• Title/Summary/Keyword: screening

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Development of Transgenic Crops and Research Projects for Biotechnology Application (유전자 전환작물 개발 연구 현황과 과제)

  • 정태영
    • Korean Journal of Plant Tissue Culture
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2001
  • The main objective of this topic is to establish strategies and to plan biotechnology researches which are related to the agricultural improvements especially focusing on the crop breeding in Korea. From 1960's to 1980's government policy had been emphasized to develope high yielding cultivars for the self sufficient supply of the staple food crops. As a result, considerable increase of rice production has been made with accumulating technology and man's powers. Recently genetically modified crops harboring useful characteristics have been developed using biotechnology and released in the developed countries. National research institutes and private companies have been developed biotechnology researches to establish competitive capabilities, however they have not been successfully used in commercialization. Therefore it is necessary to promote the practical. application by connecting molecular technology with conventional breeding. Proposed research projects are; (1) basic researches including plant genome studies, (2) developing new cultivars through gene transformation, (3) screening and producing antioxidants, secondary metabolite substances and edible vaccines. To set a government policy, both domestic and international research trends were reviewed and possibility of success based on the economic view point were discussed. The intellectual property and preservation of environment play a key role to decide the research priority. It is also necessary for us to make one step system for the distribution of research resources such as microorganisms, genes cloned, plant seeds and research informations for promoting research activities.

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Simultaneous estimation of fatty acids contents from soybean seeds using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography by multivariate analysis (적외선 분광스펙트럼 및 기체크로마토그라피 분석 데이터의 다변량 통계분석을 이용한 대두 종자 지방산 함량예측)

  • Ahn, Myung Suk;Ji, Eun Yee;Song, Seung Yeob;Ahn, Joon Woo;Jeong, Won Joong;Min, Sung Ran;Kim, Suk Weon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.60-70
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can be applied to simultaneous determination of fatty acids contents in different soybean cultivars. Total 153 lines of soybean (Glycine max Merrill) were examined by FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantification of fatty acids from the soybean lines was confirmed by quantitative gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The quantitative spectral variation among different soybean lines was observed in the amide bond region ($1,700{\sim}1,500cm^{-1}$), phosphodiester groups ($1,500{\sim}1,300cm^{-1}$) and sugar region ($1,200{\sim}1,000cm^{-1}$) of FT-IR spectra. The quantitative prediction modeling of 5 individual fatty acids contents (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid) from soybean lines were established using partial least square regression algorithm from FT-IR spectra. In cross validation, there were high correlations ($R^2{\geq}0.97$) between predicted content of 5 individual fatty acids by PLS regression modeling from FT-IR spectra and measured content by GC. In external validation, palmitic acid ($R^2=0.8002$), oleic acid ($R^2=0.8909$) and linoleic acid ($R^2=0.815$) were predicted with good accuracy, while prediction for stearic acid ($R^2=0.4598$), linolenic acid ($R^2=0.6868$) had relatively lower accuracy. These results clearly show that FT-IR spectra combined with multivariate analysis can be used to accurately predict fatty acids contents in soybean lines. Therefore, we suggest that the PLS prediction system for fatty acid contents using FT-IR analysis could be applied as a rapid and high throughput screening tool for the breeding for modified Fatty acid composition in soybean and contribute to accelerating the conventional breeding.

Study on the Acceptability and Effectiveness of an Oral Contraceptive Among Iud Drop-outs in Rural Korea

