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Cytotoxic Activity of Biosynthesized Gold Nanoparticles with an Extract of the Red Seaweed Corallina officinalis on the MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

  • El-Kassas, Hala Yassin;El-Sheekh, Mostafa M.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.4311-4317
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    • 2014
  • Background: Nano-biotechnology is recognized as offering revolutionary changes in the field of cancer therapy and biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles are known to have a wide range of medical applications. Materials and Methods: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were biosynthesized with an aqueous extract of the red alga Corallina officinalis, used as a reducing and stabilizing agent. GNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis (EDX) and Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and tested for cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, considering their cytotoxicty and effects on cellular DNA. Results: The biosynthesized GNPs were $14.6{\pm}1nm$ in diameter. FT-IR analysis showed that the hydroxyl functional group from polyphenols and carbonyl group from proteins could assist in formation and stabilization. The GNPs showed potent cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells, causing necrosis at high concentrations while lower concentrations were without effect as indicated by DNA fragmentation assay. Conclusions: The antitumor activity of the biosynthesized GNPs from the red alga Corallina officinalis against human breast cancer cells may be due to the cytotoxic effects of the gold nanoparticles and the polyphenolcontent of the algal extract.

Effect of Yeast Fermentation on the Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Sea Tangle Water Extract (다시마 추출액의 항산화 및 항염증 활성에 대한 효모 발효의 영향)

  • Eom, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Bae-Jin;Kim, Young-Mog
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2010
  • To examine the effective use of seaweeds, sea tangle (Laminaria japonica) was extracted with water and the resultant extracts were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Four strains of S. cerevisiae were cultured in aqueous extracts from sea tangle. S. cerevisiae SC-2, which was isolated from a traditional Korean fermented food (Meju), was selected for further study based on the results of a sensory evaluation. No significant differences in proximate compositions, such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash, of the sea tangle extracts before and after fermentation were observed. The reducing sugar decreased as the fermentation period increased, and the contents of some free amino acids were also affected by S. cerevisiae SC-2 fermentation. However, the content of glutamic acid, which is a major taste compound in sea tangle extract, was not affected by fermentation for up to 36 hr by the SC-2 strain. To determine the antioxidant activity of fermented sea tangle extract (fermented for 36 hr by SC-2 strain), the radical scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide were investigated and xanthin oxidase inhibition assay was performed. The antioxidant activity increased by 8 to 35%. The greatest enhancement of antioxidant activity was seen in the superoxide radical scavenging assay with $100\;{\mu}g/mL$ of raw and fermented sea tangle extract. The anti-inflammatory activity of fermented sea tangle extract was also enhanced. The fermented sea tangle extract showed 34.2% inhibitory activity against nitric oxide synthesis versus 11.9% for raw sea tangle extract at $100\;{\mu}g/mL$ concentration. These results suggest that fermented aqueous extracts from sea tangle are a useful resources.

Development of Cosmetic Emulsion Using Blueberry Fruit Extract and Agarose from Gracilaria verrucosa (꼬시래기 유래 아가로즈와 블루베리 열매 추출물을 이용한 화장용 에멀젼 개발)

  • Choi, Moon-Hee;Kim, Yong-Woon;Kim, Mi-Sook;Shin, Hyun-Jae
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2016
  • The need for natural cosmetic ingredients has been increasing over the world nowadays. Agarose, a natural polymer from red seaweeds, has high hydrophilic character and a function of scaffolder. As skin moisturizer, agarose is adequate for percutaneous absorption. While, blueberry fruits extract possesses rich procyanidins and anthocyanins which show health benefits, anti-oxidant effect, anti-aging and anti-melanogenesis. Stability, sensory preference, skin trouble of the emulsion formula are important for cosmetic product development. In this study, we manufactured an emulsion formula for skin moisturizers using the two ingredients and tested emulsion stability and skin trouble. Total phenolic contents of the blueberry fruits extract were evaluated as well as tyrosinase inhibitory and collagenase inhibitory activities. $IC_{50}$ values of blueberry fruits extract for anti-tyrosinase and anti-collagenase activities were 168 and $112{\mu}g/mL$, respectively using gallic acid as a control ($64.8{\mu}g/mL$). The stability (pH and viscosity) of the formula containing 2% blueberry fruits extracts and 0.1% agarose was measured at five different temperatures (room temp., $25^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$, $55^{\circ}C$) under the sun light at 2 day intervals for 12 days. There has been little pH change at the different temperatures. According to the sensory evaluation, there was no significant flavor, discoloration and physical changes of the formula at $25-65^{\circ}C$. These results suggest that emulsion formula containing blueberry extract and agarose could be used as a candidate for lotion and essence products.

