• Title, Summary, Keyword: salt/sodium intake

Search Result 135, Processing Time 0.038 seconds

Salt Preference and Sodium Intake among Pregnant Women (임부의 염분 기호도와 식이섭취, 소디움 섭취 실태)

  • Im, Mi Jeung;Cho, Dong Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.22 no.4
    • /
    • pp.297-307
    • /
    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was to estimate salt preference and sodium intake of pregnant women, and identify the relationship between salt preference and sodium intake. Methods: Research design was a cross sectional correlational survey with 197 pregnant women who visited outpatient clinics for antenatal care. The sodium intake levels were estimated by the amounts of sodium intake using the 24-hour recall method and sodium concentration in spot urine. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results: Sodium intake using 24-hour recall method was $3,504{\pm}1,359mg$. Sodium intake levels had statistically significant differences depending on income. The average amount of sodium in spot urine was $2,882{\pm}878mg/day$. Sodium excretion levels had statistically significant differences depending on whether participants had preexisting hypertension in their family history and Body Mass Index (BMI) pre-conception. Salt preference was $62.61{\pm}20.96$ out of 180 points. Salt preference had significant differences depending on income, parity, gestational age, BMI pre-conception and showed negative correlation with sodium quantity in spot urine. Conclusion: Sodium intake in pregnant women recommended by World Health Organization recommended is 175%. Salt preference was not significantly different between sodium intake levels, however it was negatively correlated with sodium quantity in spot urine among pregnant women.

Compliance with a Low-Salt Diet, Sodium Intake, and Preferred Salty Taste in the Hypertensive Elderly (노인 고혈압 환자의 저염식이 이행, 나트륨 섭취 및 짠 맛에 대한 기호도)

  • Lee, Young-Hee;Kim, Hyun-Kyung;Kwon, Gyoung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
    • /
    • v.24 no.2
    • /
    • pp.311-322
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose: This study aimed to examine the compliance to a low-salt diet, sodium intake, and preferred salty taste in elderly patients with hypertension. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Participants were 105 elderly patients with hypertension living in a rural area. The compliance with a low-salt diet, sodium intake, and preferred salty taste, blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference were measured, and compared according to the general characteristics and the levels of blood pressure. Descriptive statistics, $X^2$-test, t-test, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: compliance with a low-salt diet was marginally elevated. Sodium intake was relatively high and the main sources were seasonings and vegetables. The participants tended to prefer high levels of salt. Sodium intake was significantly higher the hypertensive individuals (stage I and II) compared to prehypertensive subjects on a normal maintenance diet. Sodium intake from vegetables was also significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Nursing intervention for hypertensive elderly patients should include strategies to decrease sodium intake.

A Comparative Analysis of Salt-Related Dietary Patterns According to the Sodium Intake of College Students in Busan (부산지역 대학생의 나트륨 섭취량에 따른 식생활 비교)

  • Lee, Sang Hee;Ryu, Ho Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.167-176
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study compares salt-related dietary patterns according to sodium intake. A survey was conducted with 257 college students(130 male and 127 female students) in the Busan area. Dish Frequency Questionnaire 70(DFQ 70) was used to quantitatively estimate sodium intake. A short dish frequency questionnaire(DFQ 15) was used to screen subjects with high or low- salt intake. The sodium intake of male students based on DFQ 70 was significantly higher than that of female students(p<0.05). Sodium intake has significant negative effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure(p<0.05). In the high-salt intake(HS) group, classified by DFQ 15, the number of male students was significantly higher than that of female students(p<0.01). The systolic blood pressure of the HS group was significantly higher than that of the low-salt intake(LS) group(p<0.05). Salt-related dietary behavior score and eating habit score for the HS group were significantly higher than those for the LS group(p<0.01). The sodium intake of the HS group based on DFQ 70 was significantly higher than that of the LS group(p<0.01). In these results, college students in Busan area showed high blood pressure and high sodium intake compared to Korean DRIs. The results indicate a need for various education programs to help college students practice a low-sodium diet.

