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Spatio-temporal Distributions of Phytoplankton Community in the Coastal Waters of Gogunsan Islands(CoWGIs), West Sea of Korea (고군산군도 해역의 식물플랑크톤 군집의 시·공간적 분포 및 출현 환경특성)

  • Yoon, Yang Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.2287-2300
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the spatio-temporal distributions of the phytoplankton community in the coastal waters of Gogunsan Islands (CoWGIs), West Sea of Korea, from January to September 2011. A total of 104 species of phytoplankton belonging to 56 genera were identified. This was low compared to the surrounding seas of the West Sea. In particular, diatoms and dinoflagellates comprised 60.5% and 34.6%, respectively, and it was most diverse in autumn. The standing crops fluctuated from $9.6{\times}10^4cells/L$ to $1.0{\times}10^7cells/L$. This was high in winter and summer and low in spring and autumn. The seasonal dominant species were Skeletonema costatum-like species, Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii, Dactyliosolen fragillisimus, and Chaetoceros debilis in winter, Guinardia delicatula in spring, Eucampia zodiacus, Cylindrotheca closterium, Ch. debilis, and Ch. curvisetus in summer, and S. costatum-like species, Ch. debilis, Ch. curvisetus, G. delicatula, and Leptocylindrus danicus in autumn. The total number of autochthonous and tychopelagic species was 39 species. This showed a 1/3 (33.3%) decrease compared to the 1980's. The chlorophyll a concentration fluctuated from $3.82{\mu}g/L$ in autumn to $13.36{\mu}g/L$ in summer. The bio-oceanographic characteristics of the CoWGIs based on principle component analysis (PCA) showed that it was dominated by the Saemangeum water mass in the high temperature season and by the Geum River water mass in the low temperature season. In other words, there has been a conversion to a closed inner bay followed by the dramatic progress of eutrophication, even in the CoWGIs after completion of the Saemangeum embankment.

Application of an empirical method to improve radar rainfall estimation using cross governmental dual-pol. radars (범부처 이중편파레이더의 강우 추정 향상을 위한 경험적 방법의 적용)

  • Yoon, Jungsoo;Suk, Mi-Kyung;Nam, Kyung-Yeub;Park, Jong-Sook
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.49 no.7
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    • pp.625-634
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    • 2016
  • Three leading agencies under different ministries - Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) in the ministry of Environment, Han river control office in the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) and Weather Group of ROK Air Force in the Ministry of National Defense (MND) - have been operated radars in the purpose of observing weather, hydrology and military operational weather in Korea. Eight S-band dual-pol. radars have been newly installed or replaced by these ministries over different places by 2015. However each ministry has different aims of operating radars, observation strategies, data processing algorithms, etc. Due to the differences, there is a wide level of accuracy on observed radar data as well as the composite images made of the cross governmental radar measurement. Gaining fairly high level of accuracy on radar data obtained by different agencies has been shared as a great concern by the ministries. Thus, "an agreement of harmonizing weather and hydrological radar products" was made by the three ministries in 2010. Particularly, this is very important to produce better rainfall estimation using the cross governmental radar measurement. Weather Radar Center(WRC) in KMA has been developed an empirical method using measurements observed by Yongin testbed radar. This study is aiming to examine the efficiency of the empirical method to improve the accuracies of radar rainfalls estimated from cross governmental dual-pol. radar measurements. As a result, the radar rainfalls of three radars (Baengnyeongdo, Biseulsan, and, Sobaeksan Radar) were shown improvement in accuracy (1-NE) up to 70% using data from May to October in 2015. Also, the range of the accuracies in radar rainfall estimation, which were from 30% to 60% before adjusting polarimetric variables, were decreased from 65% to 70% after adjusting polarimetric variables.

