• Title, Summary, Keyword: screening assessment

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A Systematic Review of Child Abuse Screening Instruments (아동학대 평가도구의 체계적 고찰)

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung;Choi, Hye-mi;Park, Hyun-Jung
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.265-278
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and to describe the characteristics of child abuse screening instruments. Methods: Articles regarding the development of a child abuse screening instrument were investigated using the systematic review method. A literature search using the keywords "child and abuse or maltreatment and instrument or screening tool" in English, and "child," "abuse," and "instrument" in Korean, was conducted of material published in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, ERIC, and RISS. Database and bibliographic searches, and quality appraisal using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool that included systemic reviews, yielded 17 records. Results: Key elementary child abuse screening instruments were developed for physical, psychiatric, affective and sexual and child neglect assessment. The instruments' target populations were children at home and in institutions. The reviewed instruments had the advantage of diagnosing past, concurrent, and indirectly, potential child abuse. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that child abuse screening instruments are available for screening and for assessment of abused children in various circumstances. This review of child abuse screening instruments offers evidence for the acceptable use of optimal psychometric tools for child abuse assessment and provides guidelines for child health nursing practice.

Electronic Risk Assessment System as an Appropriate Tool for the Prevention of Cancer: a Qualitative Study

  • Amoli, Amir hossein Javan;Maserat, Elham;Safdari, Reza;Zali, Mohammad Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8595-8598
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    • 2016
  • Background: Decision making modalities for screening for many cancer conditions and different stages have become increasingly complex. Computer-based risk assessment systems facilitate scheduling and decision making and support the delivery of cancer screening services. The aim of this article was to survey electronic risk assessment system as an appropriate tool for the prevention of cancer. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design was used involving 21 face-to-face interviews. Interviewing involved asking questions and getting answers from exclusive managers of cancer screening. Of the participants 6 were female and 15 were male, and ages ranged from 32 to 78 years. The study was based on a grounded theory approach and the tool was a semi-structured interview. Results: Researchers studied 5 dimensions, comprising electronic guideline standards of colorectal cancer screening, work flow of clinical and genetic activities, pathways of colorectal cancer screening and functionality of computer based guidelines and barriers. Electronic guideline standards of colorectal cancer screening were described in the s3 categories of content standard, telecommunications and technical standards and nomenclature and classification standards. According to the participations' views, workflow and genetic pathways of colorectal cancer screening were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrated an effective role of computer-guided consultation for screening management. Electronic based systems facilitate real-time decision making during a clinical interaction. Electronic pathways have been applied for clinical and genetic decision support, workflow management, update recommendation and resource estimates. A suitable technical and clinical infrastructure is an integral part of clinical practice guidline of screening. As a conclusion, it is recommended to consider the necessity of architecture assessment and also integration standards.

Influence of Service Characteristics on High Priority Performance Indicators and Standards in the BreastScreen Australia Program

  • Roder, David Murray;Ward, Gail Heather;Farshid, Gelareh;Gill, Peter Grantley
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5901-5908
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    • 2014
  • Background: Data from BreastScreen Australia Screening and Assessment Services (SAS) for 2002-2010 were analysed to determine whether some SAS characteristics were more conducive that others to high screening performance, as indicated by high priority performance indicators and standards. Materials And Methods: Indicators investigated related to: numbers of benign open biopsies, screen-detected invasive cancers, and interval cancers, and wait times between screening and assessment. Multivariate Poisson regression was undertaken using as candidate predictors of performance, SAS size (screening volume), urban or rural location, year of screening, accreditation status, and percentages of clients from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, rural and remote areas, and socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Results: Performance standards for benign biopsies and invasive cancer detection were uniformly met irrespective of SAS location and size. The interval cancer standard was also met, except in 2003 when the 95% confidence interval of the rate still incorporated the national standard. Performance indicators improved over time for: benign open biopsy for second or subsequent screening rounds; rates of invasive breast cancer detection for second or subsequent screening rounds; and rates of small cancer detection. No differences were found over time in interval cancer rates. Interval cancer rates did not differ between non-metropolitan and metropolitan SAS, although state-wide SAS had lower rates. The standard for wait time between screening and assessment (being assessed ${\leq}28$ days) was mostly unmet and this applied in particular to SAS with high percentages of culturally and linguistically diverse women in their screening populations. Conclusions: Gains in performance were observed, and all performance standards were met irrespective of SAS characteristics, except wait times to assessment. Additional descriptive data should be collected on SAS characteristics, and their associations with favourable screening performance, as these may be important when deciding on SAS design

