• Title, Summary, Keyword: risk assessment

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A Case Study of Health Impact Assessment on Incinerator Construction Project - Human Risk Assessment due to Inhalation Exposure to Heavy Metals - (소각로 건설사업에 대한 건강영향평가 사례연구 - 중금속 흡입에 따른 인체 위해성 평가 -)

  • Kim, Youngha;Choi, Sangki;Lee, Youngsoo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2009
  • We conducted human risk assessment due to inhalation exposure to heavy metals emitted from incinerator. The process of health impact assessment(HIA) on incinerator is as follows: The first step is to presume and calculate the amount of heavy metals emitted using emission factor. The second step is to conduct an exposure assessment using the K-SCREEN model which is used for predicting the concentration in a conservative method. The last step is to carry out a risk assessment on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances. This study revealed that rank of carcinogenic human risk was $Cr^{+6}$ > As > Ni > Cd, and values of human risk assessment on carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances is lower than the US criteria for risk assessment except $Cr^{+6}$. It is expected that the technique of HIA, especially human risk assessment on heavy metals, would be applied to the incinerator construction project. In addition, more systematic studies are needed to overcome some weak points and limits found in this study.

A Risk Assessment Method for the Long-term Preservation of Electronic Records (전자기록의 장기보존을 위한 위험평가 방법의 제안)

  • Cha, Hyun Chul;Choi, Joo Ho
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2019
  • Appropriate strategies are needed to ensure long-term preservation of various types of electronic records. For proper preservation of electronic records, it is necessary of decision-making processes for risk assessment, notification and implementation of conservation measures. To do this, the task of assessing various risk factors that impede the long-term preservation and utilization of electronic records should be done first. In this study, since electronic records are mostly stored in file form, risk assessment for electronic records of file type is performed. The risk factors required for the risk assessment of the file format are derived, and the algorithms are developed to devise a calculation method of the weighting factor and the risk factor index for evaluating the risk based on the proposed risk factors. In addition, the proposed methods are applied to the file formats used in Korea and risk assessment is performed and the results are analyzed.

A study on the quantitative risk grade assessment of initial mass production for weapon systems (초도양산 군수품에 대한 정량적 위험등급평가 방안 연구)

  • Jung, Yeongtak;Ham, Younghoon;Roh, Taegoo;Ahn, Manki;Ko, Kyungwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.441-452
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study quantitative risk grade assessment for objective government quality assurance activities based on risk management in initial mass production for weapon systems. Methods: The Defense quality management regulations and foreign risk assessment documents are referred to analyze problems performing quality assurance actives. The failure rate data, maintainability and cost of products have been studied to quantify the risk Likelihood and impact. The analyzed data were classified as risk grade assessment through K-means Cluster Analysis method. Results: Results show that a proposed method can objectively evaluate risk grade. The analyzed results are clustered into three levels such as high, middle and low. Two products are allocated high, eleven low and seven middle. Conclusion: In this paper, quantitative risk grade assessment methods were presented by analyzing risk ratings based on objective data. The findings showed that the methods would be effective for initial mass production for weapon systems.

A Risk Assessment Approach to Safety Management of Electric Railway Facilities (전기철도 전철전력설비의 위험도 평가 기반 안전관리에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Yoon-Suk;Choi, Kyu-Hyoung
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.960-967
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    • 2009
  • Power supply system of electric railway has a diversity of safety problems since it should supply high electric power to the trains moving high speed with a lot of passengers on board. This paper provides a risk assessment approach to safety management of the electric railway facilities. Construction of database from field accident information, risk assessment and management of the risk are carried out systematically to ensure the safety. The risk assessment includes hazard identification, cause analysis by FTA(Fault Tree Analysis), consequence analysis by EVA(Event Tree Analysis), and loss analysis. In terms of the severity and the probability of the accidents deduced by these analyses, the risk of the accidents is assessed by using a risk matrix designed for electric railway facilities. Based on the risk assessment, possible risk mitigation options are identified and evaluated by analyzing their impact on the risk reduction and their cost benefit ratio. The long-term safety of the electric railway facilities can be ensured by renewal of the risk assessment and the risk mitigation option analysis with continuous accident database update. The proposed approach is applied to the electric railway facilities of Korean railway based on the accident data from 2002 to 2008.

