• Title, Summary, Keyword: rms ratio

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Study on the Fast Predication of the Wind-Driven Current in the Sachon Bay (사천만에서 취송류의 신속예측에 관한 연구)

  • 최석원;조규대;김동선
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 1999
  • In order to fast predict the wind-driven current in a small bay, a convolution method in which the wind-driven current can be generated only wih the local wind is developed and applied in the Sachon Bay. The root mean square(rms) ratio defined as the ratio of the rms error to the rms speed is 0.37. The rms ratio is generally less than 0.2, except for all the mouths of Junju Bay and Namhae-do and in the region between Saryang Island and Sachon. The spatial average of the recover rate of kinetic energy(rrke) is 87%. Thus, the predicted wind-driven current by the convolution model is in a good agreement with the computed one by the numerical model. The raio of the difference between observed residual current (Vr) and predicted wind-driven current (Vc) to a residual current, that is, (Vr-Vc)/Vr shows 56%, 62% at 2 moorings in the Sachon Bay.

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Development of reference materials for cement paste

  • Lee, Dong Kyu;Choi, Myoung Sung
    • Advances in concrete construction
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.547-556
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to develop reference materials (RMs) that are chemically stable and can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste. To this end, the candidate components of RMs were selected considering the currently required properties of RMs. Limestone, slag, silica, and kaolin were selected as substitutes for cement, while glycerol and corn syrup were selected as matrix fluids. Moreover, distilled water was used for mixing. To select the combinations of materials that meet all the required properties of RMs, flow characteristics were first analyzed. The results revealed that silica and kaolin exhibited bilateral nonlinearity. When an analysis was conducted over time, slag exhibited chemical reactions, including strength development. Moreover, fungi were observed in all mixtures with corn syrup. On the other hand, the combination of limestone, glycerol, and water exhibited a performance that met all the required properties of RMs. Thus, limestone, glycerol, and water were selected as the components of the RMs. When the influence of each component of the RMs on flow characteristics was analyzed, it was found that limestone affects the yield value, while the ratio of water and glycerol affects the plastic viscosity. Based on this, it was possible to select the mixing ratios for the RMs that can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste under each mixing ratio. This relationship was established as an equation, which was verified under various mixing ratios. Finally, when the flow characteristics were analyzed under various temperature conditions, cement paste and the RMs exhibited similar tendencies in terms of flow characteristics. This indicated that the combinations of the selected materials could be used as RMs that can simulate the flow characteristics of cement paste with constant quality under various mixing ratio conditions and construction environment conditions.

The Changes of Range of Motion of Lumbar Region and Muscle Activities of Lumbar Extensor During Trunk Motions Between Subjects With Low Back Pain and Healthy Subjects (만성요통환자와 정상인의 체간 운동시 요추 신전근의 근활성도와 관절운동범위의 변화)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho
    • Physical Therapy Korea
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography (EMG) activities of the lumbar extensor muscles during motion of trunk flexion-extension and compare range of motion (ROM) with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system of the lumbar region between subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy subjects during the trunk flexion-extension, trunk rotation and trunk lateral flexion cycle. Thirty CLBP subjects and thirty healthy subjects were included. We measured the root mean square (RMS) value of the lumbar extensor muscles from resting, standing, lumbar flexion and return position. The RMS ratio was normalized from maximal EMG activity of the lumbar extensor muscles during trunk motion. The results of this study showed that the RMS ratio of the lumbar extensor was significantly higher in CLBP subjects than healthy subjects during all of trunk motion (p<.05). The ratio of the highest RMS value during flexion and extension was higher in CLBP subjects than in healthy subjects (p<.05). The ROM of the lumbar region was significantly lower in CLBP subjects than healthy subjects during trunk flexion-extension, trunk rotation and lateral flexion cycle. The relationship between the RMS ratio for full lumbar flexion and the ROM of lumbar flexion was not correlated significantly. CLBP subjects have both decreased ROM of the lumbar region and higher muscle activities of the lumbar extensor muscle than healthy subjects.

