• Title, Summary, Keyword: safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed extract

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Preparation of High Quality Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract by High-Pressure Extraction Process

  • Seo, Il-Ho;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.373-377
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    • 2009
  • Safflower seed extract was prepared by a high-pressure extraction technology and its quality characteristics were compared to that of other conventional extraction techniques, such ultrasonic and reflux extractions. Safflower seeds were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol by three above extraction methods, and further fractionated with Diaion HP-20 column chromatography to obtain a partially purified safflower seed extract (PPSSE). Among the three extraction techniques examined, the reflux extraction showed the higher yields of EtOH extract and PPE than the ultrasonic and high-pressure extractions. Levels of most phenolic compounds in the EtOH extract of safflower seed are higher in reflux and ultrasonic extractions than the high pressure extraction, but levels of two serotonin aglycones, N-(p-coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) and N-feruloylserotonin (FS), in PPSSE were higher in the high pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions. In addition, color values (L and a) of the PPSSE were higher in the high-pressure extraction than the reflux and ultrasonic extractions, although there were no significant differences in pH and UV maxima absorption spectra among three extraction techniques. These results indicate that the high-pressure extraction technology is a simple and effective extraction for preparation of a high quality of safflower seed extract containing CS and FS with anti-wrinkle activity.

Anti-wrinkle Effect of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed Extract (II) (홍화씨추출물의 피부 주름개선 효과(II))

  • Kim Mi Jin;Kim Ja Young;Choi Sang-Won;Hong Jin Tae;Yoon Kyung-Sup
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.449-456
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    • 2004
  • Phytoestrogens derived from plants and foods, which are diphenolic compounds with structural similarities to natural and synthetic estrogens, have been shown to estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions. Particularly, recent study revealed that phenolic compounds in safflower seed, such as serotonin derivatives, lignans and flavonoids, could be acted as phytoestrogens. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed extract (SID C.SE), therefore, are receiving a renewed interest as potential therapeutic source against skin wrinkles induced by estrogen deficiency. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-wrinkle effect of SID C.SE on normal human fibroblasts through the expression of type I procollagen and UVA-induced MMP-1 in vitro. The SID C.SE increased the type I procollagen expression, comparable to trans-retinol and reduced UVA-induced MMP-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The clinical study indicated that cream group treated with $0.1\%$ SID C.SE significantly reduced a skin wrinkles, as compared with a control (non-treated cream group) (p<0.05). These results suggest that the safflower seed extract may be useful as potential source of anti-wrinkle cosmetics.

Sterol Composition and Phytoestrogen Activity of Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seed (홍화(Carthamus tinctorius L.)씨의 sterol 및 Phytoestrogen 분석)

  • 최영주;최상욱
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2003
  • This study was done to investigated the phytosterol compositions of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed. The phytoestrogen activity was also determined using CAT-ELISA Kit in ethanol extract of safflower seed. The phytosterol of safflower seeds was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after saponification of the oils. The phytosterol content and composition of safflower seed oils were 4% and identified stigmast-5-en-3-ol (3$\beta$, 24S)-form, ${\gamma}$-sitosterol (clionasterol) with Wiley MS spectrum library. The synergistic effect of human estrogen receptor (hER) has been investigated using a minimal chimeric promoters composed of the TATA region of the adenovirus-2 major late promoter (A22MLP) and two consensus perfectly polindromic Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene estrogen responsive elements (XVEREl19). Transient transfection experiments in tile human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7, which is known to express the estrogen receptor endogenously, revealed that phytoestrogen from Carthamus tinctorius L. acts as estrogen. We have observed the transcriptional activities stimulated methanol and ethanol extract of safflower seed in MCF-7, were 0.43 and 0.37 respectively, compared to that by $\beta$-estradiol as 1.0. Our data showed that safflower seeds have estrogenic activity methanol and ethanol extracts and ethanol lower than that of $\beta$-estradiol. This result provides the first evidence that the beneficial effect of safflower seeds may be mediated, at least in part, by the stimulating effect of phytoestrogen ell bone-protecting.

