• Title, Summary, Keyword: rural India

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Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices about Breast Cancer in a Rural District of Central India

  • Gangane, Nitin;Ng, Nawi;Sebastian, Miguel San
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6863-6870
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    • 2015
  • Background: Breast cancer accounted for almost 25% of all cancers in women globally in 2012. Although breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in India, there is no organised national breast cancer screening programme. Local studies on the burden of breast cancer are essential to develop effective context-specific strategies for an early detection breast cancer programme, considering the cultural and ethnic heterogeneity in India. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about breast cancer in rural women in Central India. Materials and Methods: This community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Wardha district, located in Maharashtra state in Central India in 2013. The sample included 1000 women (609 rural, 391 urban) aged 13-50 years, selected as representative from each of the eight development blocks in the district, using stratified cluster sampling. Trained social workers interviewed women and collected demographic and socio-economic data. The instrument also assessed respondents' knowledge about breast cancer and its symptoms, risks, methods of screening, diagnosis and treatment, as well as their attitudes towards breast cancer and selfreported practices of breast cancer screening. Chi-square and t-test were applied to assess differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice (the outcome variables) between urban and rural respondents. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to analyse the relationship between socio-demographic factors and the outcome variables. Results: While about two-thirds of rural and urban women were aware of breast cancer, less than 7% in rural and urban areas had heard about breast self-examination. Knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, and treatment was similarly poor in both rural and urban women. Urban women demonstrated more positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening practices than their rural counterparts. Better knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment correlated significantly with older age, higher levels of education, and being office workers or in business. Conclusions: Women in rural Central India have poor knowledge about breast cancer, its symptoms and risk factors. Breast self-examination is hardly practiced, though the willingness to learn is high. Positive attitudes towards screening provide an opportunity to promote breast self-examination.

Unsafe Disposal of Child Faeces: A Community-based Study in a Rural Block in West Bengal, India

  • PS, Preeti;Sahoo, Sanjaya Kumar;Biswas, Dhiraj;Dasgupta, Aparajita
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.323-328
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: A clean India is the responsibility of all Indians. One of the objectives of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative) is to bring about behavioural changes regarding healthy sanitation practices. While large-scale programs in India have increased latrine coverage, they have to some extent failed to bring behavioural changes ensuring optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child faeces, which is a significant source of exposure to faecal pathogens. Hence, this study was done to explore child faeces disposal practices in rural West Bengal and to elicit the determinants of unhygienic faeces disposal. Methods: Data collection was done using an interview method among the mothers of 502 under-5 children, following a pre-designed, semi-structured schedule during house-to-house visits in a set of villages in the Hooghly district of West Bengal. Results: The prevalence of unsafe disposal of child faeces was 72.4%, and maternal education, per capita income, and water source were found to be significantly associated with unsafe child faeces disposal. Conclusions: This study draws attention to the unsafe disposal of child faeces in this area of India and raises questions about the efficiency of sanitation campaigns in rural India that focus on expanding coverage rather than emphasizing behavioural changes, which are crucial to ensure the safe disposal of child faeces. Thus, it is urgently necessary to strengthen efforts focusing on behavioural changes regarding the safe disposal of child faeces in order to minimise adverse health outcomes.

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS IN INDIA : A STATUS REVIEW

  • DUTTA, VIRESH
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.130-133
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    • 2006
  • Solar Photovoltaics (SPV) In India has become an important renewable source of energy particularly for rural and remote areas. The vastness of the country and the requirements of electricity in far-flung villages makes SPV very attractive, with inherent technological advantages providing additional boost. This has been recognized very early by Govt. Of India and Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy (MNES) has been entrusted with promoting SPV usage in the country. Rural electrification through SPV systems is one of the programmes which is expected to provide fillip to PV industry in the country. PV Industry in India is very well established with capability of solar cell fabrication and module fabrication as well as Balance of System design and fabrication. There several R&D groups in the academic institutions who are involved in improving solar cells efficiency, thin film solar cells and PV instrumentation. Thus, India provides a ready market for large scale utilization of solar energy through SPV technology.

