• Title/Summary/Keyword: screening

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Why Screening Rates Vary between Korea and Japan-Differences between Two National Healthcare Systems

  • Goto, Rei;Hamashima, Chisato;Mun, Sunghyun;Lee, Won-Chul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.395-400
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    • 2015
  • Both Japan and Korea provide population-based screening programs. However, screening rates are much higher in Korea than in Japan. To clarify the possible factors explaining the differences between these two countries, we analyzed the current status of the cancer screening and background healthcare systems. Population-based cancer screening in Korea is coordinated well with social health insurance under a unified insurer system. In Japan, there are over 3,000 insurers and coordinating a comprehensive strategy for cancer screening promotion has been very difficult. The public healthcare system also has influence over cancer screening. In Korea, public healthcare does not cover a wide range of services. Almost free cancer screening and subsidization for medical cost for cancers detected in population-screening provides high incentive to participation. In Japan, on the other hand, a larger coverage of medical services, low co-payment, and a lenient medical audit enables people to have cancer screening under public health insurance as well as the broad range of cancer screening. The implementation of evidence-based cancer screening programs may be largely dependent on the background healthcare system. It is important to understand the impacts of each healthcare system as a whole and to match the characteristics of a particular health system when designing an efficient cancer screening system.

Factors Affecting Early Cancer Screening for Lung Cancer: Focusing on Lung Cancer Screening Subjects (폐암의 조기 암검진 여부에 미치는 요인: 폐암 검진 사업대상자를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Seok Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the current status of cancer screening among subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle and to analyze the factors affecting the cancer screening of subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle. Methods: This study used the 'National Health and Nutrition Survey 7th Year (2017)' surveyed nationwide as the main data. The subjects are lung cancer screening projects, the dependent variable is early cancer screening, the independent variables are gender, age, marital status, household income level, education level, national health insurance type, private health insurance, The number of chronic diseases, general health examination, smoking status, drinking status, moderate intensity physical activity, stress perception rate, and weight control efforts were determined. Results: The results of this study showed that factors affecting early cancer screening of lung cancer screening subjects were gender, age, marital status, education level, national health insurance, smoking status, drinking status, moderate physical activity, and weight. Irrespective of the control effort, it was found that the private medical insurance, the number of chronic diseases, the medical examination, and the stress perception rate were affected. Conclusion: If the lung cancer screening subjects recognize the importance of early cancer screening themselves and create a social environment to increase their participation rate, lung cancer screening patients and their families will help them to live a healthy life.

The Approach Method of Community-based Cancer Screening Program in Japan (일본의 지역사회 암 조기 검진사업에 관한 접근 방안)

  • Kim, Yeong-Bok
    • Journal of Korea Association of Health Promotion
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2005
  • The Community based cancer screening program passed in 1960 was a milestone for initiating a national and local health program in Japan. And since then local governments and Cancer Society have been developing and providing cancer screening programs of Stomach, Cervix, Breast and Colorectum for population. To apply the effectiveness of community based cancer screening program, it is important to understand the key issue related to cancer screening participation of population and technology of cancer detection. The purpose of this study was to understand the community based cancer screening program in Japan, and to apply the information for establishment of community based cancer screening program in Korea. The characteristics of community based cancer screening program in Japan were as follows. The first, community based cancer screening program was implemented by the National Health and Medical Services Law for the Aged since 1983. The second, Cancer Society and Cancer Detection Center were core for cancer screening program. The third, the budget for cancer screening program was established by the National Health and Hygiene. The fourth, the continuous quality control for medical staff was provided by Cancer Society and Cancer Detection Center The fifth, the efforts for the promotion of cancer screening rate.

