• Title, Summary, Keyword: risk assessment

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Microbial Risk Assessment (미생물학적 위해성 평가)

  • 이건형
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2001
  • Risk assessment defines as the process of estimating both the probability that an event will occur and the probable magnitude of its adverse effects. Chemical or microbial risk assessment generally follows four basic steps, that is, hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessment provides an effective framework for determining the relative urgency of problems and the allocation of resources to reduce risks. Using the results of risk analyses, we can target prevention, reme-diation, or control effects towards areas, sources, or situations in which the greatest risk reductions can be achieved with resources available. Risk assessment is also used to explain chemical and microbial risks as well as ecosystem impacts. Moreover, this process, which allows the quantitation and comparison of diverse risks, lets risk managers utilize the maximum amount of complex information in the decision-making process. This information can also be used to weigh the cost and benefits of control options and to develop standards or treatment options.

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Development of Background Exposure Effect of Harmful Pollutants Using Population Risk Assessment in Ulsan (인구집단 위해도 평가 방법을 활용한 유해화학물질 배경 노출 영향 보정 방법 개발 -울산공단주변을 대상으로-)

  • Nam Goung, Sun Ju;Lee, Cheol Min;Lee, Hye Won;Park, Si Hyun;Lim, Hui Been;Choi, Kil Yong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.231-237
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to propose a method using population risk to assess the local background exposure effect of harmful pollutants from chemical accidents in Ulsan. Methods: The benzene was selected as representative harmful pollutant. The concentrations of benzene were measured and analyzed at 40 sites in Ulsan city in September, 2018. The data from National Statistics office in Korea were used for population density, and the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) data from US EPA were used for unit risk. Results: The risk assessment can be carried out by considering the background population risk. The background population risk was calculated as 5.01 persons per million for exposure to benzene in Ulsan, and therefore may be used as a adjusted background method in case of chemical accident caused by benzene. Conclusions: This study may provide the evidence that background exposure effect and risk to harmful pollutants from chemical accidents would be useful.

Improvement for practical application of Risk Assessment in shipbuilding industry (조선업 위험성평가 실용을 위한 개선 방안)

  • Shin, Woonchul
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.273-277
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    • 2014
  • Subcontracting business than the contracting business in shipbuilding industry is a lot of hazardous job and highly accident because of highly work intensity. In order to prevent the accidents, there is a need to analyze characteristic. of shipbuilding, to apply measures of risk assessment. In this paper, I suggested an improvement of the risk assessment through the actual condition research in shipbuilding industry. In the research method, I analysed accidents occurred until 2011-2013. Carried out the actual site survey while two weeks in May 2014. As a result, 1) The main pattern were caught-in or between, fall on the high level according to analyzed accidents. 2) To apply the weight show clear of magnitude for risk assessment. 3) Risk estimation of risk assessment is desirable to be quantization by accidents analysis, and to be greater than or equal to 4 steps.

A Developmental Methodology of Environmental Impact Assessment: Application of Health Risk Assessment (환경영향평가에 있어서 건강위해성평가 기법의 활용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Koo, J.K.;Chung, Y.
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1992
  • Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) is defined as an activity designed to identify and predict the impact on the environment. In the process of an EIA, the quantitative evaluation is generally performed for the air and water quality which have the national environmental quality standards. But the predicted values for the air and water quality are simply compared to the environmental standards. At present, the EIA process of Korea has no consideration for the possible human health risk resulting from the development projects. Environmental Health Impact Assessment(EHIA) is an applied methodology of EIA to estimate the acceptable health risk caused by a specified level of environmental pollutants. Estimating the excessive lifetime risk that is a possibility of dying of a certain disease by environmental contaminants, is useful as an evaluation technique of EHIA. It is recommanded the decision-makers to make efficient use of EHIA not only the development projects but also legislative proposals, policies and programmes in future.

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Application of the Risk-Based Analysis to EIA (환경영향평가에 있어 위해성분석 기법의 도입)

  • Chung, Yong
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1995
  • In generally speaking, the purpose of Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA) is to give the environment its due place in the decision-making process by clearly ealuating the environmental consequence of a proposed activity before action is taken. The introduction of conventional EIA is to be seen as an end product of a very long evolutionary process, starting with rudimentary but evolving pollution control measures for air, water, noise, land and chemicals, each governed by separate, and separately administered pieces of legislation. In EIA process, the measures of status, scoping, proposed mitigation and communication have not been very quantitative in their significancy. Of course, the determinations have uncertainity in the implications for significant impacts. To improve the determination of significant impacts, some more comprehensive methodologies of EIA has been proposed with the concepts of risk analysis in the proposed projects. The concepts of risk analysis has been introduced to the expression of human health impairment due to environmental pollutants since the early 1980's. The risk analysis being meant by the statistical significance of impact has a process quantitatively considering uncertainities and importances of ecological systems and human health as well. The process of risk analysis shows assessment, doseresponse in toxicity, exposure assessment and risk characterization. With the risk assessment, it could be suggested for the proper measurements against their anticipated risk in the EIA. This paper deals the priciples developing process and application of the risk-based analysis in EIA.