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Smoking Cessation Intervention in Rural Kerala, India: Findings of a Randomised Controlled Trial

  • Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan;Uutela, Antti;Mathew, Aleyamma;Auvinen, Anssi;Mathew, Preethi Sara;Sebastian, Paul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6797-6802
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    • 2013
  • Background: Prevalence of tobacco use is higher in the rural than urban areas of India. Unlike tobacco cessation clinics located in urban areas, community-based smoking cessation intervention has the potential to reach a wider section of the community to assist in smoking cessation in the rural setting. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a cessation intervention in rural Kerala state, India. Materials and Methods: Current daily smoking resident males in the age group 18-60 years from four community development blocks in rural Kerala were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received multiple approaches in which priority was given to face-to-face interviews and telephone counselling. Initially educational materials on tobacco hazards were distributed. Further, four rounds of counselling sessions were conducted which included a group counselling with a medical camp as well as individual counselling by trained medical social workers. The control group received general awareness training on tobacco hazards along with an anti-tobacco leaflet. Self-reported smoking status was assessed after 6 and 12 months. Factors associated with tobacco cessation were estimated using binomial regression method. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking abstinence was 14.7% in the intervention and 6.8% in the control group (Relative risk: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.25). A total of 41.3% subjects in the intervention area and 13.6% in the control area had reduced smoking by 50% or more at the end of 12 months. Lower number of cigarettes/ bidi used, low nicotine dependence and consultation with a doctor for a medical ailment were the statistically significant predictors for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Rigorous approaches for smoking cessation programmes can enhance quit rates in smoking in rural areas of India.

Women and Tobacco Use: Discrepancy in the Knowledge, Belief and Behavior towards Tobacco Consumption among Urban and Rural Women in Chhattisgarh, Central India

  • Tiwari, Ram Vinod;Gupta, Anjali;Agrawal, Ankush;Gandhi, Aniruddh;Gupta, Manjari;Das, Mayank
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6365-6373
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    • 2015
  • Background: Tobacco consumption has become pandemic, and is estimated to have killed 100 million people in the 20th century worldwide. Some 700,000 out of 5.4 million deaths due to tobacco use were from India. The era of global modernization has led to an increase in the involvement of women in tobacco consumption in the low income and middle-income countries. Tobacco consumption by females is known to have grave consequences. Objectives: To assess: (1) the tobacco use among urban and rural women; (2) the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural women in Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 2,000 18-25 year old young women from Durg-Bhilai Metropolitan, Chhattisgarh, Central India, from both urban and rural areas. Data were collected using a pretested, anonymous, extensive face to face interview by a female investigator to assess the tobacco use among women and the discrepancy in the knowledge, belief and behavior towards tobacco consumption among urban and rural individuals. Results: The prevalence of tobacco use was found to be 47.2%. Tobacco consumption among rural women was 54.4% and in urban women was 40%. The majority of the women from urban areas (62.8%) were smokers whilst rural women (77.4%) showed preponderance toward smokeless tobacco use. Urban women had a better knowledge and attitude towards harms from tobacco and its use than the rural women. Women in rural areas had higher odds (1.335) of developing tobacco habit than the urban women. Conclusions: Increased tobacco use by women poses very severe hazards to their health, maternal and child health, and their family health and economic well-being. Due to the remarkably complex Indian picture of female tobacco use, an immediate and compulsory implementation of tobacco control policies laid down by t he WHO FCTC is the need of the hour.

Predictors of Tobacco Use among Youth in India: GATS 2009-2010 Survey

  • Sharma, Shailja;Singh, Mitasha;Lal, Pranay;Goel, Sonu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.7535-7540
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    • 2015
  • Background: Early initiation of smoking and chewing of diverse forms of tobacco among youth in India is a significant driver for tobacco epidemic in India. Several socio-demographic factors are predictors of tobacco use in populations, especially among youth. Interventions which address these socio-demographic factors can help policy makers to curb new initiations and avert morbidity and mortality due to tobacco use. Objective: To study the various sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use among youth in India. Materials and Methods: Secondary analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-India 2009-10 for the age group of 15-24 years was performed and predictors of smoking and smokeless tobacco were analyzed using data on occupation, education, and other sociodemographic factors. Results: In India there are a total of 51.3 million (22.1%) youth (15-24 years) tobacco users. Of these 35.1 million consumes chewable tobacco (15.1%), 16.2 million smoke (7%) and 1.6 million are dual users (3.1%). Males, urban, less educated, un-employed and those belonging to middle class preferred smoking over chewing; whereas, females, rural, students and those belonging to low socio-economic class are predictors of smokeless tobacco use. The major determinants of dual users are male sex, poor socio-economic strata and student class. The overall tobacco use was higher among males, rural populations, lower socioeconomic strata and un-employed class. Conclusions: India's youth is more susceptible to the tobacco addiction, especially of smokeless tobacco. Youth from rural India especially students, girls and those from poor socio-economic strata prefer to use smokeless tobacco products whereas urban, male and those less educated prefer smoking tobacco products. More population-based and region-focused research is needed to understand initiation patterns into tobacco use among youth so as to inform policymakers to devise new policy measures to curb the growing epidemic.