The Influences of Additional Nutrients on Phytoplankton Growth and Horizontal Phytoplankton Community Distribution during the Autumn Season in Gwangyang Bay, Korea (가을철 광양만 식물플랑크톤의 수평 분포와 추가 영양염 공급이 식물플랑크톤 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Si Woo;Kim, Dongseon;Kim, Young Ok;Moon, Chang Ho;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.35-48
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    • 2014
  • In order to estimate the effect of additional nutrients on phytoplankton growth and horizontal phytoplankton community distribution during the autumn season in 2010 and 2011, we investigated the abiotic and biotic factors of surface and bottom waters at 20 stations of inner and offshore areas in Gwangyang Bay, Korea. Also, nutrient additional experiments were conducted to assess additional nutrient effects on phytoplankton assemblage using the surface water. In both years, the total nutrients were high at the enclosed inner bay and the mouth of Seomjin River, whereas it was low at the St.15~20 where in influenced by the surface warm water current from offshore of the bay. On the other hand, nano- and pico-sized Chl. a were gradually increased towards the outer bay and their trends were significant in 2011 than in 2010. The cryptophyta species occupied more than 85% of total phytoplankton assembleges in 2010, whereas their abundance in 2011 remainds to be 1/10 levels of 2010. Following the cryptophata species, the diatom Chaetoceros spp. and Skeletonema-like spp. were found to be dominant species. Further the biosaasy experimental results shows that the phytoplankton biomass in the +N and +NP treatments was higher compared to control and +P treatments and its trend was significant at St.8 and St.20 where nutrient concentration were low. Based on the bioassay and field survey, providing the high nutrients may have stimulated to phytoplankton growth such as S. costatum-like spp.. In particular, opportunistic micro-algae such as Cryptomonas spp. were able to achieve the high biomass under the relatively mid nutrient condition from bottom after break down of seasonal stratification in the Gwangyang Bay.

Introduction of Kjeldahl Digestion Method for Nitrogen Stable Isotope Analysis (δ15N-NO3 and δ15NNH4) and Case Study for Tracing Nitrogen Source (Kjeldahl 증류법을 활용한 질산성-질소 및 암모니아성-질소 안정동위원소비 분석 및 질소오염원 추적 사례 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Seob;Park, Tae-Jin;Yoon, Suk-Hee;Lim, Bo-La;Shin, Kyung-Hoon;Kwon, Oh-Sang;Lee, Won-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2015
  • Nitrogen (N) loading from domestic, agricultural and industrial sources can lead to excessive growth of macrophytes or phytoplankton in aquatic environment. Many studies have used nitrogen stable isotope ratios to identify anthropogenic nitrogen in aquatic systems as a useful method for studying nitrogen cycle. In this study to evaluate the precision and accuracy of Kjeldahl processes, two reference materials (IAEA-NO-3, N-1) were analyzed repeatedly. Measured the ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ values of IAEA-NO-3 and IAEA-N-1 were $4.7{\pm}0.2$‰ and $0.4{\pm}0.3$‰, respectively, which are within recommended values of analytical uncertainties. Also, we investigated spatial patterns of ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ in effluent plumes from a waste water treatment plant in Han River, Korea. ${\delta}^{15}N-NO_3$ and ${\delta}^{15}N-NH_4$ values are enriched at downstream areas of water treatment plant suggesting that dissolved nitrogen in effluent plumes should be one of the main N sources in those areas. The current study clarifies the reliability of Kjeldahl analytical method and the usefulness of stable isotopic techniques to trace the contamination source of dissolved nitrogen such as nitrate and ammonia.

Residue levels of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and diethylhexyl adipate(DEHA) in various industrial wastewaters (업종별 산업폐수 중 프탈산에스테르와 디에틸헥실아디페이트의 잔류수준)