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Future Medical Screening: A Challenge to the Insurance Industry (보험업계(保險業界)의 과제(課題))

  • Yoon, Byong-Hak;Kraus, H.K.
    • The Journal of the Korean life insurance medical association
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    • v.12
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 1993
  • After a short historical resume, screening is discussed on the basis of the current philosophy of Life insurance compaines in leading countries. This is followed by considerations with regard to the future in areas of major bearing on Life insurance screening which have emerged as important within the last decade. HIV-antibody testing is dealt with from the screening point of view followed by aspects regarding the applicability of tumour marker use in Life insurance medicine. Last but not least genetic testing will be addressed, taking into account prospects for the future, as well as the resulting responsibility in medical and underwriting terms. The major considerations and suggested guidelines can be summarized as follows: 1) Screening in Life insurance is a prerequisite for underwriting and is a well-functioning selection instrument. 2) Screening technologies are medically well defined and have to follow general clinical rules, also in the future. 3) Screening parameters should follow the patterns of diseases according to age and risk groups. 4) Screening parameters for prognostic use are legitimate as long as they are considered in conjuction with clinical medical observations and rules. 5) Screening technologies of a sensitive nature require very special rules for handling in the sense of "consequential ethies". 6) Screening parameters like HIV-antibody testing require ongoing scientific feedback in their new testing dimensions. 7) Screening in the form of genetic testing is as yet not used in Life insurance; its potential future role in Life insurfance medicine must, however, be discussed responsibly and in time. 8) Screening enables the insurance industry to rule out possible antiselection and provide for equal knowledge on the part of the insurance applicant and the insurer about impairements which shorten life expectancy. 9) Screening, informed consent, counselling and confidentiality must go hand in hand both now and to an even greater extent in the future.

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Factors Associated with Cancer Screening Rates of Manufacturing Workers (제조업 근로자의 암 검진 관련 요인)

  • Park, Su Ho;Kim, Chang Hee;Kim, Eun Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.179-190
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Regular cancer screening for workers can help prevent cancer or allow early treatment, and is thus beneficial in improving health, reducing costs, and increasing companies' productivity. However, there has been little research on cancer screening rates of workers and related factors. The purpose of this study was to identify cancer screening rates and relevant factors among manufacturing workers. Methods: Using a questionnaire, data were collected from 335 workers aged over 40 years recruited from seven manufacturing companies. The collected information included cancer screenings (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical), attitude towards cancer screening, and demographic and job characteristics. Results: 72.5% of workers received stomach cancer screening (SCS), and 43% received colorectal cancer screening (CRCS). Among 86 women, 68.6% received breast cancer screening and cervical cancer screening. The attitude towards cancer screening was $29.5{\pm}3.78$. Workers aged over 51, married, and those working in mobile manufacturing were more likely to have undergone SCS. Workers aged over 51, married, those working in mobile manufacturing, those in workplaces with more than 1,001 employees, and those with more positive attitudes toward cancer screening were more likely to have undergone CRCS. Finally, attitude affected cervical cancer screening. Conclusion: Workers in small-sized workplaces had lower cancer screening rates. Thus, follow-up research should assess the health environment of workplaces and develop educational programs on cancer screening that reflect attitudes towards screening.

Related Factors to Screening or Repeat Screening for Cervical and Breast Cancer among Women (자궁경부암과 유방암 선별검사 수검 및 반복수검 관련요인 조사)

  • Jeong, Ihn-Sook;Ju, Hyeon-Ok;Bae, Eun-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.150-161
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    • 2004
  • The importance of screening or repeat screening for cervical and breast cancer is well known to decrease the chance of death from cancer. Few data is avaliable regarding factors associated with participation in cervical and breast cancer screening and repeat screening examinations. This study was to investigate the associations of demographic factors, health status and cancer risk recognition, attitude to cancer screening, health behaviors, and inhibiting or facilitating factors to cervical and breast cancer screening with participation in the screening tests. Data was collected with self-administrated questionnaires from 342 women, aged 40 to 69 years. The cancer screenings were classified into have had or never groups and repeat or not repeated groups. In the case of cervical and breast cancer screening, the have had group was 90 (26.3%), and 82 (24.0%) and the repeat group was 17 (5.0%), and 13 (3.8%) respectively. According to logistic regression analysis, age (<60 vs ${\geq}60$ : OR=3.25, 95% CI=1.27-8.26), breast cancer screening (Do vs Don't : OR=14.49, 95% CI=7.46-27.78) and other person's cancer (Yes vs No : OR=4.27, 95% CI=1.01-18.05) were statistically significantly associated with participation in screening for cervical cancer. Regular exercise (Do vs Don't : OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.30-5.88) and cervical cancer screening (Do vs Don't : OR=13.70, 95% CI=7.09-26.32) were statistically significantly related to participation in screening for breast cancer.

