• Title/Summary/Keyword: risk

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The Relationship among Product Risk, Perceived Satisfaction and Purchase Intentions for Online Shopping

  • TRAN, Van Dat
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.221-231
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    • 2020
  • This research investigates the relationship among product risk, financial risk, security risk, privacy risk, perceived satisfaction, and purchase intention. Validated measurements were identified from a literature review. The measurement model and the conceptual model depicting hypothesized relationships were evaluated based on responses from 306 customers using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results showed that product risk, financial risk, security risk, and privacy risk impacted on perceived satisfaction. Besides, product risk, privacy risk, and perceived satisfaction influenced purchase intentions. Thus, this study focused on the influences of product risk, financial risk, security risk, and privacy risk on their cognitive attitudes toward websites. That means the more consumer perceive security, the more they avoid shopping online. The study is important to show how perceived risk affects online shopping behaviors, and it invites marketers to make necessary adjustments to prevent perceived risks to increase and online shopping to decrease. The findings of this study suggest the creation of a framework on the effect of perceived risk types on online shopping. Managers need to take perceived risks into account when designing their electronic marketing channels. In addition, shopping websites should strengthen their transaction security by appropriately using various available resources and new information technologies.

A Study on the Risk Assessment for Urban Railway Systems Using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System(ANFIS) (적응형 뉴로-퍼지(ANFIS)를 이용한 도시철도 시스템 위험도 평가 연구)

  • Tak, Kil Hun;Koo, Jeong Seo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.78-87
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    • 2022
  • In the risk assessment of urban railway systems, a hazard log is created by identifying hazards from accident and failure data. Then, based on a risk matrix, evaluators analyze the frequency and severity of the occurrence of the hazards, conduct the risk assessment, and then establish safety measures for the risk factors prior to risk control. However, because subjective judgments based on the evaluators' experiences affect the risk assessment results, a more objective and automated risk assessment system must be established. In this study, we propose a risk assessment model in which an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which is combined in artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy inference system (FIS), is applied to the risk assessment of urban railway systems. The newly proposed model is more objective and automated, alleviating the limitations of risk assessments that use a risk matrix. In addition, the reliability of the model was verified by comparing the risk assessment results and risk control priorities between the newly proposed ANFIS-based risk assessment model and the risk assessment using a risk matrix. Results of the comparison indicate that a high level of accuracy was demonstrated in the risk assessment results of the proposed model, and uncertainty and subjectivity were mitigated in the risk control priority.

A Study on the Risk Management in International Transaction of Digital Goods (디지털물(物) 국제법래(國際去來)의 리스크관리방안(管理方案)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Ahn, Byung-Soo
    • THE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE & LAW REVIEW
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    • v.29
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    • pp.143-172
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    • 2006
  • This study focuses on the risk management of "Digital Goods" appeared with the progress of information technology(IT) in international transaction. As a result of that digital goods have a lot of uncertainty between the general goods or service which have been deal with object of international transaction broadly because digital goods hold uniqueness. In this study, the author give a definition of "Digital Goods" and make an examination of uniqueness of that in international transaction. Next, six risks are defined base on risk theory and risk analysis matrix applying risk mapping model is made. Conclusionally, risk transfer as insurance is adequate to manage business risk, security risk, credit risk and legal risk. Meanwhile, risk avoidance is adequate to manage reputation risk and market risk. But, this study have following three limits. Firstly, concerning definition of the risk, real case is not applied owing to lack of transaction data. Secondly, measuring of the risk is not based on absolute data but relative data. Lastly, suggesting way of risk management is not concrete and practical to international trader of digital goods.

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Effects of the Perceived Risk on the Consumers′ Purchase Attitudes in the Internet Shopping Malls (인터텟 쇼핑몰에서 소비자의 지각된 위험이 구매 태도에 미치는 영향)

  • 정인근;김윤호
    • Proceedings of the Korean Operations and Management Science Society Conference
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    • 2001.10a
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study is to find the perceived risk which influences consumers' purchase attitudes so that consumers' participation in electronic commerce could be enhanced. Consumer behavior involves risk in the sense that any action of a consumer will produce consequences which one cannot anticipate, and some of which are at least likely to be unpleasant. The types of perceived risks are financial risk, performance risk, social risk, psychological risk, time loss, opportunity loss, privacy risk, fashion loss, delivery risk, seller's response risk and seller's fraud risk The findings are as follows: $\circled1$ The financial risk, performance risk, time loss, delivery risk, seller's response risk and seller's fraud risk have negative effects on the consumers' purchase attitudes. $\circled2$ There is no difference in the level of perceived risk according to the demographic factors such as age, education and income level.