A Structural Compendium on Perceptual Displays of Rural India towards the Role and Impact of ICT

  • Potluri, Rajasekhara Mouly;Potluri, Lohith Sekhar
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2016
  • The core purpose of the paper is to explore perceptual displays of rural India towards the role and impact of ICT in transforming the lives through education and telecommunications. After meticulous review of pertinent literature on ICT, and its policy framework, the researcher administers both quantitative and qualitative field data collected from the villages of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu with a sample of 250 from each state. More than 90 percent of respondents from the four southern states in India clearly thought that the role and impact of ICT is very momentous. Predominantly, cent percent respondents from Kerala evinced that ICT is the major reason for achieving the tag of "100% Literacy State". And also in the remaining three states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, the literacy rate has crossed mind-boggling figures only because of ICT's reinforcement. Even in the arena of telecommunications, these four states average telecom density is more than the country's average. The paper concentrated only on how ICT function empirically to build human capacity in rural south-India through the sectors of only education and telecom. This study is first of its kind and precious to all stakeholders of the ICT sector like educational institutional, telecom firms, customers, employees, and governments, etc.

Burden of Smoked and Smokeless Tobacco Consumption in India - Results from the Global adult Tobacco Survey India (GATS-India)- 2009-2010

  • Bhawna, Gupta
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3323-3329
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    • 2013
  • Background: The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was carried out for systematically monitoring tobacco use and for tracking key tobacco control indicators. Materials and Methods: A total of 70,802 households, including 42,647 in rural areas and 28,155 in urban areas, were covered with a three stage sampling design. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of tobacco consumption.Results: GATS-India highlighted that total tobacco use among its residents is overall 34.6%, varying for males (47.9%) and females (20.7%). The rural areas of the country exhibit comparatively higher prevalence rates (38.4%) in comparison to urban areas (25.3%). Overall, Khaini, a smokeless tobacco product (12.0%), is the most popular form of tobacco use among males and females, followed by bidi smoking (9.0%). Conclusion: Results of GATS data can be used as baseline for evaluation of new tobacco control approaches in India integrating culturally acceptable and cost effective measures.

Socio Demographic and Reproductive Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer - a Large Prospective Cohort Study from Rural India

  • Thulaseedharan, Jissa V.;Malila, Nea;Hakama, Matti;Esmy, Pulikottil O.;Cheriyan, Mary;Swaminathan, Rajaraman;Muwonge, Richard;Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswami
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2991-2995
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    • 2012
  • Background: India shows some of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide, and more than 70% of the population is living in rural villages. Prospective cohort studies to determine the risk factors for cervical cancer are very rare from low and medium resource countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of risk factors related to cervical cancer in a rural setting in South India. Material and methods: Sociodemographic and reproductive potential risk factors for cervical cancer were studied using the data from a cohort of 30,958 women who constituted the unscreened control group in a randomised screening trial in Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. The analysis was accomplished with the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Women of increasing age (HR=2.4; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.8 in 50-59 vs 30-39), having many pregnancies (HR=7.1; 1.0, 52 in 4+ vs 0) and no education (HR=0.6; 0.2, 0.7 in high vs none) were found to be at significantly increased risk of cervical cancer. Conclusion: This cohort study gives very strong evidence to say that education is the fundamental factor among the sociodemographic and reproductive determinants of cervical cancer in low resource settings. Public awareness through education and improvements in living standards can play an important role in reducing the high incidence of cervical cancer in India. These findings further stress the importance of formulating public health policies aimed at increasing awareness and implementation of cervical cancer screening programmes.

Institutional Constraints to Innovation: Artisan Clusters in Rural India

  • Das, Keshab
    • Asian Journal of Innovation and Policy
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.132-153
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    • 2015
  • Rural enterprise clusters in India have often been characterized by low-end products, poor income earning options and a near-absence of innovativeness. This has implied limited market access, inadequate organization of production and distancing from sources of formal knowledge. Policy neglect of rural industrialization notwithstanding this paper explores the nature of institutional constraints to innovation through intensive case studies of five rural artisan clusters (handlooms and handicrafts) in as many Indian states. Whether it relates to access to loan finance or technology support or linking to markets, the formal institutions (public or private) have been distanced by informality that typifies most rural enterprise clusters. An obsession with a sectoral approach to cluster development has negated addressing infirmities of the space of enterprise, even as scope for learning from some Asian economies in rural enterprise promotion exists. The paper also enquires if the innovation systems have been inclusive and pro-poor.