  • Kim, Hyesung;Park, Sangah;Lee, Hyeri;Lee, Jinseon;Lee, Suyeong;Kim, Jaehoon;Im, Jongkwon;Choi, Jongwoo;Lee, Wonseok
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2016
  • Many phthalic acid esters (PAEs), including DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP, as well as DEHA are widely used as plasticizers in plastics. An analytical method was developed and used to analyze these compounds at 41 industrial facilities. The coefficient of determination (R2) for each constructed curve was higher than 0.98. The method detection limit (MDL) values were 0.4–0.7 μg/L for PAEs and 0.6 μg/L for DEHA. In addition, the recovery rate was shown to be 77.0–92.3%, while the relative standard deviation was shown to be in the range of 5.8-10.5%. DMP (n = 3), DEP (n = 2), DBP (n = 2), BBP (n = 2), and DEHA (n = 3) were detected in the range of 2.2-11.1% in the influent. DEHP was a predominant compound and was detected at > MDL in both the influent (n = 16, 35.6%) and the effluent (n = 4, 10.0%) at a high removal efficiency (92–100%). The highest levels of residue in industrial wastewater influent were 137.4 μg/L of DEHP at plastic products manufacturing facility, 12.5 μg/L of DEHA at a chemical manufacturing facility, and 14.0 μg/L of DEP at an electronics facility. The highest concentration of effluent was 12.5 μg/L of DEHP at a chemical manufacturing facility, which indicated that the effluent was below the allowable concentration (800 μg/L). Therefore, the levels of PAEs and DEHA that are discharged into nearby streams could not influence the health of the ecosystem.

Wind and Flooding Damages of Rice Plants in Korea (한국의 도작과 풍수해)

  • 강양순
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.s02
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    • pp.45-65
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    • 1989
  • The Korean peninsular having the complexity of the photography and variability of climate is located within passing area of a lots of typhoon occurring from the southern islands of Philippines. So, there are various patterns of wind and flooding damages in paddy field occuring by the strong wind and the heavy rain concentrated during the summer season of rice growing period in Korea. The wind damages to rice plants in Korea were mainly caused by saline wind, dry wind and strong wind when typhoon occurred. The saline wind damage having symptom of white head or dried leaves occurred by 1.1 to 17.2 mg of salt per dry weight stuck on the plant which was located at 2. 5km away from seashore of southern coastal area during the period(from 27th to 29th, August, 1986) of typhoon &Vera& accompanying 62-96% of relative humidity, more than 6 m per second of wind velocity and 22.5 to 26.4$^{\circ}C$ of air temperature without rain. Most of the typhoons accompanying 4.0 to 8. 5m per second of wind and low humidity (lesp an 60%) with high temperature in the east coastal area and southen area of Korea. were changed to dry and hot wind by the foehn phenomenon. The dry wind damages with the symptom of the white head or the discolored brownish grain occurred at the rice heading stage. The strong wind caused the severe damages such as the broken leaves, cut-leaves and dried leaves before heading stage, lodging and shattering of grain at ripening stage mechanically during typhoon. To reduce the wind damages to rice plant, cultivation of resistant varieties to wind damages such as Sangpoongbyeo and Cheongcheongbyeo and the escape of heading stage during period of typhoon by accelerating of heading within 15th, August are effective. Though the flood disasters to rice plant such as earring away of field, burying of field, submerging and lodging damage are getting low by the construction of dam for multiple purpose and river bank, they are occasionally occurred by the regional heavy rain and water filled out in bank around the river. Paddy field were submerged for 2 to 4 days when typhoon and heavy rain occurred about the end of August. At this time, the rice plants that was in younger growing stage in the late transplanting field of southern area of Korea had the severe damages. Although panicles of rice plant which was in the meiotic growing stage and heading stage were died when flooded, they had 66% of yield compensating ability by the upper tilling panicle produced from tiller with dead panicle in ordinary transplanting paddy field. It is effective for reduction of flooding damages to cultivate the resistant variety to flooding having the resistance to bacterial leaf blight, lodging and small brown planthopper simultaneously. Especially, Tongil type rice varieties are relatively resistant to flooding, compared to Japonica rice varieties. Tongil type rice varieties had high survivals, low elongation ability of leaf sheath and blade, high recovering ability by the high root activity and photosynthesis and high yield compensating ability by the upper tillering panicle when flooded. To minimize the flooding and wind damage to rice plants in future, following research have to be carried out; 1. Data analysis by telemetering and computerization of climate, actual conditions and growing diagnosis of crops damaged by disasters. 2. Development of tolerant varieties to poor natural conditions related to flooding and wind damages. 3. Improvement of the reasonable cropping system by introduction of other crops compensating the loss of the damaged rice. 4. Increament of utilization of rice plant which was damaged.

