• Title, Summary, Keyword: risk factors

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A Comparative Study on the Factors Influencing Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Living in Small and Medium-sized Cities and Rural Communities (중소도시와 농촌 청소년의 위험행동 영향요인 비교 연구)

  • Park, Hyun Sook;Yeo, Hyun Ju;Jung, Sun Young
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.256-266
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was to compare and to examine the factors related to risk behaviors of adolescents living in small and medium-sized cities and in rural areas. Methods: The subjects were 545 adolescents (295 from small and medium-sized cities and 250 from rural areas). The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Pearson corelation coefficients, and multiple regression with IBM SPSS 19.0 program. Results: The factors influencing the risk behaviors of adolescents in small- medium cities were school, peer risk factors and community risk factors, self- control among protective factors, positive communication with parents, positive peer associations, these variables explained 42.0%. The most important variable explaining the risk behaviors of adolescents in small- medium cities was positive communication with parents, followed by community risk factors, peer risk factors, positive peer relationships, school and self-control. The factors affecting the risk behaviors of rural adolescents were school, personal risk factor, peer risk factor, self- control factor, which explained 38.5% of the risk behaviors of adolescents in rural areas. Among them, the most important variable explaining risk behaviors was personal risk factors, followed by peer risk factors, school, and self-control. Conclusion: These finding suggest a need to develop a strategy to improve positive communication with parents for adolescents living in small- medium cities and a strategy to reduce personal risk factors and peer risk factors for rural adolescents.

The factors to identify high risk family (고위험가족 선별을 위한 위험요인 분석)

  • 방숙명
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.351-361
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    • 1995
  • The main purpose of the study is to identify critical risk factors for development of a family assessment tool to screen high risk family. This study used a conceptual framework of family diagnosis developed by Eui-sook Kim's (1993) and analyzed risk factors to identify the high risk family. As employing a explorative and methodological study design, this study has four stages. 1. In the first stage, 34 family risk factors were identified by doing intensive literature review on conceptual framework of family diagnoses. 2. In the second stage, above risk factors were tested for content validity by consultation with 29 persons in community health nursing, nursing education, family theory, and social work. 3. In the third stage, existing survey data was used for actual application of the identified risk factors. The survey data used for this purpose was previously collected for the community diagnosis in a region of Seoul. At the final stage, through the comparison between high risk and low risk families, initially identified 34 risk factors decreased to 25 risk factors. Among 34 risk factors, six factors did not agree with content of questionnaries sand two factors were not significant in differentiating the high risk family Also, two risk factors showed high correlation between themselves, so only one of those two factors was chosen. As a result, twenty-five risk factors chosen to identify the high risk family are following ; 1. A single parent family due to divorce or death of a partner, or unweded single mother 2. A family with an unrelated household members 3. A family with a working mother with a young child 4. A family with no regular income 5. A family with no rule in family or too strict rules 6. A family with little or no support from other lam-ily members 7. A family with little or no support from friends or relatives 8. A family with little or no time to share with each other 9. A family with family history of hypertension, diabetus, cancer 10. A family with a sick person 11. A family with a mentally ill person 12. A family with a disabled person 13. A family with an alcoholic person 14. A family with a excessive smoker who smokes more than 1 pack / day 15. A family with too much salt intake in their diet. 16. A family with inappropriate management skills for family health 17. A family with high utilization of drug store than hospital to solve the health problems of the family 18. A family with disharmony between husband and wife 19. A family with conflicts among the family members 20. A family with unequal division of labor among family members 21. An authoritative family structure 22. A socially isolated family 23. The location of house is not residential area 24. A family with high risk of accidents 25. The drinking water and sewage systems are not hygienic. The main implication of the results of this study is clinical use. The high risk factors can be used to identify the high risk family effectively and efficiently. The use of high risk factors woule contribute to develop a conceptual framework of family diagnosis in Korea and the list of risk factors need to be revised continuously. Further researches are needed to develop an index of weight of each risk factor and to validate the risk factors.

