• Title, Summary, Keyword: sPD-1

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Analysis of the Expression and Regulation of PD-1 Protein on the Surface of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs)

  • Nam, Sorim;Lee, Aram;Lim, Jihyun;Lim, Jong-Seok
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2019
  • Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that are able to suppress T cell function are a heterogeneous cell population frequently observed in cancer, infection, and autoimmune disease. Immune checkpoint molecules, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on T cells and its ligand (PD-L1) expressed on tumor cells or antigen-presenting cells, have received extensive attention in the past decade due to the dramatic effects of their inhibitors in patients with various types of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PD-1 on MDSCs in bone marrow, spleen, and tumor tissue derived from breast tumor-bearing mice. Our studies demonstrate that PD-1 expression is markedly increased in tumor-infiltrating MDSCs compared to expression in bone marrow and spleens and that it can be induced by LPS that is able to mediate $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling. Moreover, expression of PD-L1 and CD80 on $PD-1^+$ MDSCs was higher than on $PD-1^-$ MDSCs and proliferation of MDSCs in a tumor microenvironment was more strongly induced in $PD-1^+$ MDSCs than in $PD-1^-$ MDSCs. Although we could not characterize the inducer of PD-1 expression derived from cancer cells, our findings indicate that the study on the mechanism of PD-1 induction in MDSCs is important and necessary for the control of MDSC activity; our results suggest that $PD-1^+$ MDSCs in a tumor microenvironment may induce tumor development and relapse through the modulation of their proliferation and suppressive molecules.

Reconstructed Adeno-Associated Virus with the Extracellular Domain of Murine PD-1 Induces Antitumor Immunity

  • Elhag, Osama A.O.;Hu, Xiao-Jing;Wen-Ying, Zhang;Li, Xiong;Yuan, Yong-Ze;Deng, Ling-Feng;Liu, De-Li;Liu, Ying-Le;Hui, Geng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4031-4036
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    • 2012
  • Background: The negative signaling provided by interactions of the co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 (PD-1), and its ligands, B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), is a critical mechanism contributing to tumor evasion; blockade of this pathway has been proven to enhance cytotoxic activity and mediate antitumor therapy. Here we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of AAV-mediated delivery of the extracellular domain of murine PD-1 (sPD-1) to a tumor site. Material and Methods: An rAAV vector was constructed in which the expression of sPD-1, a known negative regulator of TCR signals, is driven by human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-P), using a triple plasmid transfection system. Tumor-bearing mice were then treated with the AAV/sPD1 construct and expression of sPD-1 in tumor tissues was determined by semi quantitative RT-PCR, and tumor weights and cytotoxic activity of splenocytes were measured. Results: Analysis of tumor homogenates revealed sPD-1 mRNA to be significantly overexpressed in rAAV/sPD-1 treated mice as compared with control levels. Its use for local gene therapy at the inoculation site of H22 hepatoma cells could inhibit tumor growth, also enhancing lysis of tumor cells by lymphocytes stimulated specifically with an antigen. In addition, PD-1 was also found expressed on the surfaces of activated CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: This study confirmed that expression of the soluble extracellular domain of PD-1 molecule could reduce tumor microenvironment inhibitory effects on T cells and enhance cytotoxicity. This suggests that it might be a potential target for development of therapies to augment T-cell responses in patients with malignancies.

Activation of Intestinal Immune System by an Orally Administered Methanol Extract from Pine Needles (솔잎 메탄올추출물의 마우스 경구투여에 의한 장관면역 활성)