Anti-wrinkle Effect of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) Seed Extract (I) (홍화씨추출물의 피부 주름개선 효과(I))

  • 윤경섭;김미진;김자영;최상원;홍진태
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2004
  • Anti-wrinkle Effect of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed extract (CTSE) was evaluated by determination of the anti-oxidation, collagen synthesis and elastase inhibition in normal human fibroblast. CTSE showed anti-oxidation and collagen synthesis ability as much as or greater than other phytoestrogenic compounds such as genistein or resveratrol. Consistent with collagen synthesis promotion, CTSE also showed inhibitory effect on elastase activity. In the human skin irritation test, 0.2% CTSE did not show any adverse effect. These results demonstrate that CTSE can be useful as an anti-wrinkle cosmetic ingredient.

The biologic effects of magnoliae cortex extract and safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius $Linn{\acute{e}}$) extract mixture on PDL cells and osteoblasts (후박 및 홍화종자 추출혼합물이 치주인대세포 및 골아세포의 활성도 및 백서의 두개골재생에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Seung-Yun;Lee, Yong-Moo;Ku, Young;Bae, Ki-Hwan;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.545-559
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    • 1998
  • Magnoliae cortex has been used as a drug for treatment of fractures in Chinese medicine and safflower(Carthamus tinctorius $Linn{\acute{e}}$) has been traditionally used for treatment of blood stasis. The purpose of present study was to examine the biologic effects of magnoliae cortex extract and safflower extract mixture(MSM) on human periodontal ligament cells and fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts and on healing of rat calvarial defects. The ethanolic extracts of magnoliae cortex(MCE), safflower seed(SSE), Zea May L(ZML) were prepared as positive control group. MSM mixed to the ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 were used as test group. The effects of each agents on the growth and survival, ALPase activity, cell proliferation and tissue regenerative effect of each extracts was evaluated by histomorphometric measuring of newly formed bone on the 8 mm defect in rat calvaria after oral administration of 2 ratio groups(1 : 5 and 1 : 10) at 3 different doses (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5g/kg per day). MSM stimulated the growth and survival rate of osteoblasts and PDL cells more than any other agents. The growth and survival rate were increased as the proportion of safflower seed extract was increased. MCE, SSE, ZML stimulated the ALPase activity of osteoblast and PDL cell in comparison to the negative control group. But all groups of MSM regardless of ratio of safflower seed extract stimulated the ALPase activity than any other agent. The ALPase activity was also increased as the proportion of safflower seed extract was increased. Although MCE, SSE, ZML stimulated the proliferation of osteoblasts. 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 ratio MSM showed significant increase in stimulation of proliferation of osteoblasts. No agent significantly increased proliferation of PDL cells. Significant new bone formation were seen where 1 : 5 ratio, 0.5g/kg group and 1 : 10 ratio, 0.25, 0.5g/kg groups were used. These results show that magnoliae cortex extract and safflower seed extract mixture can potentially increase bone regeneration ability.

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Proliferative and Differentiative Effects of Trachelogenin Isolated from Germinated Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) Seeds on Calvarial Bone Cells

  • Kim, Eun-Ok;Kim, Kyoung-Soon;Lee, Won-Jung;Choi, Sang-Won
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.689-693
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    • 2009
  • Germination is well-known to enhance the digestibility, functionality, and palatability of plant seeds. To examine the functionality of germinated-safflower seed (GSS), proliferative and differentiative effects of GSS extract on the mouse calvarial bone cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolinbromide (MTT) assay and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively. Water extract of GSS increased dose-dependently proliferative and differentiative effects on calvarial bone cell, and its effects were stronger than those of ungerminated-safflower seeds (UGSS) extract. One major component was isolated from GSS extract by a series of purification procedure of solvent fractionation, Diaion HP-20, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Its chemical structure was identified as trachelogenin (TC) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) spectral analysis. Trachelogenin showed significant proliferative (125.7%) and differentiative (132.1%) effects on calvarial bone cells at $10^{-8}M$, and its effects were significantly higher than those of $17{\beta}-estradiol\;(E_2)$. TC was found to be a major active compound responsible for high proliferative and differentative effects of the water extract of GSS. Therefore, these results suggest that TC in GSS may be useful as potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of bone loss.

