysis of the fatty acid profiles revealed wide variations in the community structure in sediments, depending on the extent of pollution, sediment depth, and sediment grain size. The abundance of specific bacterial fatty acids points to the dominance of prokaryotic organisms, whose composition differed among the stations. Fatty acid distributions in sediments suggest the high contribution of aerobic bacteria. Sediments of polluted sites were significantly enriched with anaerobic bacteria in comparison with clean areas. The contribution of this bacterial group increased with the depth of sediments. Anaerobic bacteria were predominantly present in muddy sediments, as evidenced from the fatty acid profiles. Relatively high concentrations of marker fatty acids of sulfate-reducing bacteria were associated with organic pollution in this site. Specific fatty acids of microeukaryotes were more abundant in surface sediments than in deeper sediment layers. Among the microeukaryotes, diatoms were an important component. Significant amounts of bacterial biomass, the predominance of bacterial biomarker fatty acids with abundance of anaerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria are indicative of a prokaryotic consortium responsive to organic pollution.

Characteristics of Particles Size and Element Distribution in the Coastal Bottom Sediments in the Vicinity of Youngkwang Nuclear Power Plant (영광 원자력발전소 주변해역 표층퇴적물의 입도와 원소분포 특성)

  • 은고요나
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2000
  • order to investigate physical characteristics and element concentrations of sediments, coastal bottom sediments were collected at 20 stations in the vicinity of Youngkwang Nuclear Power Plant. After air drying of samples in the laboratory. article size distribution was examined by Master sizer (X-350F), radio-activity by HPGe ${\gamma}$-spectrphotometer, and element concentrations by ICP-AES and AAS. According to particle size analysis , sediments are mainly composed of silt fraction weith 23% of sand, 65% of silt and 12% of clay on average. Most sediments are derived from muddy environment that silt dominates with the characteristics of 5.3${\varsigma}$ mean particle size, poorly sorted, very fine skewed and lepto-kurtic. Only two sediments are well sorted with sandy silt owing to wind, winnowing action, tide and current andits complex reactions. Element concentrations in the coastal bottom sediments are relatively high at finer sediment and show significant relationship with grain size. Index of geoaccumulation by heavy metals at every sampling station is classified as practically unpolluted. The radioactivities of the sediments were measured for 15 isotope elements, and 2 elements of K-40 and Cs-137 were detected in most sediments. The K-40 is the natural nuclide and the artificial nuclide of Cs-137 was thought to be derived from the fallout of past nuclear weapon test. The results of correlation coefficient between grain size and radioactivity shows that the activity of Cs-137 significantly increases in finer grain.

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