  • Yoon, Jin-A;Yu, Kwang-Won;Shin, Shun-Hyuck;Cho, Hong-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2010
  • When pine (Pinus densiflora) needles were fractionated into cold water (PD-CW), hot water (PD-HW) and methanol extract (PD-M), PD-M showed potent simulating activity (1.19-fold of the saline control) for proliferation of bone marrow cells mediated by Peyer's patch cells in vitro. MeOH extracts were prepared by homogenization, stirring or reflux to identify the method of methanol extraction, and MeOH extract by reflux method showed significantly highest intestinal immune system modulating activity (1.30-fold) in vitro. The intestinal immune system modulating effect of orally administered PD-M fractionated from pine needles also were studied in mice. Analyzing intestinal immune system modulating activity mediated Peyer's patch cells from C3H/He mice which had been fed with PD-M at different doses for 7 days, 1.0 g/kg of BW/day indicated that the bone marrow cells had proliferated (3.65-fold of 3% EtOH administered group). In addition, the amounts of IL-6 in the culture supernatant of Peyer's patch cells at 1.0 g/kg of BW/day were increased (1.13-fold) whereas the production of GM-CSF was not dose dependent. These results indicate that oral administration of PD-M enhances the secretion of hematopoietic growth factors such as GM-CSF and IL-6 from Peyer's patch cells, and these cytokines also act on modulator of bone marrow cell proliferation.

A Case of Aggravation of Thyroid Goiter after Treatment with PD-1 Inhibitor for Breast Cancer in Patients with Underlying Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (기저 하시모토 갑상선염이 있던 유방암 환자에서 PD-1 억제제 투약 후 악화된 갑상선 종대의 증례)

  • Kim, Hana;Kim, Min Joo;Song, Young Shin;Cho, Sun Wook
    • International journal of thyroidology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.172-175
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    • 2018
  • Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) humanized monoclonal antibody inhibits PD-1 activity by binding to the PD-1 receptor on T-cells and blocking PD-1 ligands and induces immune tolerance of cancer cells. It has been widely used for various kinds of cancer treatment. However, many immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported because it modulates our immune system. In this case study, we reported a case of 42-year-old woman with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed rapid aggravation of thyroid goiter and acute hyperventilation syndrome after treatment with PD-1 inhibitor as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

The Effect of Different Light Quality on the Change of Membrane PD of the Guard Cell in Tradescantia virginiana L.

  • Lee, Joon-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.89-92
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    • 2004
  • The effects of different light quality on the change of membrane potential difference (PD) of the guard cell in the intact leaf have been investigated. The mombrane PD was about -5.5 mV by white light of 600 $\mu$moles $m^{-2}\; s^{-1}$. The mean PD of change caused by red light was about -5.2 mV at the light intensity of 80 $\mu$moles $m^{-2}\; s^{-1}$. Membrane PD of guard cells in response to blue light was saturated at low light intensity. However, red and green light enhanced the change of membrane PD of guard cells with increasing intensity. In green light the biggest change of memrane PD was around -4 mV, whereas, with blue light the change of of memrane PD was around -2 mV. Accordingly, the membrane PD of guard cell showed the different degree of hyper-polarization by each wavelength.

Characteristics of Amorphous CoNbZrPd Thin Films Deposited by Sputtering (스퍼터링법으로 제조된 CoNbZrPd 비정질 박막의 특성)

  • Min, B.K.;Kim, H.S.;Song, S.J.;Oh, Y.W.;Her, J.S.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1968-1970
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    • 1999
  • 본 연구에서는 RF 마그네트론 스퍼터링법으로 CoNbZrPd 비정질 연자성 박막을 제조하여 Pd의 첨가 효과와 자장중 열처리에 의한 특성 변화에 대해 연구하였다. Pd가 4.34 at% 첨가된 $Co_{87.56}Nb_{6.45}Zr_{1.65}Pd_{4.34}$ 박막은 비정질 구조이며 Pd 첨가에 의해 보자력은 0.54 Oe으로 감소하였으며, 이방성 자계는 10.45 Oe로 Pd를 첨가하지 않은 CoNbZr 비정질 박막 보다 특성이 향상되었다. $Co_{87.56}Nb_{6.45}Zr_{1.65}Pd_{4.34}$ 비정질 박막은 $400^{\circ}C$까지 비정질 상을 유지하고 있지만, 연자기 특성이 열화되어 보자력이 증가하고 이방성자계가 급격히 감소하였지만, 포화 자화는 크게 변화지 않았다.