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The Effects of Child's Inner Risk Factors and Outer Risk Factors Intermediated by Self Concept on His or Her Resiliency (자아개념을 매개변인으로 한 내적·외적 위기요인이 초등학생의 위기대처능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Su-Seek;Kim, Hea-Young
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.127-144
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    • 2005
  • This study is to analyze the effects of child's inner risk factors and outer risk factors intermediated by self concept on his or her resiliency at-risk. For this study, the total of 500 students in their fifth and sixth grade of elementary schools in Busan and their parents were sampled, and a measurement tool is question district court. The questionnaire for the parents measured risk factors, and the questionnaire for the students measured self-concept and about the resiliency at-risk. The SPSS for Win 12.0 and AMOS 5.0 were used to analyze the collected data. The result of this study is as follows; First, there is a significant correlation between the sub-factors of inner risk factors, which shows that the risks of students are caused not just by one of the parents but by both of them. Second, all three variables, that is, inner risk factors, self-concepts, and the resiliency at-risk, closely interact one another. The less inner risk factors of the students, the more positive their self-concept and the more the resiliency to the risk. Third, the higher the socioeconomic status (outer risk factors) and the lower the degree of risk of the family, the more positive the self-concept of the students. Fourth, the higher the socioeconomic status(outer risk factors) and the lower the degree of risk of the family, the more the resiliency to the risk.

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The Relationship between Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Levels of Plasma Total Homocysteine, Folate and Vitamin {TEX}$B_{12}${/TEX} in Koreans

  • Lim, Hyeon-Sook;Heo, Young-Ran
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2001
  • The elevation of total plasmahomocysteine is now an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Plasma folate and vitamin {TEX}$B_{12}${/TEX} influence Hcy metabolism as cofactors. In this study, we studied the relationship of major risk factors for cardovascular disease, including advanced age, male gender, obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dislipidemia and plasma homocyteine, folate and vitamin {TEX}$B_{12}${/TEX} levels in Koreans. A total of 195 adult Koreans participated. The subjects were divided into three groups according to how many major conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease they had: no risk, low risk (1~3 risk factors) and high risk (>3 risk factors) groups. As the number of risk factors increased, the plasma homocysteine levels significantly increase, while the plasma folate levels significantly decreased. The plasma homocysteine levels re higher in males than in females. The subjects with hyperglycemia had higher plasma homocysteine levels than the subjects without the risk factor. Also the subjects with dislipidemia had higher plasma homocysteine levels than the subjects without the risk factor. The plasma folate and vitamin {TEX}$B_{12}${/TEX} levels were significantly lower in males tan females. However, there were no significant differences in plasma folate and vitamin {TEX}$B_{12}${/TEX} levels between the subjects with or without other risk factors. These results indicate that plasma homocysteine levels were positively related with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and plasma folate levels were negatively related with the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Also, we conclude that plasmahomocysteine levels might be related to the combination of risk factors, rather than an individual risk factor.

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A Basic Study on Assessment Criterion of the Risk Factor for the Marine Traffic Environment (해상교통환경 위험요소 평가기준 설정을 위한 기초 연구)

  • Kim, Chol-Seong;Lee, Hong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.431-438
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    • 2012
  • The representative risk evaluation techniques of the marine traffic environment are the FSA, PAWSA, & IWRAP. For the development of these techniques, the risk factors suitable to the marine traffic environment should be selected & the assessment criterion of the risk factors should be provided. The risk factors were selected as the factors that relate both to the frequency of casualty & to the consequence of casualty because the risk was defined as the frequency of casualty times the consequence of that casualty on the existing techniques. But, the risk factors relate to the consequence of casualty are excluded because the risk is defined as the sum of the risk factors including the frequency and the consequence by factors on this study. The 20 kinds of risk factors to compose the risk are selected and classified into 5 categories according to similar nature through the analysis of preceding study on the classification of the risk factors. Finally, as the foundation of risk assessment model's development for domestic marine traffic environment, the practical assessment criterion of the risk factors are suggested.