The Screening of Nitrite Scavenging Effect of Marine, Algae and Active Principles of Ecklonia Stolonifera

  • CHOI Jae Sue;LEE Ji Hyeon;JUNG Jee Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.909-915
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    • 1997
  • The nitrite scavenging effect of methanol extracts of marine algae were evaluated to discover new natural nitrite scavengers. Among the tested seaweeds, Ecklonia stolonifera, an edible brown algae, showed the strongest scavenging effect. The MeOH extract was then sequentially partitioned into $CH_2Cl_2,\;CH_2Cl_2$ insoluble interface, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and $H_2O$ layers. The EtOAc and n-BuOH fraction demonstrated high levels of nitrite-scavenging activity while the $CH_2Cl_2,\;CH_2Cl_2$ insoluble interface, and $H_2O$ fractions were inactive. A column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 yielded phloroglucinol and a new compound tentatively named phlorotannin A. The nitrite scavenging activity of phloroglucinol $(IC_{50}=3.9{\mu}g/ml)$ was more potent than that of L-ascorbic acid $(IC_{50}=65.0{\mu}g/ml)$. However, phlorotannin A $(IC_{50}=193.2{\mu}g/ml)$ showed only low levels of activity. From the above results, it is possible to suggest that both the MeOH extract and their fractions and isolated phloroglucinol and phlorotannin A obtained from E. stolonifera may be applicable as scavengers of nitrite, which is a precursor for the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds.

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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Enzymatic Extract from Ecklonia cava on TPA-induced Ear Skin Edema

  • Ahn, Ginnae;Park, Eun-Jin;Kim, Dae-Seung;Jeon, You-Jin;Shin, Tae-Kyun;Park, Jae-Woo;Woo, Ho-Chun;Lee, Ki-Wan;Jee, Young-Heun
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.745-750
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    • 2008
  • Anti-inflammatory potential of the enzymatic extract prepared by Kojizyme (ECK), a component of brown seaweeds Ecklonia cava (Alariaceae, Phaeophyta) in vivo was investigated. For the application of mouse ear edema model, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) was used, a topical inducer of a long-lasting inflammatory response. Our results demonstrated that ECK inhibited ear edema when topically applied to mouse ear skin. In histological evaluation, the inhibition activity of ECK on TPA-induced inflammation is similar to that of dexamethasone, although less strong. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of IL-$1{\beta}$, IFN-$\gamma$, TNF-$\alpha$, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and the immunoreactivity to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX2 expressed mainly in inflammatory cells were down-regulated by ECK. These results indicate that ECK has anti-inflammatory effects through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines and 2 inducers of inflammation in TPA-induced ear skin edema.

Inhibitory Effects of Seaweed Extracts on Growth of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia restricta

  • Choi, Jae-Suk;Lee, Bo-Bae;Joo, Chi-Un;Shin, Su-Hwa;Ha, Yu-Mi;Bae, Hee-Jung;Choi, In-Soon
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2009
  • Fifty seven species of common seaweed from the coast of Korea were screened for antifungal activity against Malassezia species. Seaweeds as a source of bioactive compounds are able to produce a great variety of secondary metabolites with different activities. There are numerous reports on the biological activities of seaweeds against human pathogens, fungi, and yeasts, but only few contain data regarding inhibitory effects against Malassezia sp., a major cause of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. To help address this paucity of information, this work was carried out to examine the antifungal effects of seaweed extracts against M. furfur and M. restricta. Of the fifty seven species of marine algae screened for their potential antifungal activity, only 17 species (29.8%) exhibited inhibitory activity. In agar disc diffusion method, the ether extracts of Corallina pilulifera, Enteromorpha linza, Laminaria japonica, Symphyocladia latiuscula and Ulva sp. showed strong antifungal activity. To identify major constituents in seaweed extracts, four selected extracts were analyzed on' a GC-MS equipped with a flame ionization detector, and compared to spectral data from databases WILEY229.LIB and NIST107.LIB. Most constituents in seaweed extracts are fatty acid-related compounds. When we evaluated any acute toxicity, the ether extracts of the selected four species were not toxic in mice. According to these results, it can be suggested that these seaweed extracts are valuable for the development of therapeutic agents in treating dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Further investigations to determine its bioactive compound(s) are currently in progress.