  • Yang, J.M.;Bang, S.;Song, S.W.;Youn, B.B.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-66
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    • 1968
  • During a period of about one year(November '66 to December '67), the Yonsei University College of Medicine conducted a field trial of the oral contraceptive(Ovulen) in order to study its acceptability and use-effectiveness among IUD drop-outs in Koyang county. We can summarize the outstanding findings from this investigation as follows; 1. 61.4% of the IUD drop-outs interviewed (911 women) wanted to use the pill. Most of the reasons for not wanting to use it(352 women) pertained to either use of other contraceptive methods(98) or subfecundity(150) following IUD terminations. Only 83 out of 911 women gave reasons related to the difficulty of obtaining pills. Therefore, we can state that most IUD drop-outs if still in need of a contraceptive methods are in favor of trying the pill, and especially so if this method is conveniently available. 2. The 467 women or 37% of those who terminated IUD use actually visited the clinic for medical screening, and only 11 of them or 2.4% were rejected because of pregnancy and other medical reasons such as cervical erosion, myoma, breast mass, etc. 5.5% or 25 of the 456 women who received the first cycle did not take a single pill during the study period. 3. When we defined those 431 women who accepted and took one or more tablets we found that women over age 30, with 4 or more children, and/or with a higher educational level were the best prospects for recruitment. 4. In accuracy of use, about two thirds of the users started taking the pill on the 5 th day as directed for the first three cycles, but the percentages rose sharply to about 80% in later cycles. Tardiness in starting pill use in the first cycle may have occurred partly because they had to return to the clinic monthly to get each new cycle. Among acceptors who did not quit between cycles, 80 to 90% were regular users, missing two or less tablets in each cycle. 5) More than 60% of the users felt well and sometimes lost their pre-acceptance symptoms. especially dysmenorrhea. However, 27.4% (58 women) had side effects attributable to the pill compund as nausea, vomiting, indigestion, breast tenderness, decreased lactation or breakthrough bleeding. 25.0% (53 women) also complained of medical diseases or symptoms not related to the pill, especially during the first three cycles. However, as the confidence and experience of the client and the field workers grew, the incidence of unrelated medical complaints quickly fell to a lower level in the later cycles. 6. As of the end of this study, on December 31, 1967, 49.2% (212 women) had discontinued the use of the pill for medical reasons as well as for the non medical reasons. Only one case terminated use due to a pregnancy after taking pills. The cumulative continuation rates (by the life table method), were 58.9%, 51.9%, 41.0% at the end of 3 months, 6 months and one year, respectively. These rates are lower than in the U.S. studies. Even when we add the retaking group to the first segment, the continuation rate goes up only about 5% above the first segment rates mentioned above. Possible explanations are different dosages, the newerness of the method and the use of only one point for pill distribution in the country together with a monthly return for cycle 1, 2, 3, and 4-6.

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Assessment of Renal Function in Silicobis with Urinary N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-glucosaminidase Activity (규폐증환자의 신기능 평가를 위한 요중 N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-glucosaminidase활성치 측정의 의의)

  • Lee, Hoo-Rak;Kim, Don-Kyoun;Lee, Su-Il;Cho, Byung-Mann;Kim, Wha-Jo
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.49-64
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    • 1993
  • To provide the basic data for assessment of renal dysfunction related to silicosis, urinary N-acetyl-$\beta$-D-giucobarninidase(NAG) activity known as a sensitive markers for early renal damage were measured in 58 silicosis patients, and control subjects of 40 pulmonary tuberculosis Patients and 51 official workers. The results were summarized as fellows. 1. The values of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in all subjects were within reference limits. But the mean value of urinary NAG activity($7.25{\pm}7.31U/g\;creatinine$) was beyond reference value and more sensitive test than others. 2. The mean value of urinary NAG activity in silicosis group was $11.98{\pm}9.05U/g\;creatinine$ and significantly higher than in tuberculosis and healthy group(p<0.01), but the mean values of NAG activity in tuberculosis and healthy group were not different(p>0.05). 3. The value of NAG activity in tuberculosis had a tendency to be increased according to severity of disease, but that was not significant(p>0.05). The value of NAG activity was increased significantly by use of nephrotoxic antituberculosis drugs(p<0.05). 4. The value of NAG activity in silicosis had a tendecy to be increased according to the size of nodule, use of nephrotoxic antituberculosis drugs and shortness of onset duration, but the increase was not significant(p>0.05). 5. After excluding the users of nephrotoxic antituberculosis drugs, the mean values of NAG activity in healthy control and in tuberculosis control were same as 3.63 U/g creatinine and 3.60 U/g creatinine, respectively. But the mean value of NAG activity in silicosis group was remarkably increased as 10.90 U/g creatinine(p<0.01). As above results, even though there are no abnormal finding in screening renal function test, silicosis can be related with renal dysfunction. And it will be very useful to apply urinary NAG activity in health management of workers exposed to dust.

