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Optimal Design and Development of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant by Computer Simulation -Simulation of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant- (컴퓨터 시뮬레이션에 의한 미곡 도정공장의 적정설계 및 개발(I) -미곡 도정 시스템의 시뮬레이션-)

  • 정종훈;김보곤
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.47-57
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    • 1995
  • Rice Processing Complex(RPC) have being constructed with a rice mill plant and a facility of drying and storage to overcome problems caused by UR and to produce good quality of rice. An optimal design of a rice mill plant was required to successfully construct and operate it. The development of a simulation model was essential to the design of a rice mill plant. So, all the objectives of this study were to develop a simulation model for the design of a rice mill plant and to develop and evaluate the rice mill system. In this study the simulation model was developed to design a rice mill plant using SLAMSYSTEM, one of simulation languages. The results of this study were as followings. 1. A simulation model was developed with SLAMSYSTEM to represent the processes of a rice mill plant. The simulation model was used to design a rice mill pilot plant with the capacity of 0.5 ton per hour. The rice mill pilot plant was analyzed by the model with alternatives. 2. In the simulation the rice mill system was much influenced by the separating efficiency of a brown rice separator. Especially, the bottleneck of grain flow occurred at the buffer tank for brown rica. separator under 50% separating efficiency of brown rice separator. Hence, as the alternative simulation was conducted under 60% , 70% separating efficiency of brown rice separator, the bottleneck of the system could be minimized at the 60% separating efficiency of brown rice separator. 3. In the alternative simulation the bottleneck of the system was minimized under the hulling capacity of 1 t/h and 60% separating efficiency of brown rice separator with the capacity of 1 t/h. Under such a condition the max. weight of waiting entities at buffer tanks was less 250kg. So, the capacities of the buffer tanks were determined in the basis of simulation results. 4. The milled rice recovery and head rice recovery of the milling system were 74% and 92% in the simulation, respectively. These results of simulation almost corresponded to those of actual rice mill plants. The developed simulation model could be well applied to design a rice mill plant.

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Optimal Design and Development of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant by Computer Simulation (II) -Development and Performance Evaluation of a Rice Mill Pilot Plant- (컴퓨터 시뮬레이션에 의한 미곡 도정공장의 적정설계 및 개발(II) -미곡 도정시스템의 개발 및 성능평가-)

  • 정종훈;김보곤;최영수
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.262-274
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    • 1995
  • A rice mill pilot plant was designed and developed in the basis of the simulation results on the mill plants. The performance of the developed rice mill plant was evaluated, and the simulation model on the mill system was validated with the experimental data in the mill plant. The results of this study were as followings : 1. A rice mill pilot plant with the capacity of 0.5 t/h was designed and developed. 2. The hulled ratio of the mill plant was 87.3%, and the milled rice recovery and the head rice recovery of the cleaned rice were 74% and 87% , respectively. The degree of milling of the cleaned rice was 10.6% with a high polish. The intensity of the cleaned rice appeared high compared with that of the milled rice in the analysis of whiteness test using an image processing system. 3. The bottleneck, processing time, and production amount of the developed mill system almost coincided with those of the simulation of the rice mill plant. The developed simulation model of the rice mill plant was proven to be applicable to the design of a rice mill plant through experiments.

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Occurrence of the Bacterial Sheath Rot of Rice Plant by Burkholderia glumnae (Burkholdera glumae에 의한 벼의 세균성 잎집썩음 증상의 발생)

  • 임진우
    • Plant Disease and Agriculture
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.111-114
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    • 1999
  • A bacterial disease of rice plant that rotted the sheath to brown was found in rice plants at Tanbuk Uisong Kyungbuk in June 1999, When the bacterial isolates from the diseased rice plants were inoculated to health plant by the artificial needle prick method the same symptoms were examined. According to its characteristics and pathogenicity on the his plant the causal bacterium was identified as Burkholderia glumae which is known as the pathogen of bacterial grain rot of rice.