Antioxidative Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Roasted Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seeds

  • Kang, Ga-Hwa;Chang, Eun-Ju;Park, Sang-Won
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 1999
  • Antioxidative compounds contained in roasted safflower seeds were investigated. Six phenolic compounds, N-feruloylserotonin, N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, matairesinol, 8'-hydroxyarctigenin, acacetin 7-Ο-β-D-glucoside(tilianine) and acacetin were isolated and identified from the extract of seeds. The inhibitory effects of six phenolic compounds on 1,1-dipheny1-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical and lipid peroxidation induced by H₂O₂/FeSO₄in rat liver microsomes were determined. Two serotonins showed more potent DPPH radical scavenging activity, and a stronger inhibitory effect on the lipid peroxidation than that of α-tocopherol. In addition, acacetin and matairesinol also considerably inhibited lipid peroxidation, while 2-hydroxy-arctigenin and tilianine were inactive. These results suggest that phenolic compounds, including serotonins, lignans and flavonoids in the roasted safflower seeds can be used as potential dietary natural antioxidants.

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Effect of Safflower and Safflower Seed Extract on Osteogenic Differentiation of MC3T3E1 Cells (홍화, 홍화씨 추출물이 MC3T3E1 세포의 골분화 과정에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Sung-ryul;Shin, Seon-mi
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.518-526
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    • 2015
  • Objectives This study investigated the effect of purified safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Linne) and safflower seed (Carthamus tinctorius L. seed; CS) extract, using hot water and ethanol extract methods , on the osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3E1 cells.Methods The safflower and safflower seed were extracted with hot water and ethanol. The samples were concentrated by a rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried using a freeze-dryer. The MC3T3E1 cells were propagated and maintained in DMEM (Gibco) containing 10% FBS and a 1% antibiotic antimycotic solution. To induce osteogenic differentiation, the cells were treated for 14 days with DMEM with 10 mM β-glycerophosphate and 50 μM ascorbic acid. Extract doses were confirmed by the results of an MTT assay, and treatment of the extracts was performed in a differentiation medium every two days. The ALP staining and activity were tested after osteogenic differentiation for five days, and after 14 days, osteogenic differentiation was determined by alizarin red S staining. The mRNA expressions of osteogenic-related genes were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR.Results In the results of the MTT assay, all concentrations of safflower extracts had no toxicity in the MC3T3El cells. But in the groups of 100 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml concentrations of safflower seed extracts, the cell viability was significantly reduced by up to 40-50%. So we fixed the treatment concentration of the extract at 50 ng/ml. In the ALP and alizarin red S staining, all extract groups increased osteogenic differentiation compared with the control group. The water-safflower extract group showed the highest mRNA level of Alp, Runx2, and Dlx5 genes. The mRNA level of Ocn, an osteogenic gene related to late-stage differentiation, in the ethanol-safflower extract group increased the mineralization more significantly than in other groups.Conclusions These data suggest that the extract of safflower increases the osteoblastic differentiation activates of MC3T3E1 cells like the extract of safflower seed. The water-extract and ethanol-extract of safflower have effects on different stages of osteogenesis in MC3T3El. Not only safflower seed but also safflower will be useful therapeutic reagents for age-associated chronic diseases such as osteoporosis.