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Occurrence of Diseases and Insects in Organic Sweet Corn Seed Production Area (유기농 찰옥수수종자 생산지의 병해충 발생 소장)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soon;Goh, Byeong-Dae;Gwag, Jae-Gyun;Lee, Myung-Chul;Kim, Chang-Yung;Kim, Chung-Kon;Shim, Chang-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.93-104
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted screening of the population densities of fungal pathogens and insect and observed the disease symptoms on the organic sweet corn seed producing field from 2008 to 2009. The dissemination spores, Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Pyricularia sp., Collectotrichum sp., and Bipolaris sp., were detected and the three fungal spores from the front were observed for whole growth stage. Seed and seedling diseases were shown as the rotted seed and damping-off seedling caused by Penicillium sp. and Rhizoctonia sp.. The larva of Black cutworm cut down the root crown of seedlings. The damaged plants were ranged from 14% to 16%. On the Oriental corn borer, the population densities and the percentage of damaged plants were showed a low difference between two sweet corn varieties. The population densities of Oriental corn borer were scored as from 3.5 to 20.5 in 2008 and from 0.5 to 6 in 2009. Also the percentage of damaged plants were significantly increased until harvesting stage and was recorded from 7.5% to 21% in 2008 and from 1% to 46% in 2009. On the Corn leaf blight, the percentage of diseased plant were scored from 7% to 34% in 2008. The first occurrence of date was after June 18, and the percentage of diseased plant was continuously increased after August 21 and the values of diseased plants was ranged from 56% to 69% in 2009. On common smut, the percentage of diseased plant was recorded from 5% to 15% in 2008, and the first occurrence date were delayed as 17 days (July 17) and were showed less than 8% of diseased plants in 2009. Corn Southern Leaf spot was scored as average 11% at early stage and showed high score as 62% at September 19 in 2008. In 2009, the first occurrence date were advanced about 20 days (after June 8), and continuously increased up to 86% in 2009.

A Low Irritant Liquid Cleanser Composition Developed by Multi-Screening Methods (다탐색(多探索)법을 통한 저자극성 액체 세정제 조성물 개발)

  • Kim Peter;Hyeon Ki-An;Chung Ji-Youn;Yoon Sam-Sook;Kang Han Chyul;Park Sun Hee;Ko King Il;Kim Ki Ho
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2005
  • Alkyl ethoxy sulfate type surfactants, widely used in commercial cleansers, are easily adsorbed to skin to often cause skin irritation and inflammation if not thoroughly rinsed nut. In order to replace or complement existing surfactants, we screened the existing surfactants through protein denaturation method, cell cytotoxicity assay and human IL-1$\alpha$ assay, etc. Fourteen surfactants have been chosen from among too irritant anionic, cationic and/or zwitter-ionic ones and investigated for cell cytotoxicity in human fibroblast cell lines using monolayer culture with the thirteen commercially available cleansers for sensitive skin. From these results, we selected 5 surfactants and 2 commercial cleansers (names not shown), such as sodium laureth sulfate (anionic), sodium cocoyl isethionate (anionic), sodium lauroamphoacetate (zwitter-ionic), and cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitter-ionic), alkyl polyglycoside (non-ionic). 20 formulations were made out of 5 surfactants and five of them were chosen through a protein denaturation method (lower than 3 M sodium dodecyl sulfate solution ($13.2\%$)), cell cytotoxicity and human patch test. These five selected formulations containing preservatives were compared to two selected commercial cleansers by cell cytotoxicity and human IL-1$\alpha$ ELISA assay using dermal equivalent. Finally, we selected the best formulation. To this formulation, fructan ($3\%$ or $5\%$) or/and portulaca extract ($3\%$ or $5\%$) well known for its anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects were added and investigated for cell cytotoxicity using dermal equivalent. In cytotoxicity assay using dermal equivalent, two formulations containing $5\%$ fructan and $3\%$ or $5\%$ portulaca extract were less toxic than the others. In cytotoxicity assay and human IL-1$\alpha$ ELISA using 3D culture, the selected formulation containing $5\%$ fructan and $5\%$ portulaca extract showed better efficiency than those of the others and 2 commercial cleansers. As a result, we could develop a low irritant and safe liquid cleanser.