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The internet perceived risk segments: clothing benefits sought, internet shopping attitude, and internet purchase intention (인터넷 위험지각 집단의 의복추구혜택, 인터넷 쇼핑태도 및 구매의도)

  • 황진숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.746-757
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the internet perceived risk segments in regard to clothing benefits sought, internet shopping attitude, and internet purchase intention. The subjects used for the study were 210 male and 338 female college students. The internet perceived risk consisted of size/defect risk, social psychological risk, privacy risk, delivery risk, and price risk. The clothing benefits sought had impression improvement, fashion, individuality, figure flaws compensation, and comfort factors. The results showed that consumers were segmented by four groups based on internet perceived risk factors : 1) privacy risk group, 2) size risk group. 3) low risk group, and 4) price/social psychological risk group. The four segmented groups differed in regard to clothing benefits sought, internet shopping attitude, and internet purchase intention. For example, in regard to clothing benefits sought, the price/social Psychological risk group sought fashion more than other groups. The low risk group considered figure flaws compensation benefit less important than other groups. Concerning internet shopping attitude, the low risk group had more favorable altitude toward trust, safety, diversity, exchange/return attributes of internet shopping than other groups. The privacy risk group had more favorable attitude toward convenience and price attributes of internet shopping. Regarding internet purchase intention, the low risk group had higher intention to purchase formal, casual, and sportswear. The size risk group had higher intention to purchase fashion accessories. Further group differences and implications of the results were discussed.

An Analysis of the Relationships Among Financial Risk Components (가계 재무위험 구성요소들의 관계분석)

  • Jeong Woonyoung;Kim Kyungia
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.42 no.10 s.200
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    • pp.11-22
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of financial risk components of households. The financial risk of households was assumed to be composed of risk knowledge, risk attitude and risk management behavior. For this study, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to 700 households in Seoul and Kwangju, and there were 495 responses with usable data. The findings showed that income stability had a positive relationship with the level of risk knowledge and risk attitude. Income stability, household debt, age of the youngest child and risk knowledge were found to have direct effects on risky vs. non-risky asset ratio. Income stability, savings, age of the youngest child and risk knowledge also had significant effects on the number of risky assets owned by households. Risk knowledge was the most important determinant of risk management behavior.

Psychological Impact of Health Risk Appraisal of Korean Women at Different Levels of Breast Cancer Risk: Neglected Aspect of the Web-based Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

  • Kye, Su-Yeon;Park, Kee-Ho;Park, Hyeong-Geun;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.437-441
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Health risk appraisal is often utilized to modify individual's health behavior, especially concerning disease prevention, and web-based health risk appraisal services are being provided to the general public in Korea. However, little is known about the psychological effect of the health risk appraisal even though poorly communicated information by the web-based service may result in unintended adverse health outcomes. This study was conducted to explore the psychological effect of health risk appraisal using epidemiological risk factor profile. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial comparing risk factor list type health risk appraisal and risk score type health risk appraisal. We studied 60 women aged 30 years and older who had no cancer. Anxiety level was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory YZ. Results: The results of multivariate analysis showed that risk status was the independent predictors of increase of state anxiety after health risk appraisal intervention when age, education, health risk appraisal type, numeracy, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and health risk appraisal type by risk status interaction was adjusted. Women who had higher risk status had an odd of having increased anxiety that was about 5 times greater than women who had lower risk status. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that communicating the risk status by individual health risk appraisal service can induce psychological sequelae, especially in women having higher risk status. Hospitals, institutes, or medical schools that are operating or planning to operate the online health risk appraisal service should take side effects such as psychological sequelae into consideration.