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The phenomenology of pain in Parkinson's disease

  • Camacho-Conde, Jose Antonio;Campos-Arillo, Victor Manuel
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2020
  • Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is the second most common disorder after Alzheimer's disease. PD includes both "motor" and "non-motor" symptoms, one of which is pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of pain in patients with PD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 250 patients diagnosed with PD, 70% of which had mild to moderate PD (stages 2/3 of Hoehn and Yahr scale). The average age was 67.4 years, and the average duration since PD diagnosis was 7.1 years. Relevant data collected from PD patients were obtained from their personal medical history. Results: The prevalence of pain was found to be high (82%), with most patients (79.2%) relating their pain to PD. Disease duration was correlated with the frequency of intense pain (R: 0.393; P < 0.05). PD pain is most frequently perceived as an electrical current (64%), and two pain varieties were most prevalent (2.60 ± 0.63). Our findings confirm links between pain, its evolution over time, its multi-modal character, the wide variety of symptoms of PD, and the female sex. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the pain felt by PD patients is mainly felt as an electrical current, which contrasts with other studies where the pain is described as burning and itching. Our classification is innovative because it is based on anatomy, whereas those of other authors were based on syndromes.

Biochemical and molecular features of LRRK2 and its pathophysiological roles in Parkinson's disease

  • Seol, Won-Gi
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.233-244
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    • 2010
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and 5-10% of the PD cases are genetically inherited as familial PD (FPD). LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) was first reported in 2004 as a gene corresponding to PARK8, an autosomal gene whose dominant mutations cause familial PD. LRRK2 contains both active kinase and GTPase domains as well as protein-protein interaction motifs such as LRR (leucine-rich repeat) and WD40. Most pathogenic LRRK2 mutations are located in either the GTPase or kinase domain, implying important roles for the enzymatic activities in PD pathogenic mechanisms. In comparison to other PD causative genes such as parkin and PINK1, LRRK2 exhibits two important features. One is that LRRK2's mutations (especially the G2019S mutation) were observed in sporadic as well as familial PD patients. Another is that, among the various PD-causing genes, pathological characteristics observed in patients carrying LRRK2 mutations are the most similar to patients with sporadic PD. Because of these two observations, LRRK2 has been intensively investigated for its pathogenic mechanism (s) and as a target gene for PD therapeutics. In this review, the general biochemical and molecular features of LRRK2, the recent results of LRRK2 studies and LRRK2's therapeutic potential as a PD target gene will be discussed.

Synthesis and Structure Dinitroethylenediamine Palladium(II) (Dinitroethylenediamine Palladium(II)의 합성 및 결정구조 연구)

  • Namgung Hae
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.74-77
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    • 2004
  • The crystal structure of Dinitroethylenediaminepalladium(II), $Pd(C_2H_8N_2)(NO_2)_2$, has been determined by X-ray crystallography. Crystal data: a=7.425(3), b=8.480(4), c=11.885(2) ${\AA}$, Orthorhombic, $A2_1ma$ (Space Group No=36), Z=4, V=748.3(4) ${\AA}^3,\;D_c=2.295 gcm^{-3},\;{\mu}=2.457mm^{-1}$. The structure was solved by Patterson method and refined by full matrix least-square methods using unit weights. The final R and S values were $R_1=0.0306,\;R_w=0.0802,\;R_{all}=0.0320,\;and\;S=1.166)$ for the observed 377 reflections. Bond lengths and angles of palladium complex are similar to the previously reported data. The complex structure is one dimensional Reiset's salt type analogue showing zigzag chain of Pd-Pd length and angle of 3.762(2) ${\AA}$ and $161.41(5)^{\circ}$. The complex molecules are linked through inter-and intramolecular hydrogen bonds of 3.05(1) and 3.15(1) ${\AA}$ between oxygen and nitrogen.