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Input-Output Gains of Linear Periodic Time-Varying Systems with Applications to Multirate Signal Processing (다중비 신호처리에 적용한 선형 주기적 시변 시스템의 입출력 이득)

  • 이상철;박계원
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.4 no.5
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    • pp.963-969
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, we define two input-output gains of linear periodic time-varying systems. One is the ratio of output with worst-case l2-norm over all inputs with unit 12-norm. It denotes G($\iota_2,\iota_2$.The other is the ratio of output with worst-case RMS value over all inputs with unit RMS value. It denotes G(RMS, RMS) .It is fact that these two gains are equivalent for linear time-invariant system. In this paper, we prove these two gains are also equivalent for linear periodic time-varying system. In addition, the relationship between two method of obtaining the generalized frequency responses for linear periodic time-varying system is derived. Finally, we apply the defined input-output gains to M-channel filter-bank which is multi-rate signal Processing system, used to speech coding. In the filter-bank, generally, aliasing distortion, magnitude distortion, and phase distortion are present. It is shown that these are kept small if the filter-bank is designed by a method that optimizes the gain G($\iota_2,\iota_2$ of an error system.

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Unsteady 2-D flow field characteristics for perforated plates with a splitter

  • Yaragal, Subhash C.
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.317-332
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    • 2004
  • Wind tunnel experiments were conducted under highly turbulent and disturbed flow conditions over a solid/perforated plate with a long splitter plate in its plane of symmetry. The effect of varied level of perforation of the normal plate on fluctuating velocities and fluctuating pressures measured across and along the separation bubble was studied. The different perforation levels of the normal plate; that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% are studied. The Reynolds number based on step height was varied from $4{\times}10^3$ to $1.2{\times}10^4$. The shape and size of the bubble vary with different perforation level of the normal plate that is to say the bubble is reduced both in height and length up to 30% perforation level. For higher perforation of the normal plate, bubble is completely swept out. The peak turbulence value occurs around 0.7 to 0.8 times the reattachment length. The turbulence intensity values are highest for the case of solid normal plate (bleed air is absent) and are lowest for the case of 50% perforation of the normal plate (bleed air is maximum in the present study). From the analysis of data it is observed that $\sqrt{\overline{u^{{\prime}2}}}/(\sqrt{\overline{u^{{\prime}2}}})_{max}$, (the ratio of RMS velocity fluctuation to maximum RMS velocity fluctuation), is uniquely related with dimensionless distance y/Y', (the ratio of distance normal to splitter plate to the distance where RMS velocity fluctuation is half its maximum value) for all the perforated normal plates. It is interesting to note that for 50% perforation of the normal plate, the RMS pressure fluctuation in the flow field gets reduced to around 60% as compared to that for solid normal plate. Analysis of the results show that the ratio [$C^{\prime}_p$ max/$-C_{pb}(1-{\eta})$], where $C^{\prime}_p$ max is the maximum coefficient of fluctuating pressure, $C_{pb}$ is the coefficient of base pressure and ${\eta}$ is the perforation level (ratio of open to total area), for surface RMS pressure fluctuation levels seems to be constant and has value of about 0.22. Similar analysis show that the ratio $[C^{\prime}_p$ max/$-C_{pb}(1-{\eta})]$ for flow field RMS pressure fluctuation levels seems to be constant and has a value of about 0.32.

The RMS Characteristics of Cutting Force Depending on the Tool Wear (공구마멸에 따른 절삭력의 RMS특성)

  • 권용기;오석형;김동현
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.2214-2222
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    • 1993
  • With the use of the NC machine tool, the unmanned production system has been growing recently in the manufacturing field. This there are problems with monitoring adequate tool fracture during the cutting process efficiently. This study was planned and carried out to discover a way of monitoring tool condition in NO-LINE systems during the cutting process. The acquisition of data in cutting force and tool wear has been made in the section examined, to extract the RMS value of the cutting force as specific factors in the cutting process. The fluctuation of the RMS characteristics. From the results, it has been shown that the fluctuation of the RMS values for the cutting force has a close relation to flank wear.

