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Water Resources Planning for the 2S River Basin in Viet Nam

  • Ko, Ick Hwan;Choi, Byung-Man;Kim, Jeong-kon;Pi, Wan-Seop;Shin, Jae-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.78-78
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    • 2020
  • The Se San and Srepok river basins (2S) are the two major tributaries of the Mekong River, both of which originate in the territory of Viet Nam and flow to Cambodia to meet at Stung treng with the Sekong river (originating in Lao PDR) to form the 3S river basin before joining the Mekong mainstream. In the territory of Viet Nam, the 2S river basins are located in the Central Highlands including 5 provinces, arranged by geographical location from north to south namely Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong. This is a region with a very important strategic position in terms of economy, politics and defense for the whole country with many potential advantages for economic development. However, the limited and vulnerable basin water resources are under the pressure of socio-economic development in line with increasing water demands for various sectors. In order to overcome the water management challenges, a long-term water resources planning has conducted to support the 2S River Basin Committee (RBC) in effective planning and operation as part of the WB Mekong-Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Project. This paper introduces the outline and progress of the river basin planning using analytical DSS toolkits to analyze, evaluate and formulate the planning options.

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A Study on the Administration for the Han River Water Quality Control (漢江 水質保全 行政에 관한 硏究)

  • Kim, Kwang Hyop
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.9-40
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    • 1984
  • This thesis purports to overview the diverse administrative and organizational factors and plannings developed by the government organizations, municipal or otherwise, to tackle the Han River water pollution issues in the past years. This thesis also looks into the ever-worsening Han River water pollution problems, in particular, in terms of the various government plans ostensibly designed to reduce the pollution level but with little success. Also dealt with are the efficiencies with which the laws and decrees on water pollution the administrative organizations put to use in the prosecution of the diverse antiwater pollution projects involving the Han River basin. From the early 1960's up to the 1970's the government had concentrated on the growth-oriented economic policy with the result that little attention had been paid to the water pollution and other environmental issues that are bound to arise from the massive economic growth. Belatedly, the five-year Hah River Development Project was initiated in 1982 with emphasis on reducing the water pollution level at Hah River to the minimum. The following are the gists of the thesis and recommendations for the future antiwater pollution plans by the administrative organizations: 1. Documents to date indicate that the irrigation projects along the Han River area had been the main focus of attention during the Yi Dynasty and under the Japanese rule of the country. 2. Despite that the water pollution issue became the subject of many debates among the academic and research institutions in the 1960's and in the 1970's, the administrative organizations in charge of the Han River water quality control failed to come up with a concrete plan for the river's water quality control. 3. Nevertheless, the water pollution of the Han River area in fact began in the 1950's, with the unprecedented concentration into Seoul of population and the industrial facilities on a larger scale, in particular, enforced by the government's strong growthoriented policy in its Economic Development plans in the 1960's. 4. Starting in the 1960's, the Han River water pollution level dramatically increased, but the government was reluctant to promulgate or put into effect strong measures to curb the many factors contributing to the river water pollution, thus worsening the environmental issues along the Han River basin. 5. The environmental protection law and other laws and decrees relating to the antiwater and air pollution issues that were subsequently put into effect underwent so many changes that efficient anti-water pollution policies could not be effected for the Han River basin. The frequent organizational reshuffle within the administrative units concerned with environmental problems has resulted in the undue waste in personnel management and finance. 6. The administration on the environmental protection could not be efficiently carried out due to the organizational overlapping. Under the existing law, frequent organizational frictions and inefficiency are bound to occur among the central government offices themselves, as well as between the central government and the Seoul city administration, and among the city's administrative offices over the conservation of the Han River basin and over the river's anti-water pollution issue. 7. In the planning and prosecution of the Han River project, political influences from the president down to the lower-level politicious appear to have been involved. These political influences in the past had certainly had negative influence on the project, nevertheless, it appears that in the recent years, these political influences are not all that negative in view of the fact that they serve as a positive contributing factor in developing a better water quality control project along the Han River basin. The following are a few recommendations based on the data from the thesis: First, officials in charge of the Han River water quality control should pay attention to a careful screening of the opinions and recommendations from the academic circles and from the public should be made so that the government could better grasp the core issues in the environmental problems that require preventive and other necessary measures. Second, vigorous redistribution policies of population and industrial facilities away from the Seoul area should be pursued. Third, the government should refrain from revising or revamping too frequently the laws and decrees on the anti-water pollution, which is feared to cause undue inconveniences in the environmental administration. Fourth, a large-scale streamlining should be made to the existing administrative organization in an effort to do away with the inter- and intra-organizational friction. It is recommended that a secretariat for the Hah River basis conservation be established. Fifth, High-level administrative officials, with a thorough knowledge and vision on the Han River water quality control, should be prepared to better deal with the budgeting and personnel management for the Han River water pollution control not only at the control government, but also at the Seoul city municipal government levels. Environmental issues should be kept distinct from political issues. Environmental issues should not serve as a window-dressing for sheer political purposes. Sixth, the Hah River proiect should also include, along with the main Han River basin, those areas covering North Han River, South Han River, and the tributaries to the main river basin. The 'Han River Basin Water Quality Control Board' should be established immediately as a means of strengthening the current Han River basin water quality control policy. Seventh, in drawing up the Han River proiect, the administrative officials should be aware that Han River basin is a life line for those people in the region, providing them with not only a sheer physical space, but with a psychological living space for their everyday life.