Antiviral Activity of Seaweed Extracts against Feline Calicivirus

  • Kim, Kyoung-Lan;Lee, Dae-Sung;Park, Mi-Sun;Eom, Sung-Hwan;Lim, Keun-Sik;Kim, Jong-Soon;Lee, Dong-Ho;Kang, Chang-Keun;Kim, Young-Mog;Lee, Myung-Suk
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.96-101
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    • 2010
  • Norovirus, which causes gastroenteritis in humans, is an important food-borne pathogen worldwide. In an effort to discover an antiviral substance against norovirus, extracts from several seaweeds were evaluated for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV), which was used as a surrogate. The methanolic extract of Undaria pinnatifida exhibited the most significant antiviral activity and virucidal efficacy against FCV. The concentrations of the extract that reduced viral replication by 50% ($EC_{50}$) and resulted in the death of 50% of the host cells ($CC_{50}$) were 0.05 mg/mL and 1.02 mg/mL, respectively. The selectivity index, calculated from the ratio of the $CC_{50}$ and $EC_{50}$ was 20.4. No FCV infection of host cells occurred following a 1-h incubation in the presence of 12.50 mg/mL U. pinnatifida extract, indicating that the virus was completely inactivated by the extract treatment. The results obtained in this study will contribute to the development of a natural antiviral substance that will prevent food-borne disease caused by norovirus.

Antimutagenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Five Kinds of Seaweeds (다섯 가지 해조류 에탄올 추출물의 항돌연변이 활성 및 암세포 성장억제 효과)

  • Kim, Sung-Ae;Kim, Jin;Woo, Mee-Kyung;Kwak, Chung-Shil;Lee, Mee-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.451-459
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    • 2005
  • The protective effects of ethanol extracts from 5 seaweeds on the mutagenic and cytotoxic damage were evaluated. They were separately extracted using ethanol from dried samples at room temperature, and freeze-dried. The inhibition effects on the mutagenicity in Salmonella assay by Ames test and cancer cell inhibitory effect in HeLa cell, MCF-7 cell and SNU -638 cell by MTT assay were assayed. Seaweed fusiforme, sea tangle and green laver showed strong inhibitory effect against 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide- or 2-anthramine-induced mutagenicities in Salmonella Typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 at the level of 2.5 mg ethanol extract per plate. Cancer cell inhibitory effect was shown with all of the seaweed extracts. Green laver, sea mustard, sea tangle and seaweed fusiforme showed strong cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cells, with inhibiting by $92\~93\%$ and $89\~92\%$, respectively. These data show that 5 seaweeds tested in this study might be potent functional foods for cancer prevention, and consumption of these seaweeds in adequate amount is recommended.

Antioxidant Effect and Tyrosinase Inhibition Activity of Seaweeds Ethanol Extracts (해조류 에탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 Tyrosinase 억제 활성)

  • Lee, Na Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.1893-1898
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    • 2013
  • Seaweeds, laver, sea mustard, kelp, and fusiformis, were prepared and investigated for its antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. The extracts yield, color, total phenolic contents, antioxidative activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity of the extract samples were measured. Hunter Lightness values of laver, sea mustard, kelp, and fusiformis extracts were 82.88, 78.53, 83.04, and 78.11, respectively. The contents of total phenolic compounds of the seaweed extracts powder, laver, sea mustard, kelp, and fusiformis were 43.23, 11.59, 10.09, and 46.59 mg/g of sample, respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the fusiformis extract was shown to be the highest value compared with other seaweed extracts. 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of laver, sea mustard, kelp, and fusiformis extracts were 258.00, 219.26, 95.77, and $1186.62{\mu}mol$ trolox equivalence per gram, respectively, at the 1,000 ppm level. TBARS value of oil emulsion, samples without extracts was higher than those of the samples prepared with laver and sea mustard extracts. The inhibition rates (%) of the mushroom tyrosinase of laver, sea mustard, kelp, and fusiformis extracts powder were 25.93, 26.32, 24.76 and 20.24% at 1,000 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that laver, sea mustard, kelp and fusiformis extracts possess biological activities such as antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibition effect.

The Anti-Oxidant and Whitening Activities of Seaweeds Mixture Fermentation Extracts (복합해조류 발효추출물의 항산화, 미백 활성)

  • Kang, Se-Won;Kim, Eun Ji;Jung, Yu-Rin;Ko, Hae Ju
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.327-334
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    • 2018
  • Studies on seaweed-based materials have been progressing steadily day by day. In this experiment, we checked the anti-oxidant, whitening, and moisturizing activities of fermented extract from a mixture of Undariapinnatifida, Saccharina japonica, and Gloiopeltis furcate. Also, Lactobacillus sakei strains of kimchi were used as the lactic acid bacteria. The physiological status of the combined seaweed extracts was also investigated. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging results showed that the inhibitory effects of the combined seaweed extracts were higher than the positive control. Furthermore, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) and Mushroom tyrosinase tests were conducted during the whitening efficacy experiment. Hence, it was confirmed that the whitening activity of fermented extracts was greater than the extracts without fermentation. HPLC analysis of fucose (an active ingredient of seaweed) was also performed and a standard method for solvent conditions was newly established. This study suggests that the composite of algae extract has potentials to be used as anti-oxidant and whitening agents in cosmetics.