Consideration of Species-specific Risk Assessment Method of Ballast Water (선박평형수 종별 특이성 위해도 평가 방법에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, S.G.;Kang, W.S.;Kim, E.C.;Shin, K.S.;Oh, J.H.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.293-300
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    • 2011
  • Many countries of the world, including IMO, has noticed that foreign marine hazardous organisms, which were introduced by ballast water, have disturbed the marine ecosystem of its own nation, and posed a serious threat to human health and the value of environment and economy. Therefore, IMO has tried to manage the introduced species by assessing the risk of ballast water, and suggested three risk assessment methods, such as environmental matching risk assessment, speciesbiogeographical risk assessment, and species-specific risk assessment. In this thesis, species-specific risk assessment method was considered, and a risk assessment program established by applying it was described.

Application of Probabilistic Health Risk Analysis in Life Cycle Assessment -Part I : A General Framework for Uncertainty and Variability Analysis of Health Risk in Life Cycle Assessment (전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 건강영향분석기법 적용 -Part I : 전과정평가에 있어 확률론적 위해도 분석기법 적용방안에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kwang-Soo;Park, Jae-Sung
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.185-202
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    • 2000
  • Uncertainty and variability in Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) have been significant key issues in LCA methodology with techniques in other research area such as social and political science. Variability is understood as stemming from inherent variations in the real world, while uncertainty comes from inaccurate measurements, lack of data, model assumptions, etc. Related articles in this issues were reviewed for classification, distinguish and elaboration of probabilistic/stochastic health risk analysis application in LCA. Concept of focal zone, streamlining technique, scenario modelling and Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube risk analysis were applied to the uncertainty/variability analysis of health risk in LCA. These results show that this general framework of multi-disciplinary methodology between probabilistic health risk assessment and LCA was of benefit to decision making process by suppling information about input/output data sensitivity, health effect priority and health risk distribution. There should be further research needs for case study using this methodology.

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A Cost-Optimization Scheme Using Security Vulnerability Measurement for Efficient Security Enhancement

  • Park, Jun-Young;Huh, Eui-Nam
    • Journal of Information Processing Systems
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.61-82
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    • 2020
  • The security risk management used by some service providers is not appropriate for effective security enhancement. The reason is that the security risk management methods did not take into account the opinions of security experts, types of service, and security vulnerability-based risk assessment. Moreover, the security risk assessment method, which has a great influence on the risk treatment method in an information security risk assessment model, should be security risk assessment for fine-grained risk assessment, considering security vulnerability rather than security threat. Therefore, we proposed an improved information security risk management model and methods that consider vulnerability-based risk assessment and mitigation to enhance security controls considering limited security budget. Moreover, we can evaluate the security cost allocation strategies based on security vulnerability measurement that consider the security weight.

Comparative Study of Regional-scale Ecological Risk Assessment used in Developed Countries (지역단위 생태위해성평가 선진국사례 분석)

  • Shin, Yu-Jin;Lee, Woo-Mi;An, Youn-Joo
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2010
  • Ecological risk assessment (ERA) has been used to establish environmental quality standards or evaluate ecological risk in site-specific areas. The scope of ERA was expanded based on regions, and the concept of regional-scale ecological risk assessment was recently introduced in developed countries. In the present study, regional ERA approaches of relative risk model (RRM), contaminants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems (CATS) model, and procedure for ecological tired assessment of risks (PETAR) in advanced countries were extensively investigated. Regional ERA was compared with traditional ERA process. Stressors, receptor and response in traditional ERA were replaced with sources of stressors, habitats, and ecological impacts, respectively in regional ERA. This study introduces the concept and assessment process of regional ERA, and provides a wide perspective how the relative ERA could be applied in Korean ecosystem.

Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

  • Kim, Eunju;Yoo, Sunkyoung;Ro, Hee-Young;Han, Hye-Jin;Baek, Yong-Wook;Eom, Ig-Chun;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Kim, Pilje;Choi, Kyunghee
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.28
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    • pp.2.1-2.7
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    • 2013
  • Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration ($EC_{50}$) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr $EC_{50}$ was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, $L(E)C_{50}$ was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth.