• Title, Summary, Keyword: scythian costume

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The Study on the Scythian Costume II - Focused on the depicted Scythians on Persian Reliefs - (스키타이 복식 연구 II - 페르시아 왕조 부조에 묘사된 스키타이인을 중심으로 -)

  • Yi-Chang, Youngsoo
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.149-168
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    • 2016
  • The Saka were a large group of Eastern Iranian nomadic tribes on the Eurasian Steppe. The sythian figures shown on the Persian reliefs are esteemed as the only empirical material in the range of scythian costume researches. The study of the scythian culture is an important part in the research of possible connections of our cultural roots with this region. The investigation was initiated by the theory, that the korean people emigrated from the Eurasian region, so that their origin can linked to eurasian riding people. The aim of this study is to organize the scythian clothingform in a typological system. This results shall be used as the starting point for research investigating the origin of the korean clothingform. This study refers to data, which has been extracted from reviews of literature, articles and excavation data of German Archaeological Institute. Results of this study are as follows: The basic form of clothing shown on the Persian reliefs is the upperjacket with narrow sleeve and trousers. This basic form is divided into two different types. 1)The median tunicform upperjacket('Sarapis') and median narrow trousers('Anaxsirides'), which is bound with its end shoes. 2)The Scythian 'Cutaway' upperjacket that is cut from the front in the middle to the knee with the diagonal lines and relatively wide trousers. They wore high pointed hats with flaps over ears and the nape of the neck. The first median type is dated from the $6^{th}$ century BC. and the second type can be found on reliefs from the $5^{th}$ century BC. Reliefs. In the meantime appeared a mixed form, namely scythian Jacket and median trousers. From this analysis could be observed that scythian clothingform has changed by median type to the scythian type. The Scythians shown on the Persian reliefs are divided into three group according to the regions where they lived: Saka-paradraya, Saka-tigraxauda, Saka-haumavarga. Clothingstype is different depending on the group. The clothesform is also used as a good parameter to distinguish scythian groups.

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A Study on the Scythian Torque

  • Kim, Moon-Ja
    • The International Journal of Costume Culture
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.69-82
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    • 2003
  • The Scythians had a veritable passion for adornment, delighting in decorating themselves no less than their horses and belongings. Their love of jewellery was expressed at every turn. The most magnificent pieces naturally come from the royal tombs. In the area of the neck and chest the Scythian had a massive gold Torques, a symbol of power, made of gold, turquoise, cornelian coral and even amber. The entire surface of the torque, like that of many of the other artefacts, is decorated with depictions of animals. Scythian Torques are worn with the decorative terminals to the front. It was put a Torque on, grasped both terminals and placed the opening at the back of the neck. It is possible the Torque signified its wearer's religious leadership responsibilities. Scythian Torques were divided into several types according to the shape, Torque with Terminal style, Spiral style, Layers style, Crown style, Crescent-shaped pectoral style.

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A study on the Scythian costume (스키타이계(係) 복식(服飾)에 대(對)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Moon-Ja
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.204-220
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    • 2007
  • The background of Korean Ethnical Costume was originated from those northern mounted nomadic groups, which was Scythe style Costume Culture. Through the antique records and paintings of tombs bequests hereby describe the forms of Scythian Cotume (1) Headgear : There was Conical Cap(or Pointed Cap), Feathered Cap, and Crown. (2) Clothes : Both Men and Women wore Jacket as upper garment with leftsided collars, narrow sleeves to the length of the hip line. As lower garment, they wore the tight Trousers and Kungo(:窮袴)that was attached with gusset. (3) Belts and Boots : On the upper garment bound the leather Belts that was hanged a hook that was shaped of animal form at the end. Scythian Buckles was divided into six groups, animal-shaped, animal's head shaped, animal fight-shaped, rectangle-shaped, rectangle openwork-shaped, genre scene shaped Buckle. To the Boots, they wore leather boots. (4) Ornaments : Ornaments divided into Dress Trimming(:Gold plaques), Earrings, Necklaces(;Torques), Bracelets, Rings. Scythian Gold Plaques were divided into several types according to the shape, animal style(curved beast shape, profile shape, head reversed over its back shape), round shape, quadrilateral form, star shape, flower shape, crescent shape, bundle shape, human appearance. Earrings consisted of a plain ring and pendant ring was a middle ornament hung from it to a pendants which hung was made of heart shaped leaves of the tree, beads-linked. Scythian Torques were divided into several types according to the shape, Torque with Terminal style, Spiral style, Layers style, Crescent-shaped pectoral style, Crown style. Scythian Bracelet were divided into 4 styles according to the shape, Bracelets with ends shaped like beasts style, Spiral style, Layers style, Crown with openwork style. Rings were rhomb-shaped and animal shaped styleRings (5) Animal motifs used in Scythian ornaments appears that in some cases the work was intended to be purely ornamental, while many times the motifs had symbolic meaning (such as the successful dominance of the aggressor over the victim portrayed in the attack scenes). Magical use of symbols may have been inten-ded to guarantee the power of the aggressor.