Application and Efficacy Evaluation of Nutritional Screening Tool (영양부족 환자의 조기발견을 위한 선별검사의 적용 및 효용성 평가)

  • Nam, Gung-Hwan
    • Journal of Korea Association of Health Promotion
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2006
  • "본 논문은 대한외과학회지 2006년 제70권제1호에 실렸던 논문으로 대한외과학회 편집위원회 승인을 득하고 본 협회지에 게재함. Purpose: Malnutrition has been frequently reported for patients on their admission to the hospital and it has been associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality and the length of the hospital stay. Although a number of screening tools have been developed to identify those patients at risk for malnutrition, there is no' gold standard' for defining malnutrition and the malnourished patients remain largely unrecognized. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional screening tool for use in Dankook University Hospital. Methods Nutritional evaluation was performed for 53 patients who were admitted to the department of surgery and internal medicine between October and December 2004. The screening tool was completed by the ward nurse and the nutritional support team nurse on the same patients within24 hours of admission. The nutritional support team nurse performed the full assessment. The screening sheet included 4 questions regarding body mass index, recent unintentional weight loss, food intake and disease severity. Each answer was scored and a total of 5 was tested as the criterion fey malnutrition. The full assessment included current body weight, recent weight loss, triceps skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, serum albumin)in and total lymphocyte count. Malnutrition was defined by 3 or more values below the reference values. The reliability of the screening tool was assessed using kappa statistic. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated to evaluate the validity of the screening tool. The receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve was drawn to choose a cutoff valve that maximizes sensitivity and specificity. Results' The level of agreement between the ward nurse and the NST nurse was good for BMI and food intake and moderate for weight loss and disease severity. The full assessment identified7 patients(13.2%) as malnourished. The screening sheet had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 80%. According to the ROC curve, a score of 5 points provided the best validity. Conclusion The nutritional screening tool is reliable when completed by different observers and it is valid for nutritional assessment.

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Nutritional Assessment of the Older Population: Practical Application and Limitation

  • Yoon, Jin-Sook
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.36-49
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    • 2000
  • Evaluation of nutritional status is an essential element in providing appropriate intervention strategies to achieve the highest level of health, Nutritional assessment of the older population is complicated by many factors which do not significantly affect the nutritional status in young adults, therefore, it should be considered in two ways; community-dwelling elders group and hospitalized or institutionalized elderly group. To sort out the individuals with nutritional problems in a community efficiently, nutrition screening tools must be simple, relatively inexpensive, and applicable to a large number of subjects. Combination of tools and indicators such as 24-hour food recall, body weight and height, and questionnaires on eating practices, and the presence of chronic diseases is practically applicable as basic tools of nutritional screening of older age group. However, the lack of validated screening techniques remains a barrier in improving nutrition. Validation is only limited to energy, BMI, protein intake of the older populations living in western countries. Further refinement of nutritional assessment tools is demanded to figure out whether those are practically applicable to community-living older adults in Asian Society. A careful and systematic evaluation of nutritional assessment tools should be carried out prior to implementation of stepwise nutrition service to the heterogeneous older population. For an in-depth nutritional assessment at the individual level, we need to extend research efforts to clarify the requirements of nutrients due to aging and diseases. More cost-effective method that will allow rapid analysis of survey results are needed so that information can be readily available to policymakers.

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A Fast Screening Algorithm for On-Line Transient Stability Assessment (온라인 과도안정도 판정을 위한 상정사고 고속 스크리닝 알고리즘 개발)

  • Lee, Jong-Seock;Yang, Jung-Dae;Lee, Byong-Jun;Kwon, Sae-Hyuk;Nam, Hae-Kon;Choo, Jin-Boo;Lee, Koung-Guk;Yun, Sang-Hyun;Park, Byung-Cheol
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers A
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2001
  • SIME(SIngle Machine Equivalent) method has been recognized as a useful tool to determine transient stability of power systems. In this paper, SIME method is used to develop the KEPCO transient stability assessment (TSA) tool. A new screening algorithm that can be implemented in SIME method is proposed. The salient feature of the proposed screening algorithm is as follows. First, critical generators are identified by a new index in the early stage of the time domain simulation. Thus, computational time required to find OMIB(One Machine Infinite Bus) can be reduced significantly. Second, clustering critical machines can be performed even in very stable cases. It enables to be avoid extra calculation of time trajectory that is needed in SIME for classifying the stable cases. Finally, using power-angle trajectory and subdividing contingency classification have improved the screening capability. This algorithm is applied to the fast TSA of the KEPCO system.