Noncommunicable Diseases: Current Status of Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Korea

  • Kim, Hyeon Chang;Oh, Sun Min
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2013
  • A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society.

Investigation and Empirical Validation of Industry Uncertainty Risk Factors Impacting on Bankruptcy Risk of the Firm (기업부도위험에 영향을 미치는 산업 불확실성 위험요인의 탐색과 실증 분석)

  • Han, Hyun-Soo;Park, Keun-Young
    • Korean Management Science Review
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.105-117
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we present empirical testing result to examine the validity of inbound supply and outbound demand risk factors in the sense of early predicting the firm's bankruptcy risk level. The risk factors are drawn from industry uncertainty attributes categorized as uncertainties of input market (inbound supply), and product market (outbound demand). On the basis of input-output table, industry level inbound and outbound sectors are identified to formalize supply chain structures, relevant inbound and outbound uncertainty attributes and corresponding risk factors. Subsequently, publicly available macro-economic indicators are used to appropriately quantify these risk factors. Total 68 industry level bankruptcy risk forecasting results are presented with the average R-square scores of between 53.4% and 37.1% with varying time lag. The findings offers useful insights to incorporate supply chain risk to the body of firm's bankruptcy risk level prediction literature.

An Empirical Study on Risk Factors in Information System Project Management (정보시스템 프로젝트의 위험요인에 관한 실증 연구)

  • Cho, Suk-Jin;Lee, Seog-Jun;Hahm, Yu-Keun
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.143-158
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    • 2006
  • Identifying risk factors in software risk management is imperative for project managers. The purpose of this paper is to provide software project risk factors validated by statistical analysis, and thus to help project managers alleviating the possibility of software project failure. Factor analysis with data collected from 264 Korean project managers and consultants identified 12 categories and 46 risk factors. T-test results showed that project managers and participants had statistically different perception on 3 risk factors among those 46 risk factors. We concluded by discussing implications of our findings and future research directions.

Perceptual Differences between IS Project Service Providers and Customers on Information System Project Risk Factors: a Koran case (정보시스템 프로젝트의 위험요인에 대한 현업인력과 서비스제공인력과의 인식도 차이)

  • Lee, Seog-Jun;Cho, Suk-Jin;Park, Jung-Sun;Hahm, Yu-Keun;Kim, Yong-Jae
    • Journal of Information Technology Applications and Management
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.79-94
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    • 2007
  • Cases of botched information systems implementation have been surfaced due to poor IS project management and control. One major source of such failures is the perceptual difference between the participants of IS projects who should define potential risk factors well before considered IS projects are launched. Based on risk factors cited from prior works, this paper empirically examines the risk factors associated with IS service project management to analyze perceptual differences between the IS service providers and customers in Korea. Data analyses found significant differences in the area of scheduling/resource, technological newness, communications, and sponsorship/ownership while statistically significant differences were observed in eleven individual factors out of forty six risk factors. Risk factors are also ordered in terms of perceived importance to highlight the critical differences.

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The Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on Infants' Development : The Mediation of Mothers' Parenting (가족의 누적위험요인이 영아기 발달에 미치는 영향 : 어머니의 양육행동을 매개로)

  • Chang, Young Eun;Kwon, Yun Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.43-61
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    • 2014
  • The main purpose of this study was to investigate the paths from the cumulative risk factors to infant's development at 24 months of age via the mediation of maternal parenting behaviors. The data consisted of 3 year's worth of data harvested from 1802 families participating in the Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC). The results revealed that cumulative family risk factors tended to stay in the family in relatively stable ways. Early risk factors significantly predicted later risk factors. Cumulative risk factors were negatively associated with the parenting styles of mothers, which in turn, significantly predicted the development of the infants concerned. Statistical tests supported the notion that mothers' parenting behavior is the mediator of the relation between family risk factors and infant's developmental outcomes.