Isolation and Characterization of Elastase Inhibitor from Areca catechu (빈랑으로부터 Elastase 저해물질의 분리 및 특성조사)

  • 조중제;이건국;조병기;최정도
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.163-186
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    • 2000
  • We have previously screened 150 medicinal plants on the inhibition of elastase and found a significant inhibitory effects of the extracts of Areca catechu L. on the aging and inflammation against the skin tissues. To isolate and identify the compounds having biological activity, we was further purified by each of the solvent fractions, silica gel column chromatography, preparative TLC and reversed-Phase HPLC. Peak in HPLC, which coincided with the inhibitory activity against elastase, was identified as Phenolic substance using various colorimetric methods, UV, and IR. $IC_{50}$/ values of phenolic substance purified from Areca catechu were 26.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and 60.8 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for human neutrophil elastase (HNE). This Phenolic substance showed more potent activity than those of reference compounds, oleanolic acid (76.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for PPE, 219.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for HNE) and ursolic acid (31.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for PPE, 118.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$ for HNE). According to the Lineweaver-Burk Plots, the inhibition against both PPE and HNE by this phenolic substance was competitive with substrate. Phenolic substance from Areca catechu exhibited high free radical scavenging effect ($SC_{50}$/ : 6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) and inhibited effectively hyaluronidase activity ($IC_{50}$/: 210 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$). These results suggest that the Phenolic substance Purified from Areca catechu showed anti-aging effect by protecting connective tissue proteins.

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In Vitro Cytotoxicity, Skin Regeneration, Anti-wrinkle, Whitening and In Vivo Skin Moisturizing Effects of Oncheongeum (온청음 물 추출물의 세포독성, 피부재생, 주름개선, 미백 및 보습 효과)

  • An, Tteul-E-Bom;Kim, Dong-Chul
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.14-34
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cytotoxicity, skin regeneration, anti-wrinkle, whitening and skin moisturizing of Oncheongeum (OCE).Methods: The cytotoxicity of OCE lyophilized aqueous extracts (yield=13.82%) was observed against human normal fibroblast cells and B16/F10 murine melanoma cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay, and skin regeneration and anti-wrinkle effects were also evaluated through the assay of collagen type I synthesis compared to the transformation of the growth factor (TGF)-β1, hyaluronidase, collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 inhibitory assays compared to oleanolic acid (OA), and elastase inhibitory effects compared to phosphoramidon disodium salt (PP). In addition, OCE’s whitening effects were measured by a tyrosinase inhibitory assay and melanin formation test in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells compared to arbutin, and skin moisturizing effects were observed through a mouse skin water content test, respectively. Results: No OCE treatment-related cytotoxic effects appeared on human normal fibroblasts and B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. OCE concentration-dependently increased the collagen Type I synthesis on human normal fibroblast cells, and also effectively inhibited hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase and MMP-1 activities. In addition, OCE inhibited melanin production of B16/F10 murine melanoma cells and activity of tyrosinase. And significant and dose-dependent increases of skin water content were detected in OCE-treated mouse skin compared to vehicle control skins. Conclusions: OCE showed favorable and sufficient effects in skin regeneration, anti-wrinkle, whitening and skin moisturizing in this experiment. But more detail mechanisms and studies on the skin protective efficiency of in vivo are needed with the screening of active biological compounds in individual OCE herbs.