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Effect of the Sewage and Wastewater Plant Effluent on the Algal Growth Potential in the Nakdong River Basin (낙동강 수계 하.폐수 처리시설의 방류수가 조류 성장 잠재력에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo,Jeong-Gwan;Lee,Jae-Jeong;Yang,Sang-Yong;Jeong,Ik-Gyo
    • ALGAE
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.157-167
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    • 2003
  • Effect of the effluent of the sewage and wastewater plants on the algal growth was investigated from the 19 plants located in the Nakdong river basin. Most of the samples showed high values of the algal growth potential (AGP) when they were mixed with natural river water at 20% of final concentration. At 20% of the mixing ratio, the mixed effluents of sewage and wastewater showed 3.5 and 1.8 times higher AGP than those of the natural river water. The higher AGP values are attributable to the high contents of phosphorus and ammonium in the effluent. The mixing ratio of effluents of the discharge/river flow was highest in the Kumho River (42.8%) followed by the middle of Nakdong River (22.7%), Kam Stream (13.9%), Byungsung Stream (13.3%), Yangsan Stream (7.9%), and Young River (5.4%). Comparison of the trophic state of the effluents with natural river water indicated that the effluents showed higher trophic values than natural water. Concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen and conductivity in the effluents were 12.3, 4.9 and 5.3 times higher than the those found in natural river water respectively. The AGP values were highly related with the trophicity of the water especially on the concentrations of phosphate and ammonium. Toxicities of the treated sewage water, wastewater and livestock waste water tested by the luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischerii were generally low.

Influence of River Discharge Fluctuation and Tributary Mixing on Water Quality of Geum River, Korea (유량변화와 지류유입에 따른 금강의 수질 변화)

  • Shim, Moo Joon;Lee, Soo Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 2015
  • To study the influence of changes in river discharge on water quality of the main stem of the Geum River, we investigated variation of inflow load from tributaries with river discharge. We also studied the mixing behavior of pollutants during mixing of waters of the main stem and Gap Stream. For this study, we collected water quality data such as suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon events of 2013 from a website of Water Information System. Based on inflow load, the Gap and Miho streams may be ones of tributaries which may largely influence water quality of main stem in upper river region. The Suksung and Nonsan Streams seemed to further affect water quality downstream. Results of modified EMMA indicated SS and TP may have another source(besides Gap Stream) at pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon period. In contrast, TN and organic matter (BOD, COD, TOC) were conservative at pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. However, when river discharge increased, these pollutants may also came from unspecified non-point sources. Therefore, we need to attempt to find non-point sources for the pollutants in the main channel of upper Geum River region.