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Performance Evaluation of Rice Mill Plant By a Computer Simulation

  • Chung, Jong-Hoon
    • Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2001
  • A rice mill plant with a capacity of 3 t/h was constructed with automated facilities at Chonnam National University. A simulation model was developed with SLAMSYSTEM for evaluation and improving the rice mill process. The developed model was validated in the views of hulling efficiency, milling efficiency, milled rice recovery, other materials produced, at bottlenecks in the processes. The results of hulling efficiency, milling efficiency, milled rice recovery in the simulation were, respectively, 81.1%, 89,5%, and 73.1%, while those of the actual mill plant were 81.5%, 90.2%, and 73.5%. The simulation results including the rates of other materials(chaff, bran, broken rice, stone, etc) produced in the processes were almost similar with those of the actual process. In the simulation the bottlenecks were found out in the process for separating brown rice and sorting colored rice. These phenomena also appeared in the actual process. It needed to increase the hourly capacities of the brown rice separator and the rice color sorter. As the developed model could well express the automated rice mill plant, it could be used for designing and improving rice mill plants.

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Screening and Application of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Nonrhizospheric Rice Soil for the Biocontrol of Rice Blast

  • Sha, Yuexia;Zeng, Qingchao;Sui, Shuting
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.231-243
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    • 2020
  • Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to screen bacterial isolates to efficiently prevent the occurrence of rice blast. A total of 232 bacterial isolates were extracted from nonrhizospheric rice soil and were screened for antifungal activity against M. oryzae using a leaf segment assay. Strains S170 and S9 showed significant antagonistic activity against M. oryzae in vitro and in leaf disk assays, and controlled M. oryzae infection under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that strains S170 and S9 could effectively control rice leaf blast and panicle neck blast after five spray treatments in field. This suggested that the bacterial strains S170 and S9 were valuable and promising for the biocontrol of rice disease caused by M. oryzae. Based on 16S rDNA, and gyrA and gyrB gene sequence analyses, S170 and S9 were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. The research also demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens S170 and B. pumilus S9 could colonize rice plants to prevent pathogenic infection and evidently suppressed plant disease caused by 11 other plant pathogenic fungi. This is the first study to demonstrate that B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus isolated from nonrhizospheric rice soil are capable of recolonizing internal rice stem tissues.

Microbial Population, Aflatoxin Contamination and Predominant Aspergillus Species in Korean Stored Rice

  • Oh, Ji-Yeon;Sang, Mee-Kyung;Oh, Jee-Eun;Lee, Ho-Joung;Ryoo, Mun-Il;Kim, Ki-Deok
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.121-129
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    • 2010
  • We evaluated microbial populations and aflatoxin production in unhulled and white rice from rice processing complexes of the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in five regions in Korea and identified three predominant Aspergillus species. Fungal and bacterial populations in rice samples were significantly different between regions in 2007. Aflatoxins were also detected and varied at the levels of 2.45 - 3.43 ng per g unhulled rice grain and 1.29 - 2.09 ng per g white rice grain. Unhulled rice generally detected higher level of aflatoxins than white rice regardless of sampling regions; however, no significant differences were found in Anseong and Cheonan in 2005 and Cheonan and Gimpo in 2007. Aflatoxin production between sampling regions was not different regardless of rice type and sampling year. Although the fungal diversity was highly distinct from region to region, three Aspergillus isolates were predominant in the rice samples; thus, representative isolates AC317, AF57, and AF8 were selected and identified based on their morphological and molecular characteristics. Consequently, isolates AC317, AF57, and AF8 were identified as A. candidus, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus, respectively. These fungi can produce mycotoxins that are harmful for consumers and thus it is important to detect and reduce the population of storage fungi in rice.

SIMULATION AND AUTOMATION OF A RICE MILL PLANT - DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATION MODEL -

  • Chung, J.H.;Youm, G.O.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.378-387
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    • 2000
  • A rice mill plant with a capacity of 2.5 ton/hr was constructed with automated facilities at Chonnam National University. A simulation model was developed with SLAM SYSTEM for evaluating and improving the rice mill plant. The developed model was validated in the views of hulling efficiency, milling efficiency, milled rice recovery, other materials produced, and bottlenecks in the processes. The results of hulling efficiency, milling efficiency, milled rice recovery in the simulation were, respectively, 81.1%, 89.5%, and 73.1%, while those of the actual mill plant were 81.5%, 90.2%, and 73.5%. The simulation results including the productivity of other materials(chaff, bran, broken rice, stone, etc) produced in the processes were almost similar with those of the actual process. In the simulation the bottlenecks were found out in the processes of separating brown rice and of sorting colored rice. These phenomenon also appeared in the actual process. It needed to increase the hourly capacity of the brown rice separator and the rice color sorter. As the developed model could well express the automated rice mill plant, it could be used for designing and improving rice mill plants. In addition, an alternative model needed to be developed for the system control more accurately and for increasing the rice quality.