Effect on Identification of Irradiated Wheat and Soybean by the Full-overlapped Gravitational Field Energy(FGFE) Treatment (중첩중력에너지가 방사선 조사된 밀과 대두의 판별특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Sang-Lyong;Ahn, Jae-Jun;Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, Hak-Je
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.294-301
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in identification markers of irradiated foods after treatment of the full-overlapped gravitational field energy (FGFE). Wheat and soybean samples were irradiated at 0-5 kGy of Co-60 gamma energy, and analyzed for photostimulated and thermo luminescence characteristics (PSL and TL) and sprouting rate at 0 and 6th month after FGFE treatment. As a screening method for irradiated samples, PSL photon counts (PCs) for the non-irradiated samples appeared negative (<700 PCs), while irradiated samples gave positive (>5,000 PCs). But FGFE-treated irradiated samples appeared intermediate (700-5,000 PCs), showing decreased PCs during storage. The TL analysis on irradiated samples exhibited glow curve peaks in range of $150-200^{\circ}C$ and TL ratio ($TL_1/TL_2$) was also >0.1. Therefore, identification of irradiated samples was possible using thermoluminescence. But the glow curve range of FGFE-treated irradiated samples shifted from $150-200^{\circ}C$ to $180-230^{\circ}C$ and TL intensity was decreased 37-60% resulting from FGFE treatment. After 6 months of storage, all the samples showed a decrease in TL intensity, but identification was still possible. The sprouting rate of irradiated samples decreased by about 72%, whereas that of FGFE-treated irradiated samples showed by about 85%, as compared to non-irradiated samples. More detailed study is required to investigate sprouting phenomena for FGFE-treated samples.

Key Methodologies to Effective Site-specific Accessment in Contaminated Soils : A Review (오염토양의 효과적 현장조사에 대한 주요 방법론의 검토)

  • Chung, Doug-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.383-397
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    • 1999
  • For sites to be investigated, the results of such an investigation can be used in determining foals for cleanup, quantifying risks, determining acceptable and unacceptable risk, and developing cleanup plans t hat do not cause unnecessary delays in the redevelopment and reuse of the property. To do this, it is essential that an appropriately detailed study of the site be performed to identify the cause, nature, and extent of contamination and the possible threats to the environment or to any people living or working nearby through the analysis of samples of soil and soil gas, groundwater, surface water, and sediment. The migration pathways of contaminants also are examined during this phase. Key aspects of cost-effective site assessment to help standardize and accelerate the evaluation of contaminated soils at sites are to provide a simple step-by-step methodology for environmental science/engineering professionals to calculate risk-based, site-specific soil levels for contaminants in soil. Its use may significantly reduce the time it takes to complete soil investigations and cleanup actions at some sites, as well as improve the consistency of these actions across the nation. To achieve the effective site assessment, it requires the criteria for choosing the type of standard and setting the magnitude of the standard come from different sources, depending on many factors including the nature of the contamination. A general scheme for site-specific assessment consists of sequential Phase I, II, and III, which is defined by workplan and soil screening levels. Phase I are conducted to identify and confirm a site's recognized environmental conditions resulting from past actions. If a Phase 1 identifies potential hazardous substances, a Phase II is usually conducted to confirm the absence, or presence and extent, of contamination. Phase II involve the collection and analysis of samples. And Phase III is to remediate the contaminated soils determined by Phase I and Phase II. However, important factors in determining whether a assessment standard is site-specific and suitable are (1) the spatial extent of the sampling and the size of the sample area; (2) the number of samples taken: (3) the strategy of taking samples: and (4) the way the data are analyzed. Although selected methods are recommended, application of quantitative methods is directed by users having prior training or experience for the dynamic site investigation process.

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