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Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Cervical Cancer Screening Strategies Based on the Papanicolaou Smear Test in Korea

  • Ko, Min Jung;Kim, Jimin;Kim, Younhee;Lee, Yoon Jae;Hong, Sung Ran;Lee, Jae Kwan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2317-2322
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    • 2015
  • Background: Despite the increasing number of screening examinations performed for cervical cancer utilizing the Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test), few studies have examined whether this strategy is cost-effective in Korea. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating the Pap test based on age at the start and end of screening as well as screening interval. Materials and Methods: We designed four alternative screening strategies based on patient age when screening was started (20 or 30 years) and discontinued (lifetime, 79 years). Each strategy was assessed at screening intervals of 1, 2, 3, or 5 years. A Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the 16 possible cervical cancer screening strategies, and this was evaluated from a societal perspective. The main outcome measures were average lifetime cost, incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results: Compared with various strategies comprising younger starting age, discontinuation age, and longer screening intervals, strategies employing annual screening for cervical cancer starting at a target age of 30 years and above were the most cost-effective, with an ICER of 21,012.98 dollars per QALY gained (with a Korean threshold of 30,000,000 KRW or US$27,272). Conclusions: We found that annual screening for cervical cancer beginning at a target age of 30 years and above is most cost-effective screening strategy. Considering the potential economic advantages, more intense screening policies for cervical cancer might be favorable among countries with high rates of cervical cancer and relatively low screening costs.

Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans

  • Hwang, Hyenam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.4025-4032
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer for all US populations including Asian Americans. CRC screening has considerable benefits to prevent CRC and reduce mortality. The purpose of this article was to review the published literature on rates of colorectal cancer screening and factors associated with colorectal cancer screening practice among Asian Americans. Methods: Through searching electronic reference databases from 2000 to 2013, 30 articles were found on Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans. Findings: Asian Americans had significantly low ratesfor CRC screening; Korean Americans reported the lowest rates, while higher screening rates were found among Japanese Americans. Older age, longer length of stay in the US, and having a physician's recommendation were the most common facilitators to receiving screening. The common inhibiting factors were financial issues, employment status, and worries/fears about the procedure. Conclusions: Despite a number of Asian Americans being vulnerable to CRC, individual Asian subgroups were underserved with CRC screening and intervention. Further studies should focus on each individual Asian subgroup and culturally proficient CRC screening intervention programs should be developed for each.

Review of Strategies in Promoting Attendance for Cervical Screening

  • Demirtas, Basak
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3263-3267
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    • 2013
  • Background: The importance of cervical screening has been addressed in numerous studies. However, reviews conducted to explore of strategies to promoting attendance for cervical screening have been limited. This study aimed to explore strategies to promote attendance for cervical screening. Materials and Methods: A literature search from databases (1994-2011) was undertaken to include papers that identified strategies related to the cervical screening. Results: Twenty-four papers were included in this review. The review of existing strategies identified valuable information on cervical screening and areas that could be improved in meeting womens' needs. Conclusions: The review highlighted important aspects of cervical screening that could be further addressed by promoting strategies to attendance. Assessing women's health beliefs, inpatient cervical cancer screening, nurse-led screening, and cognition-emotion focused programs are among the strategies to promote attendance for pap smear testing.

Have we Comprehensively Evaluated the Effectiveness of Endoscopic Screening for Gastric Cancer?

  • Hamashima, Chisato
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3591-3592
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    • 2015
  • Endoscopy has been increasingly used in clinical practice and as a standardized examination procedure for gastrointestinal diseases. However, only a few studies on endoscopic screening for evaluating mortality reduction from gastric cancer have been carried out. Even if a high detection rate is obtained in clinical practice, such a rate cannot be directly accepted as evidence providing the effectiveness of cancer screening. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer is not an exception of possibility to detect overdiagnosis. If detection rate is used for the evaluation of the effectiveness of cancer screening, the possibility of overestimating the effectiveness of cancer screening cannot be ruled out. To avoid the effect of overdiagnosis and confirm the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be carefully evaluated by conducting reliable studies. The burden of gastric cancer remains real and this cannot be ignored in Eastern Asian countries. To determine the best available method for gastric cancer screening, evaluation of its effectiveness is a must. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further comprehensive evaluation to reliably confirm its effectiveness and how its optimal use can be strategically promoted.