The biologic effects of safflower(Carthamus tinctorius $Linn\acute{e}$) extract and Dipsasi Radix extract on periodontal ligament cells and osteoblastic cells (홍화 추출물이 치주인대세포, 조골세포 활성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhyu, In-Chul;Lee, Yong-Moo;Ku, Young;Bae, Ki-Whan;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.867-882
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    • 1997
  • Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius $Linn\acute{e}$ has been traditionally used for the treatment of blood stasis, and Dipsasi Radix has been used as a drug for fracture in Chinese medicine. The purpose of present study was to examine the biologic effects of safflower extract and Disasi radix extracts on the periodontal. ligament cells and osteoblastic cells and on the wound healing of rat calvarial defect. The ethanolic extract of safflower blossom, safflower seed and Dipsasi Radix(125, 250, and 500 ${\mu}g/ml$) were prepared as test group, and PDGF-BB(lOng/ml) and unsafonifiable fraction of Zea Mays L.(125, 250, and 500 ${\mu}g/ml$) were employed as positive control. The effects of each agents on the growth and survival, ALPase activity, expression of PDGF-BB receptor, chemotactic response of PDL cell and ATCC human osteosarcoma MG63 cells in vitro were examined. The tissue regenerative effect of each extracts was evaluated by histomorphometric measuring of newly formed bone on the 8mm defect in rat calvaria after oral administration of 3 different dosages groups : 0.02, 0.1 and 0.35g/kg, per day. It was also employed the same dosages of unsaponifiable fraction of Zea Mays L. as positive controls. Safflower blossom extract, safflower seed extract, and Dipsasi Radix extract stimulate the cellular activity of MG63 cells in concentration range of $125-500{\mu}g/ml$, and safflower bolssom extract and safflower seed extract stimulate also the cellular activity of periodontal ligament cells in concentration range of $250-500{\mu}g/ml$. In activity of ALPase, $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extracts showed significant stimulating effects on MG63 cells, and the same concentration range of safflower seed extracts showed significant effect on periodontal ligament cells. In the recovery on PDGF-BB receptor expression which was depressed by $IL-1{\beta}$, $125-250{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extracts and $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower seed extracts showed significant increasing effect on MG63 cells, and $500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower blossom extract and $250-500{\mu}g/ml$ of safflower seed extracts showed significant effect on periodontal ligament cells. In chemotactic response, among all tested group, safflower seed extracts only were chemotactic to MG63 cells and periodontal ligament cells in concentration range of $125-500{\mu}g/ml$. Also in the view of bone regeneration in rat calvarial defect model, the only group that was orally administrated 0.35g/kg, day of safflower seed extract showed significant new bone formation. These results suggested that safflower extracts might have a potential possibilities as an useful drug for adjunct to treatment for regeneration of periodontal defect.

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Anticancer Activity of the Safflower Seeds (Carthamus tinctorius L.) through Inducing Cyclin D1 Proteasomal Degradation in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Park, Gwang Hun;Hong, Se Chul;Jeong, Jin Boo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 2016
  • The seed of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L) has been reported to suppress human cancer cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which safflower seed inhibits cancer cell proliferation have remained nuclear. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the safflower seed (SS) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells and the potential mechanism of action were examined. SS inhibited markedly the proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29). In addition, SS suppressed the proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). SS treatment decreased cyclin D1 protein level in human colorectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells. But, SS-mediated downregulated mRNA level of cyclin D1 was not observed. Inhibition of proteasomal degradation by MG132 attenuated cyclin D1 downregulation by SS and the half-life of cyclin D1 was decreased in SS-treated cells. In addition, SS increased cyclin D1 phosphorylation at threonine-286 and a point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated SS-mediated cyclin D1 degradation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD98059 suppressed cyclin D1 phosphorylation and downregulation of cyclin D1 by SS. In conclusion, SS has anti-proliferative activity by inducing cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation through ERK1/2-dependent threonine-286 phosphorylation of cyclin D1. These findings suggest that possibly its extract could be used for treating colorectal cancer.