The Study on the Scythian Costume III -Focaused on the Scythian of the Pazyryk region in Altai- (스키타이 복식 연구 III - 알타이 파지리크 지역 스키타이인을 중심으로 -)

  • Yi-Chang, Youngsoo
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.424-437
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    • 2016
  • The study will analyze the costumes of the Scythians tribes who lived in the region of Altai in the 3-5 century BC. The purpose of this study is to prepare new material to re-examine the theory, which claims that the origin of the circular motives of korean costumes are to be found in the typology of the Scythian costumes. In this study, we analyzed the most recent reports of archaeological excavation about the unearthed clothes in the Pazyryk region and compared its information with european literature. The conclusion of this study is as follows: The jackets of the Pazyryk region are classified in two types, (1) opened jacket with narrow sleeve and (2) enclosed jacket with narrow sleeve. Trousers were separated by (1) narrow and (2) extreme wide trousers. The enclosed jacket of tunic form and extreme wide trousers are newly excavated. It proves, there was a vivid exchange between the Scythians and their neighboring cultures. It can be noted, that there existed a diverse Scythian culture of costumes, besides the commonly known clothing culture of the "Pazyryk-rider". Based upon the results of the previous research, it can be said that the opened jacket with narrow sleeve and narrow trousers are costume typologies which are common for all Scythian tribes of the whole Eurasian region. The hem of the edge of jacket is proven to be a connective element, which is common to all Scythian tribes.

A study on the upper jacket of the Scythians in the region of the Black Sea - focused on the hat on the back of the upper jacket - (흑해지역 스키타이인 상의(上衣)에 대한 소고 - 상의에 달린 모자에 대한 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Chang, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.123-138
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    • 2019
  • The hat on the back of the upper jacket in Scythian, in of northern region surrounding the Black Sea, is described as a typical woolen hood, but until now has been overlooked in Korean costume studies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the hat on the upper jacket in Scythians and to recognize the meaning of the hat. A further purpose is to complete the basic framework of research concerning the Scythian costume by adding the part that was overlooked previously As for the research method, we collected literature, previous research results, the exhibition catalog, and the related artifacts for analysis. The literature was collected at the German Archaeological Research Institute. The analysis of artifacts was based on data collected by the researchers at the Heremitage Museum in Russia and data was taken by the staff of the Heremitage Museum. The conclusions of this study are as follows: Among the artifacts in the northern region of the Black Sea, it was perviously believed that Scythians status was signified by the wearing of hat-tops. Regardless of age, warriors and knights all wore upper jackets with hats, so it appears that the people who are active wore upper jackets with hats. On the other hand, it was assumed that the royal family, who wore ornamented, colorful, and decorative hats were not observed to have worn upper jackets with hats, and therefore did not require a hat. Therefore, it is considered that the hat in the Scythian society was a costume element emphasizing practicality, not necessarily a class symbol.