Relationship among Public's Risk Characteristics, Risk Severity, Risk Perception and Risk Acceptability of Human Stem Cell Technology (공중의 체세포복제기술에 대한 위험특성, 위험심각성, 위험인식 및 위험수용의 관계)

  • Song, Hae-Ryong;Kim, Won-je
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among public's risk characteristics, risk severity, risk perception and risk acceptability of human stem cell technology. The subjects were 300 Koreans selected. The data were analyzed by the exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis and structural equation modeing analysis. The results were as followed. First, public's risk characteristics on human stem cell technology influenced positively on risk severity. Second, public's risk characteristics on human stem cell technology influenced positively on risk perception. Third, public's risk severity on human stem cell technology influenced positively on risk perception. Fourth, public's risk characteristics on human stem cell technology influenced negatively on risk acceptability. Fifth, public's risk severity on human stem cell technology influenced not significantly on risk acceptability. Sixth, public's risk perception on human stem cell technology influenced not significantly on risk acceptability. These results will contribute to develop the risk communication strategy on the acceptability of human stem cell technology.

The Relationship on Risk Type, Risk Management and Business Performance - Evidence from Korean FDIs in China

  • Yin, Heng-Bin;Kim, Bo-Hyun;Jung, Hong-Joo
    • Journal of Korea Trade
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.45-65
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    • 2019
  • Purpose - As the well-known Structure-Conduct-Performance paradigm implies, risk structure of a corporation may affect its risk management activity and the activity may in turn determine its performance. Depending on its goal, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can shape its risk structure, risk management and its performance. Under this assumption, we investigate the relationship between the goals of FDI and risk management for the first time in academics. Design/methodology - This empirical research uses a survey of 279 current Korean enterprises' FDIs in China with the recently developed business risk quadrant model. Companies are classified into either a market- or an efficiency-seeking group, to identify how each group perceives and manages risks, and values the performance of risk management. Also, we apply integrated risk management method that multinational corporations have introduced in China, then verify the mediating effect between risk factors and performance. Findings - Our research shows the FDIs can expose themselves to differing risk structure although risk management activities simply represent the level of empowerment given to local management by headquarter due to limit of sample size despite diversity of risk and risk management tools. To sum, market seekers are found to have more strategic risk (revenue related risk) than efficiency seekers with financial risk (cost related risk). The market seekers can manage their risk by empowering their local organisation while the efficiency does the opposite ways. The risk management appears to be successful in general. Originality/value - Previous studies on small and medium enterprises' FDIs to China have concentrated on the analysis of entry determinants, withdrawal factors and individual risk management. Meanwhile, this research establishes enterprise-wide risk factors faced by the companies that advance into China, according to the method of the classification by ERM and verifies if they could synthetically improve performance through risk corresponding measures.

Estimating Risk Interdependency Ratio for Construction Projects: Using Risk Checklist in Pre-construction Phase

  • Kim, Junyoung;Lee, Hyun-Soo;Park, Moonseo;Kwon, Nahyun
    • Architectural research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 2019
  • Risk assessment during pre-construction phase is important due to the uncertainty of the risks that may exist in projects. Risk checklist is a method to systematically classify and organize the risks that have been experienced in the past, and to identify the risk factors that may be present in the future projects. In addition, risk value assessment based on checklists plays a key role in risk management, and various risk assessment researches have been conducted to carry out this systematically. However, previous approaches have limitations in common, this is because risk values are evaluated individually in risk checklists, which ignore interdependencies among risk factors and neglect the emergence of co-occurrence of risks. Hence, when multiple risk factors cooccur, they cannot be far off from the conventional method of summing the total risk value to establish the risk response strategy. Most of risk factors are interdependent and may have multiple effects if occurred than expected. In particular, specific cause can be overlapped if multiple risks co-occur, and this may result in overestimation of the risk response for the future project. Thus, the objective of this research is to propose a model to help decision makers to quantify the risk value reflecting the interdependency during the identification phase using existing risk checklist that is currently being practiced in actual construction projects. The proposed model will provide the guideline to support the prediction and identification of the interdependency of risks in practice. In addition, the better understanding and prediction of the exceeding risk response by co-occurring risks during the risk identification phase for decision makers.