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A Study of Dohang-Ri wooden coffin and Anya-Kuk (도항리목관묘(道項里木棺墓) 안사국(安邪國))

  • Lee, Ju-Huen
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.5-37
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    • 2004
  • A wooden coffin has been given academic attention in Kaya(伽倻), due to the place the stage of Samhan society appropriately in the development of ancient korea history. Special attention must be paid on Dohang-Ri(道項里) woden coffin, since it is expected to explain the origin of Arakaya(阿羅伽倻) in the region of southen korea peninsula. Dohang-Ri wooden coffin is become generally knowen two types, and complete its unique feature in Chin-Han(辰韓) and Byun-Han(弁韓). Recently the fact that Dohang-Ri wooden coffin is discovered only in the king tombs of Chang Won Daho-Ri(昌原茶戶里) and it is remarkable of political connection between Kuya-Kuk (狗邪國) and Anya-Kuk(安邪國). Various ironware unearth of Dohang-Ri has seen similar to that from Daho-Ri, but it has not bronze mirror be maid Chines, symbol with dignity of social position in the ruling ciass. It seems that political unit of Daho-Ri is advanced sociaity and central force than Dohang-Ri in the Byun-Han. The later of two century, I have a think about wooden coffin changes the wooden chamble of Dohang-Ri and Daho-Ri that it go out of sight at AD.2 century. Becouse of possitive achaelogical sites has not confirm, it request radical interpretaion. I inference to accordingly to the it appearance connected of the wars between the eight country of southen regins in korea peninsula at the first half of AD.3 cencury. Exactly, the politial units of Dohang-Ri and Daho-Ri has concentration of trade in Racdong river(洛東江) and Nam river(南江) water system and that give form to coexistence system of economic and political mutuality.

'Yongyudam of Hamyang', the Significance and Value as a Traditional Scenic Place ('함양 용유담(咸陽 龍遊潭)', 전래명승으로서의 의의와 가치 구명)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.82-101
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to survey and analyze the origin story and the legends associated with Yongyudam(龍遊潭, Dragon Creek), its scenic and spatial description in Climbing Writings(遊山記: Yusangi Notes), its geographical and geological features, its surrounding remains and letters chiseled on the rocks through the field study and the study on literatures associated with it so to identify its significance and value and then to ensure justification on preservation of Yongyudam scenic site. Conclusions of this study are as follow. As the traditional scenic place 'Geumdae-Jiri(金臺智異)' representing Hamyang-gun(咸陽郡) depicts Mount Cheonwangbong and 'Yongyudong Village(龍遊洞)', ancient maps and literatures have positioned Yongyudam as the center of Eomcheon-river Creek as well as the representing scenic site of Yongyudong Village. Core images in the spatial awareness of Yongyudam described in our ancestors' Climbing Writings Notes on Jirisan Mount are 'geographical and scenic peculiarity associated with swimming dragons', 'potholes in various shapes and sizes scattered on rocks', 'loud sound generated by swirling from shoals' and 'the scenic metaphor from the dragon legend', which have led scenic features of Yongyudam scenic site. In addition, significant scenic metaphors from legends such as 'Nine Dragons and Ascetic Majeog' and 'Kasaya Fish' as well as 'the Holy Place of Dragon God', the rain calling magic god have descended not only as the very nature of Yongyudam scenic site but also the catalyst deepening its mystic and place nature. On the other hand, Jangguso Place(杖?所, Place of Scholars) in the vicinity of Yongyudam was the place of resting and amusement for scholars from Yeongnam Province, to name a few, Kim Il-son, Cho Sik, Jung Yeo-chang and Kang Dae-su, where they experienced and recognized Jirisan Mount as the scenic living place. Letters Carved on the rocks at Jangguso Place are memorial tributes and monumental signs. Around Yongyudam, there are 3 stairs, letters chiseled on the rocks and the water rock artificially built to collect clean water, which are traditional scenic remains detectable of territoriality as the ritual place. In addition, The letters on the rock at Yongyudong-mun(龍遊洞門) discovered for the first time by this study are the sign promoting Yongyudam as the place of splendid landscape. The laconism, 'It is the Greatest Water in Jirisan Mount(方丈第一山水)' on a rock expresses the pride of Yongyudam as the representing scenic place of Mount Jirisan. Other than those, standing rocks such as Simjindae Rock, Yeong-gwidae Rock and Ganghwadae Rock show the sign that they are used as amusement and gathering places for ancestor scholars, which add significance to Yongyudam. By this study, it was possible to verify that Yongyudam in Mount Jirisan is not simply 'the scenic place in the tangible reality' but also has seamlessly inherited as the traditional scenic attraction spiritualized by overlapped historical and cultural values. Yongyudam, as the combined heritage by itself, shows that it is the product of the place nature as well as unique ensemble of cultural scenic attraction inherited through long history based on natural scenery. It is certain that not only the place value but also geographical, geological, historical and cultural values of Yongyudam are the essence of traditional scenic attraction, which should not be disparaged or damaged by whatever political or economic interests and logics.