Application of the Convolution Method on the Fast Prediction of the Wind-Driven Current in a Samll Bay (소규모 만에서 취송류의 신속예측을 위한 convolution 기법의 적용)

  • 최석원;조규대;윤홍주
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.299-307
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    • 1999
  • In order to fast predict the wind-driven current in a small bay, a convolution method in which the wind-driven current can be generated only with the local wind is developed and applied in the idealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay. The accuracy of the convlution method is assessed through a series of the numerical experiements carried out in the jidealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay. The optimum response function for the convolution method is obtained by minimizing the root man square (rms) difference between the current given by the numerical model and the current given by the convolution method. The north-south component of the response function shows simultaneous fluctuations in the wind and wind-driven current at marginal region while it shows "sea-saw" fluctuations (in which the wind and wind-driven current have opposite direction) at the central region in the idealized Sachon Bay. The present wind is strong enough to influence on the wind-driven current especially in the idealized Sachon Bay. The spatial average of the rms ratio defined as the ratio of the rms error to the rms speed is 0.05 in the idealized bay and 0.26 in the idealized Sachon Bay. The recover rate of kinetic energy(rrke) is 99% in the idealized bay and 94% in the idealized Sachon Bay. Thus, the predicted wind-driven current by the convolution model is in a good agreement with the computed one by the numerical model in the idealized bay and the idealized Sachon Bay.achon Bay.

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Noise Criteria for the Calculation of Response Spectra (응답스펙트럼 계산을 위한 잡음기준)

  • 노명현;최강룡;윤철호
    • Proceedings of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 2003
  • By using simulated ground motions, which is sum of earthquake signals and noise, we measured the distortion of response spectra due to noise. We found that the distortion is more closely related to the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of root-mean-square (RMS) measurement than that of conventional peak measurement. Given a S/M ratio, the distortion of absolute acceleration response spectra is independent on the earthquake magnitude, while that of relative displacement response spectra has a strong dependence on the earthquake magnitude. This means that, when we calculate response spectra from time histories, we can efficiently predict the distortion of acceleration response spectra simply by measuring the RMS SJN ratios, or the distortion of displacement response spectra by combining the RMS S/N ratios and the earthquake magnitudes.

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A Study on Turbulent Characteristics of Turbulent Pulsating Flows in a Square Duct (4각 덕트내에서 난류 맥동유동의 난류특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, G.M.;Go, Y.H.
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.188-198
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    • 1990
  • Turbulent characteristics of turbulent pulsating flows were studied experimentally in a square duct. Velocity waveforms, velocity profiles, and turbulent intensity of turbulent pulsating flow were investigated by using a hot-wire anemometer with data acquisition and a processing system in a square duct with a ratio of 1 ($40mm{\times}40mm$) to 4,000mm long. Turbulent components were shown to be larger in decelerating than in accelerating regions and also larger for a large phase of velocity and U'rms distribution of turbulent flow. The effect of velocity amplitude ratio does not exist for specified time [${\theta}(z^{\prime})$], amplitude ratio (${\mid}U^{\prime}_{rms.os.1}{\mid}/{\mid}U_{m.os.1}{\mid}$), and phase difference (${\Delta}U^{\prime}_{rms.os.1}-{\Delta}U_{m.os.1}$) in either turbulent oscillating or cross-sectional mean velocity components. The effect of dimensionless angular frequency for specified time [${\theta}(z^{\prime})$] can be disregarded because the dimensionless angular frequency does not affect the specified time. The velocity distributions of turbulent pulsating flows for various time-averaged Reynolds numbers are in approximate agreement with the velocity distributions for equivalent Reynolds numbers and 1/7th power law of steady flow.

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Study of SF6/Ar plasma based textured glass surface morphology for high haze ratio of ITO films in thin film solar cell

  • Kang, Junyoung;Hussain, Shahzada Qamar;Kim, Sunbo;Park, Hyeongsik;Le, Anh Huy Tuan;Yi, Junsin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.430.2-430.2
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    • 2016
  • The front transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films in thin fill solar cell should exhibit high transparency, conductivity, good surface morphology and excellent light scattering properties. The light trapping phenomenon is limited due to random surface structure of TCO films. The proper control of surface structure and uniform cauliflower TCO films may be appropriate for efficient light trapping. We report light trapping scheme of ICP-RIE glass texturing by SF6/Ar plasma for high roughness and haze ratio of ITO films. It was observed that the variation of etching time, pattern size and Ar flow ratio during ICP-RIE process were important factors to improve the diffused transmittance and haze ratio of textured glass. The ICP-RIE textured glass showed low etching rates due to the presence of metal elements like Al, B, F and Na. The ITO films deposited on textured glass substrates showed the high RMS roughness and haze ratio in the visible wavelength region. The change in surface morphology showed negligible influence on electrical and structural properties of ITO films. The ITO films with high roughness and haze ratio can be used to improve the performance of thin film solar cells.

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