Limnological Studies in Branch of Han River(Anyang River, Kockneung River) during Spring Season (춘기 한강지류(안양천, 곡릉천)의 육수학적 연구)

  • 홍사욱
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1968
  • The persent paper discusses the relation between water pollution and aquatic organisms resulted from the study of the water quality and the kinds of algea and aquatic insects both of the An-yang River from Mt. Kwan-ak to the Han River and of the Kock-neung River from Mt. Puk-han to the Han River during the spring of 1965 and 1966. According to the change of water quality, the An-yang River might be divided into three areas. In the first area, from Mt. Kwan-ak to near An-yang town, water quality is not so polluted that may aquatic organisms such as Anisogamarus ryotoensis, Epeorus, Cambaroides, Zygnem, Batrachospermum moniliform, Draparnaldia glomerata are found. In the second area where water is polluted by the inflow of sewerage water from An-yang town, the concentration of chloride, COD, ammonia-N, nitrate-N, alkali degree increased. Therefore, few aquatic insects and algea are found. In the third area, it is much polluted by the industrial sewerage water frojm Yeong-dong-po; and so the aquatic organisms that indicate strong pollution such as Oscillatoria, Euglena, Tubifex are found in this area. It is also significant that the Nereis japonica that indicates the pollution of brackish water is discorved in the some area. In the case of the Kock-neung River, however, it is not clearly divided into areas, as in the case of the An-yang Riber, according to the pollution of water; but because of villages and towns along the river the gradual pollution of water; but because of villages and towns along the river the gradual pollution of water is observed and accordingly, a considerable change in aquatic organisms is also found in this river. In the area near II-yeung town, for instance, the concentration of the chloride, hardness, nitrite, nitrate is very low, and ammonia-N is not detected; and accordingly the aquatic insects that generally inhabit in mountain stream, such as Anisogamarus ryotoensis, Cambaroides, Epeorus, Thraubs, Hydropsyche are found here. In the down stream of the river, from Kock-chon, the quality of water is considerably polluted and fine sands are found laid on the bottom of the stream; therefore, the aquatic insects are very few, but the algea such as Navicula, Pleusigma, Oscillatoria that indicate water pollution are found in this area.

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Temporal Analysis of Trends in Dissolved Organic Matter in Han River Water

  • Lee, Hye-Won;Choi, Jung-Hyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.256-260
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    • 2009
  • This study used the extensive monitoring datasets of the Korea Ministry of Environment to examine trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Han River raw water. To estimate the organic contents of water, we adopted allied parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as substitutes for DOC. Spatial and temporal analyses were performed on monthly BOD and COD data from 36 monitoring stations (14 for Main Han River, 7 for North Han River and 15 for South Han River) measured from 1989 to 2007. The results of trend analysis indicated that, on the whole, water quality according to BOD showed a downward trend at more than 67% of monitoring stations (9 for Main Han River, 6 for North Han River and 9 for South Han River). However, the water quality of COD showed an upward trend at more than 78% of monitoring stations (8 for Main Han River, 7 for North Han River and 13 for South Han River). The upward trend of COD contrary to the BOD trend indicates that there has been an increase in recalcitrant organic matter in Han River water that is not detectable by means of BOD.

Statistical Analysis of the Spatio-temporal Water Quality Characteristics of the Nakdong River (낙동강수계 수질의 시·공간적 특성에 대한 통계학적 분석)

  • Seo, Mijin;Cho, Changdae;Im, Taehyo;Kim, Sanghun;Yoon, Hyunjeong;Kim, Yongseok;Kim, Gyeonghoon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.303-320
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    • 2019
  • Water quality is characterized by various complex factors. Therefore, a systematic understanding of water quality trends is required to carry out a proper evaluation. In this study, we analyzed the spatio-temporal water quality characteristics of the Nakdong River using five-year data from 2012 to 2016. Data was collected on the pH, DO, BOD, COD, SS, TN, TP, TOC, WT, EC, $NH_3-N$, $NO_3-N$, $PO_4-P$, Chl-a, rainfall, and total and fecal coliforms. A total of 38 water quality measurement stations, from Andong1 to Gupo, were considered. Statistical analyses including trend, cluster, and factor analyses were conducted to identify the dominant water quality components affecting the Nakdong River. The Nakdong River was spatially classified into three groups for up-stream (Andong1 to Sangju1), mid/up-stream (Donam to Dalseong), and mid/down-stream (Hwawonnaru to Gupo) data collection, and temporally into two groups for summer/fall (7~10), and the rest of the season (11~6) data. The water quality of the entire Nakdong River showed trends similar to the mid/down-stream section, which indicates the importance of water quality management in this section. Suspended solids, phosphorus, and coliform groups were established as important factors to be considered in the summer/fall season across the river, especially in the mid/down-stream section. Nitrogen and organic matter were identified as important factors to be considered in the rest of the season, especially in the mid/up-stream section. This study could help determine the water quality components that should be intensively monitored in the Nakdong River.