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Construction Work by Type Risk Factors increased levels proposed model for the PCRA(Pre Construction Risk Assessment) - Focusing on building construction - (건설공사 공종별 위험성평가 위험요인 도출 수준 향상을 위한 PCRA 모델 제안 -건축공사 중심으로-)

  • Bok, Hoon;Kim, Hyeong-Tae;Kang, Kyung-Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.9-22
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    • 2014
  • Constructions sites are affected by Diversity workplace, complexity of construction, Change of place, Mobility of workers and so on. In a single establishment, Prime contractors and subcontractors have to conduct their work at the same time. There are a lot of unpredictable risks when the construction is running, coordination between contractors is very important to do a risk assessment under the condition. Large Construction companies were investigated by previous studies. Survey research is applied to the risk assessment. In the writing, Risk assessment of the entire lower level. Because of the low level of risk factors to find. Also, There was a limit to investigate accidents. Confirmed that Effort to derive a risk factors were desperately of the risk assessment. Results were obtained through previous studies. The PCM is several experts should be joined. Experts Site Manager, Supervisor, Safety Manager, Director Contractor, Work team leader is required to participate. Construction plans, Process Planning to the risk find beforehand. And Determines how the operations and the control. Also, Made it into the database. and PCRA can be used in the risk assessment was developed.

Comparative study of Ecological Risk Assessment : Deriving Soil Ecological Criteria (토양생태계 위해성평가기법 비교연구: 토양생태준거치 산정을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Woo-Mi;Kim, Shin Woong;Jeong, Seung-Woo;An, Youn-Joo
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of ecological risk assessment in soil ecosystem is to protect ecological receptors and to provide a scheme of efficient management for soil contaminants. Developed countries have already prepared the methodologies of ecological risk assessment by considering their soil properties, land use, and ecological receptors. In this study, we compared the soil ecological risk assessment processes in the similarity and differences in methodology. Four countries, except for USA, adjusted the toxicological data for ecological risk assessment, based on their representative soil properties because the soil properties affect toxic effects to ecological receptors. The soil ecological risk assessment methodology of Netherlands and UK was based on 'Technical guidance document on risk assessment (TGD)' of European Chemical Bureau (ECB). Australia, USA, and Canada developed their autonomous methodology. In the Netherlands, UK, Australia, and Canada, they employed the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach if sufficient toxicity data are available. The USA determined the ecological soil screening level by obtaining the geometric mean of toxicological data for three species. Furthermore, all countries consider secondary poisoning in their soil ecological risk assessment. The latest risk assessment methodology of soil ecosystem that this study investigated can be used to explore what Korea needs to develop the Korean ecological risk assessment methodology of soil ecosystem in the future.

Dynamic risk assessment of water inrush in tunnelling and software development

  • Li, L.P.;Lei, T.;Li, S.C.;Xu, Z.H.;Xue, Y.G.;Shi, S.S.
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.57-81
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    • 2015
  • Water inrush and mud outburst always restricts the tunnel constructions in mountain area, which becomes a major geological barrier against the development of underground engineering. In view of the complex disaster-causing mechanism and difficult quantitative predictions of water inrush and mud outburst, several theoretical methods are adopted to realize dynamic assessment of water inrush in the progressive process of tunnel construction. Concerning both the geological condition and construction situation, eleven risk factors are quantitatively described and an assessment system is developed to evaluate the water inrush risk. In the static assessment, the weights of eight risk factors about the geological condition are determined using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Each factor is scored by experts and the synthesis scores are weighted. The risk level is ultimately determined based on the scoring outcome which is derived from the sum of products of weights and comprehensive scores. In the secondary assessment, the eight risk factors in static assessment and three factors about construction situation are quantitatively analyzed using fuzzy evaluation method. Subordinate levels and weight of factors are prepared and then used to calculate the comprehensive subordinate degree and risk level. In the dynamic assessment, the classical field of the eleven risk factors is normalized by using the extension evaluation method. From the input of the matter-element, weights of risk factors are determined and correlation analysis is carried out to determine the risk level. This system has been applied to the dynamic assessment of water inrush during construction of the Yuanliangshan tunnel of Yuhuai Railway. The assessment results are consistent with the actual excavation, which verifies the rationality and feasibility of the software. The developed system is believed capable to be back-up and applied for risk assessment of water inrush in the underground engineering construction.

Risk Assessment Method for Guaranteeing Safety in the Train Control System (열차제어시스템 안전성 확보를 위한 리스크 평가 방법 분석)

  • Jo, Hyun-Jeong;Hwang, Jong-Gyu;Yoon, Yong-Ki
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.870-877
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    • 2006
  • Recently, failures of equipments are linked directly to extensive damages of human lives or financial losses from the increasing uses of train control equipments utilizing computers. Then safety activities have to progress for guaranteeing safety during the system life-cycle. In this paper, we examine the methods for risk analysis and assessment of safety activities and propose optimized one method for risk assessment. There are original risk assessment methods; risk graph and risk matrix method under the qualitative analysis, IRF(Individual Risk Formula) calculations and statistical calculations method under the quantitative analysis. Best-Practice(BP) risk analysis method is proposed for combining advantages of the qualitative and the quantitative analysis. In the comparison of risk graph and risk matrix method for safety estimation, BP method has no applications published up to now, but we can expect that this method will be utilized widely for the risk assessment due to various strong points.

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Case Studies of Risk Assessment in Analyzing Risks Associated with MSDS

  • Kim, Woo Jin;Jeong, Byung Yong
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This study aims to suggest different approaches in analyzing risks associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDS) for risk assessment. Background: Upon concluding that the changes in the industrial environments have made it hard to regulate diverse risk factors, the government has implemented a policy for risk assessment. Method: This study has proposed a method, creating programs using Excel that perform qualitative or quantitative analysis, for evaluating risk factors in risk assessments and has applied this in manufacture and service industries. Results: To verify the validity of the developed program, risk assessment has been performed on restaurant chefs as an example. For quantitative evaluation, the study has suggested approaches using the results for REBA evaluation and the analysis report on the work scenes of a fitting-shop in a shipbuilding industry. Application: Constructing and adapting a system using Excel in evaluating risk factors for risk assessments as this study suggests, is expected to contribute to revitalizing risk assessments.