The study on the Skythian Costume I - Focaused on the Scythian of the northern region of the Black Sea - (스키타이 의복에 대한 연구 I - 흑해 북쪽 지역 스키타이인을 중심으로 -)

  • Yi-Chang, Youngsoo
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.191-202
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the form of the clothing of the Scythians who lived in the northern region of the Black Sea. This study refers to data, which has been extracted from reviews of literature, articles and catalogs of Scythian exhibitions held in Germany, a country where famous Scythian research was collected and analyzed. Results of this study are as follows: Regarding the basic form, there was no change in the appearance of the Scythian clothes which can be linked to social classes and regional background. But the detailing of the clothes changed. Russian archaeologist Klocko has stated that decorative bands of ancient costume appear to depend on the construction of ancient clothing. I have analyzed the upperjacket of Scythians with the decorative bands based on the research of Klocko. From this analysis could be observed that decorative bands of upperjacket had also been varied depending on their region and their social status. The decoration of the revers of upperjacket differs according to social status. According to their width, trousers were classified in types; in narrow and wide. The basic set up of the narrow-type is as follows: the trouser is divided into voluminous straight forms and leggings in close contact with the legs. The width of a trouser differs according to the social status of Scythians and from the region where they lived. Regional differences could be observed more significantly, than differences resulting from social status.

A Study on the Ethnic Style Designs which is Expressed in 21th Century Fashion - Focused on the Fashion Design Applying the Mongol Noin-ula′s Textile Pattern- (21세기 복식에 표현된 에스닉 스타일 디자인 연구 - 몽고 노인우라의 직물 문양을 응용한 작품을 중심으로-)

  • 안소영;유송옥
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.53 no.8
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 2003
  • The culture interest regarding the new area causes an effect even in change of fashion and that result Mongol area where it is area other than Japan, China and India and it is having compromised beauty raised it's head. Mongol is in Noin-ula area which is a it's former self of the Hun's. There is to a textile pattern which was used not only the textile pattern which has the feature of Scythian system but also the textile pattern which has the feature of China was used. The feature of Noin-ula's the textile pattern is as follows. Noin-ula's textiles used Scythian system of animal pattern, vine pattern, palmette pattern, thunder pattern, spiral pattern, shape of diamond pattern. Scythian system of animal pattern and vine pattern proves the interchange with the countries to the west of China. Noin-ula's textile pattern is applied to the designer's work of art. The designers are John Galliano, Etro, Chloe, Emmanuel Ungaro and so on, who express the modern ethnic style design. Because the more developed the modern society is the more embossed feature of intention for the race and the fork art, I think that Ethnic style design is applied to modern sensitive and ethnic style in the future.