Studies on the Life History of Bacciger harengulae (Bacciger harengulae의 생활사에 관한 연구)

  • KIM Young-Gill;CHUN Seh-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.449-470
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    • 1984
  • The cercaria of Bacciger herengulae which is parasitized on the gonad of Solen strictus was investigated in order to reveal its entire life history. The area covered for the study was in the vicinity sea of Naechodo, the estuary of the Kum river in the western coast of Korea during the period of 1980-1983. Morphology and development as well as infection rates of sporocyst and cercaria within Solen strictus were examined. For accomplishing the objectives of this study, an artificial infection experiment and some investigations on the second intermediate host, the final host and the growing stages were also studied in both laboratory and natural habitat of Solen strictus. According to the study, it was revealed that the first intermediate hosts were Meretrix lusoria, Solen strictus, Tapes japonica and Laternula limicola, the second intermediate host was Palaemon (Exopalaemon) carinicauda and the final hosts were Konosirus punctatus and Harengula zunasi. A mature sporocyst which was found in the gonad of Solen strictus was $4.0-4.3{\times}0.2-0.21\;mm$ insize, and the cercaia with 27 pairs of setae, each seta consisting of 6 tufts, was $270{\times}147{\mu}m$ in body size and $550{\times}52{\mu}m$ in tail size. Oral sucker($52{\times}42{\mu}m$), pharynx, vental sucker and two testese were obviously seen within the cercaria. The excretory vesicles of cercaria were in V-shape and the flame cell were formula was expressed as 2[(3+3)+(3+3)]=24. The infection of cercaria in the first intermediate host, Solen strictus, was found throughout the year regardlless of the water temperature, and its mean infection rate was $9.67\%$ during the study period. The infection rate fluctuated with temperature, the highest being $28.0\%\;at\;28.0^{\circ}C$ water temperature in July and the lowest $2.4\%\;at\;19.5^{\circ}C$ in October, and it increased in proportion to the shell length on the host. But cercaria was not detected at below 4.0 cm in size of the host. Mature cercariae were found 6 months from May to October when water temperature was above $19.5^{\circ}C$. On the other hand, when water temperature was below $19.5^{\circ}C$, only immature cercariae and sporocysts were found. The cercariae were active for 35 hours and survived for 71 hours at $20^{\circ}C$, and 29 and 34 hours at $25^{\circ}C$ respectively, whereas the cercariae were inactive at less than $20^{\circ}C$ in water temperature. Cercaria, from Solen strictus, approached shrimp of 1-3 cm in body length as its second host. Then, it began to intrude in to the muscle of shrimp after 2-3 hours. The infected cercaria formed cyst after 7-8 hours, and became mature metacercaria. $420{\times}310{\mu}m$ in size, 15 days afer infection. The infection rate of metaceria to shrimp in the laboratory was highest, at $25^{\circ}C$ being $61\%$ and at $20^{\circ}C\;17%$. The infection rate of metacearia in shrimp was highest in the first abdominal segment, followed by cephalothorax, the second, and fifth abdominal segments, and in that order. Also, the infection rate of metacercaria in wild shrimp was high $9.6-11.1\%$ at $26.5^{\circ}C$ in June, and low $1.56-2.5\%$ at $28-29.5^{\circ}C$ from July to August. The infected shrimp with metacercaria was experimentally fed to Konosirus punctatus in the laboratory in order to know its final host. The metacercaria developed into the adult worm, $440-520{\times}310-360{\mu}m$ in size, within the intestine of Konosirus punctatus 20 days after infection. The adult worm was oval shape and $20-24{\times}11-20{\mu}m$ in size. The infection rate of adult worm to Konosirus punctatus and Harengula zunasi ranged 87.3 to $100\%$, the mean being $95.2\%$, regardless of the body length of their hosts. The infection rate was $100\%$ in June and July, but it decreased in September and October. The size and body structure of the trematode observed during the present study were well agreed with those ievestigated by Yamaguti(1938), thus, it may be concluded that the adult worm it identified as Bacciger harengulae.