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Readability, Suitability and Health Content Assessment of Cancer Screening Announcements in Municipal Newspapers in Japan

  • Okuhara, Tsuyoshi;Ishikawa, Hirono;Okada, Hiroko;Kiuchi, Takahiro
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6719-6727
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    • 2015
  • Background: The objective of this study was to assess the readability, suitability, and health content of cancer screening information in municipal newspapers in Japan. Materials and Methods: Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) and the framework of Health Belief Model (HBM) were used for assessment of municipal newspapers that were published in central Tokyo (23 wards) from January to December 2013. Results: The mean domain SAM scores of content, literacy demand, and layout/typography were considered superior. The SAM scores of interaction with readers, an indication of the models of desirable actions, and elaboration to enhance readers' self-efficacy were low. According to the HBM coding, messages of medical/clinical severity, of social severity, of social benefits, and of barriers of fear were scarce. Conclusions: The articles were generally well written and suitable. However, learning stimulation/motivation was scarce and the HBM constructs were not fully addressed. Practice implications: Articles can be improved to motivate readers to obtain cancer screening by increasing interaction with readers, introducing models of desirable actions and devices to raise readers' self-efficacy, and providing statements of perceived barriers of fear for pain and time constraints, perceived severity, and social benefits and losses.

Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

  • Tjoe-Nij, Evelyn;Rochin, Christophe;Berne, Nathalie;Sassi, Alessandro;Leplay, Antoine
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.84-94
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    • 2018
  • Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1) inhalation risk score; (2) identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3) status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool.

Validation of the Korean Version of the Standardized Swallowing Assessment and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Among Acute Stroke Patients

  • Yun, Sukkyung;Kim, Hyemin;Mo, Eunji;Kim, Mingyeong;Kim, Minji;Gil, Chorong;Chang, HeeKyung
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.124-130
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    • 2018
  • Proper management and prevention of dysphagia are urgently needed in acute care of stroke patients in Korea. However, no highly sensitive and accessible nurse-led screening tools have been validated within the Korean settings. The purpose of this study was to validate a screening tool led by nurses to identify dysphagia and aspiration risks among acute stroke patients. Registered nurses (RNs) screened 131 residents from a university hospital in South Korea using the Korean version of the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (K-SSA). Results were validated against those from the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). Compared to results from the GUSS, with 9- and 14-point cutoffs, the K-SSA had a sensitivity of 0.80 and specificity of 0.90 [95% CI 0.806, 0.992] for screening dysphagia and 1.00 sensitivity and 0.94 specificity [95% CI 0.862, 1.000] for screening aspiration risks. The K-SSA demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for screening individuals at risk of dysphagia and aspiration when led by RNs for acute stroke patients.

Compliance with Screening Recommendations According to Breast Cancer Risk Levels in Izmir, Turkey

  • Acikgoz, Ayla;Ergor, Gul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1737-1742
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    • 2013
  • Early diagnosis has a major role in improving prognosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk status of women 35-69 years of age using risk assessment models and the prevalence of mammography in a community setting. The sample of this cross sectional study consisted of 227 women, 35-69 years of age residing in Izmir, a city located in western region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the Gail and Cuzick-Tyrer models were applied to assess the risk of breast cancer. In this study, 52.7% of women had mammography at least once, and 41.3% of the women over the age of 40 had mammography screening in the last two years. The five years risk for breast cancer was high in 15.8% of women according to the Gail model and ten years risk was high in 21.7% with the Cuzick-Tyrer model. In the present study, the breast cancer risk levels were assessed in a population setting for the first time in Turkey using breast cancer risk level assessment models. Being in 60-69 age group, having low education and not being in menopause were significant risk factors for not having mammography according to logistic regression analysis. Mammography utilization rate was low. Women must be educated about breast cancer screening methods and early diagnosis. The women in the high risk group should be informed on their risk status which may increase their attendance at breast cancer screening.