A study on the origination and transmission of Koh(袴) in Northeast Asia-from the 4th century to 7th century (동북아세아(東北亞細亞) 고(袴)의 발생(發生) 및 전파(傳播)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - $4{\sim}7$세기(世紀) 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Kyung-Ja;Lee, Jean-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.15
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    • pp.177-194
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    • 1990
  • Koh(袴) was a type of dress worn on the lower part of the body which was commonly used in the Northeast Asia. It was originally used by the Northern race for the need of nomadism or hunting. The origin of the Koh which appeared in the area would be found from the trousers of the Huns who influenced in the Northeast Asia, and became in the part of the Scythian culture. The Scythians are the nomadizing race inhabited in the Northern Caucasas on the wast of the Black Sea and influenced on the inland Eurasian steppe as the first typical horse-riding race. The objectives of Koh which had been worn in the Scythian, Mongolia, Korea as well as Japan as a part of Dongho dress and ornaments and to contemplate the transmission process by cultural exchange among different races for the period from 4th century to 7th century. 1. The Origination of the Koh The Koh was originated by the environmental factor to protect the cold in the North but also from the heat in the South, and was changed and developed as gradually satisfying to the needs of the times. In the Northeast Asia the Koh was in the class of the Northern Chinese garment, and was used widely by the horse riding Scythians who moved widely from the Eurasian inland to Japan. The oldest original which could reflect the type of the Northern clothes was a pair of trousers discovered in the Huns remains of Noin Ula. This showed the exact form of hunting clothes and had a similar form with the Korean female tro-users. Since the same form of trousers drawn on the wall painting of which was excavated 4-5th century ancient Koguryo(高句麗) tomb was the same form the trousers of Noin Ula seemed to be the original form of Koh in the Northeast Asia. 2. The Chinese Trousers It was the time of the King Mooryung(武靈王) in the Cho(趙) Dynasty B.C. 3th century that the trousers used regularly in China. However, the Koh had been used as undergarment which functioned for the protection of the cold not the horseriding garment. The trousers seemed to be not very obviously shown off since the Poh (袍) was long, but mainly used by the people from lower class. As people learned the adapted the trousers. It was essential for the times of war and quarrel. The king himself started wearing the Koh. The Chinese trousers were influenced by the Huns, the Northern clothes of the Scythian culture, and similar to the Korean clothes. 3. The Korean Trousers Korean was a race bared from the Eastern foreign group. It was obvious that the clothes was Baji-Jeogori(바지 저고리), the garment of the Northern people. This had the same form of the Scythian dress and ornaments which was excavated from the Mongolian Noin Ula. The Scythian dress and ornaments were influenced from the Ancient West Asia Empire and transmitted to the Northeast Koguryu by the horseriding Scythian. The trousers were kept in the traditional style by the common people in Korea were transmitted to Japan which were for behind in cultural aspect, as well as got used to the Chinese as the efficient clothes though active cultural exchange. 4. The Japanese Trousers The ancient Japanese clothes were influenced by the Southern factor but not the form of the Koh. As the Korean people group was moving towards Japan and conquer the Japanese in the 4-5th century, however, North Altaic culture was formed and at the same time the clothes were also developed. The most influenced clothes at this time were those of Baekge(百濟) and the trousers form called Euigon became the main form. Because of the climatic regional factor, it was tied not at the ankle but under the knee. From the view the ancient Japanese clothes disappeard about that time, it could be due to the conquest of the culturally superior race but not the transmission of the culture. In the latest 7th century both the Chinese and Japanese dress forms were present, but the Dongho(東胡) dress and its ornament from Korea was still the basic of the Japanese dress form.

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A Study of the Costume Expressed in the Reliefs of Tribute on the Stairs of the Apadana palace of Persepolis in the Persian Achaemenes Dynasty (페르시아 아케메네스 왕조 페르세폴리스 아파다나 궁전 계단 조공도에 묘사된 복식연구)

  • YiChang, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.6
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    • pp.124-144
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    • 2008
  • This study is taken as the part of the cultural research on the Kaspian coastal region, which has a great significance as the start of human civilization and in the history of cultural exchange. This study is focused on the Achaemenid dynasty of the great Persian Empire that Iranians have established on the Parsa region, south of Iran on 6-4th century B.C. This research limits to the tribute-relief illustrated on the stairs of Apadana Palace in Persepolis during the age of Achaemenid dynasty. The objective of this research is classify and analyze Persians and its neighboring tribes, their dresses and the detailed elements of the dresses to complete the typology of the dresses in that period and use this to categorize the features of nomadic and agricultural tribes of costal areas of the Mediterranean Sea to Northern India and study the cultural exchange and its effects. Furthermore, we aim to use the above typology to revise the typology of the Korean traditional dresses that were formerly just sorted as a type of coat-trousers that classified as a nomadian Scythian dress type. The results of above analysis are as follows: The clothing of many tribes living in the coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea to the Northern India in the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia on 6th century B.C. shows that the typology of the dressings have close relationship with the region they live in. Such typology is displayed differently from tribes east and west of Iran. The tribes west of Iran showed characteristics of an agricultural tribe and the tribes east of Iran displayed features of a nomadic tribe. In addition, uniformed styles of dressing were displayed amongst many tribes sharing a common lineage. Such inference came from the fact that similar styles of dressings were identified not only in tribes east of Iran but also in tribes west of Iran.