A Survey on the Salt Content of Kindergarten Lunch Meals and Meal Providers' Dietary Attitude to Sodium Intake in Gyeonggi-do Area (경기도지역 어린이집과 유치원 급식의 소금함량 및 유아 식사준비자의 나트륨 섭취관련 식태도 조사)

  • Kim, Jin Nam;Park, Seoyun;Ahn, Sohyun;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
    • /
    • v.18 no.5
    • /
    • pp.478-490
    • /
    • 2013
  • Dietary habit of excess sodium consumption is formed mainly by excessive salt intake from the younger age and this may lead to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in kindergarten meals and provide basic data on meal providers' dietary attitude to sodium intake for nutrition education. We collected data on161 food items from 16 institutions in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food items. The average salt content from lunch meals was 2.2 g, which was about daily adequate intake of sodium for children aged 3 to 5 years old. Greatest contributor to the salt content in a meal was soup and stew (47.8%). The most salty dishes were sauces and kimchi followed by stir-fried food, deep-fried food, braised food, and grilled food. The salt content was higher in soup and stew despite of low salinity, due to the large quantity per serving. The salt contents of soups and kimchi were 40.6% and 14.3%, respectively of the total salt content in dish groups. Staff members and caregivers at home who prepared food for the child showed preference for one-dish rice meal, dried fish and salted mackerel, and broth when eating soup, stew, and noodles. Caregivers showed higher sodium index score and had higher preference for processed food such as Ramen, canned food, and ham compared with staff members (p < 0.05). These results suggested that monitoring salt content of kindergarten meals and nutrition education for those prepare meals for children are needed to lower sodium intake in childhood.

A Study on the Salt Contents in Foods Served by Institutional Foodservice Establishment (산업체 급식에서 제공되는 식사의 염분 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ah;No, Sung-Yun;Lee, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.18 no.5
    • /
    • pp.739-745
    • /
    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine the salt-intake from meals that were served by an institutional foodservice establishment for a month. Meals (176) were classified into 12 food groups by CAN Pro 3.0. These consisted of bap 6, mandu 5, guk 29, jjigae 9, jjim 4, gui 8, jeon 5, bokeum 25, jorim 16, fried 7, namul 49, pickled 12. The average salt content of 100 g of each menu item was significantly higher in the order of pickled>jorim>bokeum>gui>namul>jeon>jjigae>jjim>fried. The average salt and sodium contents of 1 potion of menu item was significantly higher in the order of jjigae>mandu>guk>bap>jorim>pickled>bokeum>gui>fried>jjim>gimchi>namul>jeon. The average salt contents of kim-chijjigae (6.05 g), eggjorim (7.01 g), cooked namul (2.78 g) and salted pepperleaves (4.67 g) was higher than that of the other menu items served frequently in the establishment. The average intake of salt and sodium was 23.48 g (sodium 9,310 mg) a day, 7.35 g (sodium 2,960 mg) with breakfast, 7.55 g (sodium 2,990 mg) with lunch and 8.33 g (sodium 3,300 mg) with dinner. The daily salt intake was slightly higher than that of DRIs (Dietary Reference Intakes).

  • PDF

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools

  • Ahn, Sohyun;Park, Seoyun;Kim, Jin Nam;Han, Sung Nim;Jeong, Soo Bin;Kim, Hye-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-65
    • /
    • 2013
  • Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

The effect of salt usage behavior on sodium intake and excretion among Korean women

  • Lee, Jeung-Yun;Cho, Dong-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Ju
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.232-237
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was done to explore the effect of Korean women's salt usage behavior on their sodium intake and excretion according to aging. Dietary sodium intake and salt usage behavior were analyzed to compare the difference between young and middle-aged women. One hundred fifty six young women and 77 middle-aged women without hypertension or any current medication were recruited. Body mass index, waist hip ratio, blood pressure were measured from each subject. Salt usage behaviors were surveyed with questionnaire, sodium intake with 24-hr recall method, and sodium excretion with spot urine. Middle-aged women were more obese than young women according to body mass index and waist hip ratio. Blood pressure was significantly higher for the middle-aged. Young women consumed more fats and middle-aged women more carbohydrates. Middle-aged women consumed more sodium and potassium, and excreted more sodium. Among questionnaire items, kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables were found to be related with high sodium diet. Salted vegetables and salted nuts and potato chips were significantly correlated with young women's high sodium diet, while soy sauce on fried food, kimchi, salted vegetables accounted for middle-aged women's high sodium diet. With these results, we concluded that middle-aged women consumed more carbohydrates, less fat, and more sodium and potassium than young women. Middle-aged women frequently choose kimchi, soup or pot stew, or salted vegetables, and they contribute to high sodium intake. We recommend to choose low-salt kimchi, less soup or pot stew, and more fresh vegetables for lower sodium diet.