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Growth and Yield Response of Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene from Bacillus subtilis

  • Kuk, Yong-In;Chung, Jung-Sung;Sunyo Jung;Kyoungwhan Back;Kim, Han-Yong;Guh, Ja-Ock
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.326-333
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    • 2003
  • Transgenic rice plants expressing a Bacillus subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox), the last shared enzyme of the porphyrin pathway in the expressed cytoplasm or the plastids, were compared with non-trangenic rice plants in their growth characteristics such as tiller number, plant height, biomass, and yield. Transgenic rice plants of $\textrm{T}_3$ generation had 8 to 15 % and 25 to 43% increases in tiller number compared to non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 weeks after transplanting(WAT); similar values were observed for $\textrm{T}_4$ generation at 4 and 8 WAT. However, the plant height in both $\textrm{T}_3$ and $\textrm{T}_4$ generations was similar between transgenic rice plants and non-transgenic rice plants at 4 and 8 WAT. Transgenic rice plants had 13 to 32% increase in above-ground biomass and 9 to 28% increase in grain yield compared to non-transgenic rice plants, demonstrating that biomass and yield correlate with each other. The increased grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was closely associated with the increased panicle number per plant. The percent of filled grain, thousand grains and spikelet number per panicle were similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice plants. Generally, the growth and yield of transgenic generations ($\textrm{T}_2$, $\textrm{T}_3$, and $\textrm{T}_4$) and gene expressing sites (cytoplasm-expressed and plastid-targeted transgenic rice plants) were similar, although they slightly varied with generations as well as with gene expressing sites. The transgenic rice plants had promotive effects, indicating that regulation of the porphyrin pathway by expression of B. subtilis Protox in rice influences plant growth and yield.

Proteomic Analysis to Identify Tightly-Bound Cell Wall Protein in Rice Calli

  • Cho, Won Kyong;Hyun, Tae Kyung;Kumar, Dhinesh;Rim, Yeonggil;Chen, Xiong Yan;Jo, Yeonhwa;Kim, Suwha;Lee, Keun Woo;Park, Zee-Yong;Lucas, William J.;Kim, Jae-Yean
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.8
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    • pp.685-696
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    • 2015
  • Rice is a model plant widely used for basic and applied research programs. Plant cell wall proteins play key roles in a broad range of biological processes. However, presently, knowledge on the rice cell wall proteome is rudimentary in nature. In the present study, the tightly-bound cell wall proteome of rice callus cultured cells using sequential extraction protocols was developed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods, leading to the identification of 1568 candidate proteins. Based on bioinformatics analyses, 389 classical rice cell wall proteins, possessing a signal peptide, and 334 putative non-classical cell wall proteins, lacking a signal peptide, were identified. By combining previously established rice cell wall protein databases with current data for the classical rice cell wall proteins, a comprehensive rice cell wall proteome, comprised of 496 proteins, was constructed. A comparative analysis of the rice and Arabidopsis cell wall proteomes revealed a high level of homology, suggesting a predominant conservation between monocot and eudicot cell wall proteins. This study importantly increased information on cell wall proteins, which serves for future functional analyses of these identified rice cell wall proteins.

Effect on Plant Growth and Antibiosis of Rice Straw Liquor Extracted from Rice Straw (볏짚에서 추출한 짚초액의 식물성장에 대한 영향과 항균 효과)

  • Kang, Hwa-Young;Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Young-Ju;Park, Sang-Sook
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2009
  • Rice straw liquid was prepared from rice straw using simple pyrolysis furnace, and its effects on plant growth and antibiosis were investigated. Effects of straw liquid on plant growth of Oryza sativa L., Glycine max Merr. and Lactuca sativa L. and antibiosis of bacteria and mold of rice straw liquid were studied. Th rice straw liquid showed good results on plant growth and multiplication. Rice straw liquid showed a little antibiosis on bacteria but non antibiosis on mold. Rice straw liquid had minimal inhibitory concentration of 2.5-5% for bacteria.