Seasonal variation of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River (1988. 8$\sim$1989. 9) (한강 상류와 중류지역에서 측정한 일반수질의 계절적 변화(1988. 8$\sim$1989. 9))

  • Lee, Sang-Jun;Chung, Kyou-Chull
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.106-116
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    • 1990
  • This study was conducted to investigate of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River. For this purpose, water was sampled at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges of the Han River in Seoul and analysed from August, 1988 to September, 1989. The results are summarized as follows : 1. Water quality at 1st Han-River Bridge was more polluted than that at Kwangjin Bridge. 2. Except biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, suspended solid (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), DO saturation (DOS), ammonia nitrogen ($NH_3-N$), nitrite nitrogen ($NO_2-N$) and chloride ion ($Cl^-$) at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges were lower as compared with the previous data before redevelopment of the Han River. 3. SS, DO and pH at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges could be classified to the 1st grade in environmental water quality standard. DOS at Kwangjin Bridge was over 100% and that at 1st Han-River Bridge was below 100% in the Han River. BOD at Kwangjin Bridge could be classified to End grade and that at 1st Han-River Bridge to 3rd grade in environmental water quality standard. 4. The higher the level of water was, the lower the levels of turbidity and SS, and $NH_3-N$ was decreased with increasing water level at 1st Han-River Bridge. DO was decreased as water temperature went up but DOS was increased with DO. BOD was positively correlated with nitrite-nitrogens. 5. Turbidity and SS at the both sites and Chloride ion ($Cl^-$) at Kwangjin Bridge were increased in July and August. And DO at the both sites and $NH_3-N$ at 1st Han-River Bridge were decreased in at July and August.

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Water Quality Correlation Analysis between Sewage Treated Water and the Adjacent Downstream Water in Nakdong River Basin (낙동강유역의 하수처리장 방류수와 인접 하류하천의 수질상관관계 분석)

  • Cho, Hyun Kyung;Kim, Sang Min
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.493-493
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the effluent of the sewage treatment plant (STP) and the adjacent stream located downstream of the STP in Nakdong River. The flow and water quality such as BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P data for 12 STPs and adjacent downstream monitoring stations in the main stream and tributaries of Nakdong River were collected from 2012 to 2015. As a result of correlation analysis between river flow and water quality at the river water quality measurement point, COD, SS and T-P were correlated positively with river flow rate at 6, 8, and 6 points, respectively. As a result of analyzing the water quality of sewage treatment plant effluent and downstream stream, BOD and COD were correlated at 2 and 3 points, respectively. T-N showed a positive correlation at 9 points, and 7 of them had a strong positive correlation, indicating that sewage treatment effluent had a large effect on downstream streams. In this study, we found that the correlation between river flow rate and water quality factors (COD, SS, TP) was high for river water measurement points, and the sewage treatment plant effluent was correlated with the T-N value of adjacent streams.

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Water Quality Correlation Analysis between Sewage Treated Water and the Adjacent Downstream Water in Nakdong River Basin (낙동강유역의 하수처리장 방류수와 인접 하류하천의 수질상관관계 분석)

  • Cho, Hyun Kyung;Kim, Sang Min
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.202-209
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP) and the adjacent stream located downstream of the STP in Nakdong River. Flow and water quality data, such as BOD, COD, SS, T-N, and T-P data, for 12 STPs and adjacent downstream monitoring stations in the main stream and tributaries of Nakdong River were collected from 2012 to 2015. As a result of correlation analysis between river flow and water quality at the river water quality measurement point, COD, SS, and T-P were correlated positively with the river flow rate at 6, 8, and 6 points, respectively. As a result of analyzing the water quality of sewage treatment plant effluents and downstream streams, BOD and COD were correlated at 2 and 3 points, respectively. T-N showed a positive correlation at 9 points, and 7 of them had a strong positive correlation, indicating that sewage treatment effluent had a large effect on downstream streams. In this study, we found that the correlation between the river flow rate and the water quality factors (COD, SS, TP) was high at river water measurement points, and the sewage treatment plant effluent was correlated with the T-N value of adjacent streams.