Analysis of presumed sodium intake of office workers using 24-hour urine analysis and correlation matrix between variables (24시간 소변분석을 통한 직장인의 나트륨 섭취 추정량 및 관련 변수와의 상관성 분석)

  • Kim, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.46 no.1
    • /
    • pp.26-33
    • /
    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the sodium intake of office workers using 24-hour urine analysis and to analyze the correlation matrix between variables. The sodium intake of the subjects (n = 137), based on a 24-hr sodium excretion period, was male (n = 56) 6072.4 mg and female (n = 81) 5,168.2 mg. Urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive correlation with BMI, frequency of eating out, expenditure of eating out, salty taste assessment and high-salt dietary behavior. Analysis of urinary sodium excretion showed significant positive correlation with intake frequencies of cabbage kimchi, broiled fish, feast noodle and rice with leaf wraps. Based on the results of multiple regression, urinary sodium excretion was found to be related to intake frequencies of cabbage kimchi, broiled fish, rice with leaf wraps and high score of high-salt dietary behavior.

Survey on Nutrition Knowledge, Food Behaviors, and Food Frequency of Sodium Intake in Korean University Students (대학생의 나트륨 관련 영양지식과 식행동 및 나트륨 급원식품 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Hong, Myung-Sun;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.12-19
    • /
    • 2015
  • This study was performed for the purpose of establishing proper dietary behaviors and improving sodium intake status by investigating nutrition knowledge, dietary behaviors, and food intake frequency related to sodium in 398 university students living in Gyeonggi-do and Incheon. Female students showed a higher rate of eating out more than five times a week as well as daily snack intake than male students. Female students showed a higher score for sodium-related nutrition knowledge than male students, whereas male students showed higher sodium intake than female students. Subjects who showed a higher frequency of eating out and snack intake also showed a higher salt intake ratio and sodium-related nutrition knowledge. Subjects with higher scores related to sodium-related nutrition knowledge showed a higher low salt intake ratio and incidence of low sodium food intake. From this research, depending on the level of nutrition knowledge related to sodium university students showed differences in dietary behavior related to sodium intake. This result would be helpful to develop lower sodium training materials specific to low sodium food selection tips, reading nutrition labels, and so on.

Dietary Risk Factors for Hypertension among Korean Adult Men

  • Park, Jin-Young;Shim, Jae-Eun;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
    • /
    • v.8 no.4
    • /
    • pp.193-199
    • /
    • 2006
  • There have been many studies indicating increased salt intake is related to elevated blood pressure (BP). Hypertension and pre-hypertension are prevalent in Korea. A national survey showed that the Korean average daily salt consumption was 12.5g, which is more than twice the current recommendation in the UK or USA. This study was performed to understand which aspects of the Korean diet contributed to high salt intake and elevated BP in Korea. The subjects consisted of 1,110 Korean adult men aged 30 to 49 years who were selected from the data of 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, a nationwide cross sectional survey. The relationship of BP with sodium and high sodium food intakes were analyzed. After categorizing subjects according to their BP, the socio-demographic information and food and nutrients intakes were analyzed. BP increased with a larger amounts of sodium intake and the trend was significant with diastolic BP. However, the trends of BP for sodium densities of the diet were not. People with hypertension significantly tended to be older, larger, and less educated than people with normal BP. And they consumed more foods from the fats, oils & sweets group and larger amounts of discretionary sodium than normal people. The current report advocates that public health intervention, which improves the awareness of the role of salt on elevated blood pressure for the public, should be implemented in Korea.