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A Study on Forestation for Landscaping around the Lakes in the Upper Watersheds of North Han River (북한강상류수계(北漢江上流水系)의 호수단지주변삼림(湖水団地周辺森林)의 풍경적시업(風景的施業)에 관(関)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ho, Ul Yeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 1981
  • Kangweon-Do is rich in sightseeing resources. There are three sightseeing areas;first, mountain area including Seolak and Ohdae National Parks, and chiak Provincial Park; second eastern coastal area; third lake area including the watersheds of North Han River. In this paper, several methods of forestation were studied for landscaping the North Han River watersheds centering around Chounchon. In Chunchon lake complex, there are four lakes; Uiam, Chunchon, Soyang and Paro from down to upper stream. The total surface area of the above four lakes is $14.4km^2$ the total pondage of them 4,155 million $m^3$, the total generation of electric power of them 410 thousand Kw, and the total forest area bordering on them $1,208km^2$. The bordering forest consists of planned management forest ($745km^2$) and non-planned management forest ($463km^2$). The latter is divided into green belt zone, natural conservation area, and protection forest. The forest in green belt amounts to $177km^2$ and centers around the 10km radios from Chunchon. The forest in natural conservation area amounts to $165km^2$, which is established within 2km sight range from the Soyang-lake sides. Protection forest surrounding the lakes is $121km^2$ There are many scenic places, recreation gardens, cultural goods and ruins in this lake complex, which are the same good tourist resources as lakes and forest. The forest encirelng the lakes has the poor average growing stock of $15m^3/ha$, because 70% of the forest consists of the young plantation of 1 to 2 age class. The ration of the needle-leaved forest, the broad-leaved forest and the mixed forest in 35:37:28. From the standpoint of ownership, the forest consists of national forest (36%), provincial forest (14%), Gun forest (5%) and private forest(45%). The greater part of the forest soil, originated from granite and gneiss, is much liable to weathering. Because the surface soil is mostly sterile, the fertilization for improving the soil quality is strongly urged. Considering the above-mentioned, the forestation methods for improving landscape of the North Han River Watersheds are suggested as follows: 1) The mature-stage forest should be induced by means of fertilizing and tendering, as the forest in this area is the young plantation with poor soil. 2) The bare land should be afforested by planting the rapid growing species, such as rigida pine, alder, and etc. 3) The bare land in the canyon with moderate moist and comparatively rich soil should be planted with Korean-pine, larch, ro fir. 4) Japaness-pine stand should be changed into Korean-pine, fir, spruce or hemlock stand from ravine to top gradually, because the Japanese-pine has poor capacity of water conservation and great liability to pine gall midge. 5) Present hard-wood forest, consisting of miscellaneous trees comparatively less valuable from the point of wood quality and scenerity, should be change into oak, maple, fraxinus-rhynchophylla, birch or juglan stand which is comparatively more valuable. 6) In the mountain foot within the sight-range, stands should be established with such species as cherry, weeping willow, white poplar, machilus, maiden-hair tree, juniper, chestnut or apricot. 7) The regeneration of some broad-leaved forests should be induced to the middle forest type, leading to the harmonious arrangement of the two storied forest and the coppice. 8) For the preservation of scenery, the reproduction of the soft-wood forest should be done under the selection method or the shelter-wood system. 9) Mixed forest should be regenerated under the middle forest system with upper needle-leaved forest and lower broad-leaved forest. In brief, the nature's mysteriousness should be conserved by combining the womanly elegance of the lakes and the manly grandeur of the forest.

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