• Title, Summary, Keyword: rice husk

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Effects of Mulching Materials on Platycodon grandiflorum Root Growth and Weed Occurrence (피복재료에 따른 도라지의 생육 및 잡초발생)

  • Jeon, Seung-Ho;Rho, Il-Rae;Kim, Young-Guk;Cho, Young-Son
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.62 no.1
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of mulching materials on root growth characteristics and weed occurrence of Platycodon grandiflorum transplants (3 years old) in organic farming. After transplanting, roots were mulched with one of three mulching materials (biodegradable film, sawdust, or rice husks) or a control (no mulching). The average root diameter of all mulching groups was 28.1 mm, which was 5.1 mm thicker than the no-mulching treatment. Roots with the biodegradable film treatment were the thickest at 30.9 mm. Root length was the shortest, 22.0 cm, with rice husk mulching. The number of rootlets was the highest with film mulching (36.0 rootlets/root) and the lowest with no mulching. For root fresh weight, which directly affects yield, the average of treated and untreated roots was 100 and 56 g/root, respectively. The highest fresh weight was in the biodegradable film plot (130 g/root). The mulching treatment groups showed a weed inhibition effect compared with the no-mulching treatment. The dominant weeds with the no-mulching treatment were Setaria viridis and Digitaria ciliaris, and that with the mulching treatment was Setaria viridis. Average annual weed occurrence across all treatments was 72%. Weed occurrence was the highest with the no-mulching treatment ($125weeds/m^2$), and there were no weeds with the biodegradable film treatment.

Estimation of Biomass Resource Conversion Factor and Potential Production in Agricultural Sector (농업부문 바이오매스 자원 환산계수 및 잠재발생량 산정)

  • Park, Woo-Kyun;Park, Noh-Back;Shin, Joung-Du;Hong, Seung-Gil;Kwon, Soon-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, national biomass inventory are being established for efficient management of the potential energy sources. Among the various types of biomass, agricultural wastes are considered to take the biggest portion of the total annual biomass generated in Korea, implying its importance. However, the currently estimated amount is not reliable because the old reference data are still used to estimate total annual amount of agricultural wastes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Therefore, to provide reliable estimation data, a correct conversion factor obtained by taking into account the current situation is required. For this, the current study was conducted to provide the conversion factors for each representative 8 crop through a field cultivation study. Also conversion factors for 18 crops were calculated using the average amount of each crop produced during 2004 and 2008, subsequently; total amount of agricultural wastes generated in 2009 was estimated using these conversion factors. The total biomass of rice straw and rice husk generated in 2009 were 6.5 and 1.1 million tons, respectively, which consist 75% of the total agricultural based wastes, while the total biomass of pepper shoots and apple pruning twigs were 1.0 and 0.6 million tons, respectively. Despite the high amount of rice-based biomass, their applicability for bio-energy production is low due to conventional utilization of these materials for animal feeds and beds for animal husbandry. In addition to exact estimation of the total biomass, temporal variations in both generated amount and the type of agricultural biomass materials are also important for efficient utilization; fruit pruning twigs (January to March); barley-, been-, and mustard-related waste materials (April to June); rice-related waste (September to October). CONCLUSION(s): Such information provided in this study can be used to establish a master plan for efficient utilization of the agricultural wastes on purpose of bio-energy production.

Composting of Small Scale Static Pile by addition of Microorganism (미생물 첨가에 의한 소규모 정체식 퇴비화)

  • Chang, Ki-Woon;Yu, Young-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.149-153
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to survey the utilization possibility of composting system of small scale static pile with animal manure produced from cattle shed and the effect of addition of microorganism on the maturity of compost. Microorganisms added in composting substrate were bacteria+lactobacillus(BL)+photo.(BLP). The composting practiced was a windrow system without aeration equipment and turning was practiced periodically. The water content of substrate mixed with cow manure, rice husk, and sawdust was about 60%. The temperature during the composting process was increased at over $60^{\circ}C$ within 3 days after composting starting. Increase of temperature at the early stage of composting was fasten in BLP and BL than Control. Because the pH of the raw material was high, the changes of pH during composting was little and stabilized in weak alkaline condition. EC value was high for accumulation of manure and urine excreted continuously by animal and the changes of those during composting occurred in 5~10% increase. Reduction rates of C/N ratio were the largest as the 22.7% in BLP and 19.2and 17.5% in BL and Control respectively. In the evaluation of phytotoxicity, there was stabilized within the short time in BLP and not the difference between BL and Control. Treatment of animal manure produced from small scale cattle shed was possible by using the small scale static pile composting system with reasonable water content and turning and the addition of microorganism in composting substrate was effected on the temperature increase at the early stage of composting and reduction of plant toxicity compounds but little on the maturity of compost.

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Characteristics of Seedling and Rhizome Propagation in Epimedium koreanum NAKAI (삼지구엽초 실생 및 지하경번식 특성)

  • Noh, Joon-Hyun;Kim, Young-Jin;Choi, Kang-Jun;Kim, Se-Won;Kim, Sung-Kyeong;Kim, Jong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.155-160
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate propagation characteristics of seedling and rhizome in Epimedium koreanum NAKAI. Seed germination essentially needed after-ripening duration after harvesting for 250days and more by stratification. At $20^{\circ}C$ seed emergence days and root length were 8 and 0.46cm respectively. The above-ground part of E. koreanum grew until 60days after root cutting and the underground part of it grew after that time. The optimum amount of organic fertilizer was fermented cow-manure with husk 2,000kg/10a that showed $57.5cm^2$ in leaf area per plant, 6.2cm in new rhizome length, and 0.43% in icariin content, an index component of E. koreanum, while inorganic N-fertilizer made E. koreanum worse as it increased. In nutriculture extruded rice hull media was better for growth than perlite media at 1/2 NHRI solution.

Effect of Dietary Energy Levels and Bedding Materials on Performance, Meat Quality and Foot Pad Score of Male and Female Slow-Growing Korean Meat-Type Chicken (Hanhyop 3) (사료 에너지 수준과 깔짚 종류가 한협 3호 육계의 암·수별 성장, 육질, Foot Pad Score에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jun Yeop;Lee, Myung Ho;Song, Yong Han;Lee, Jong In;Ohh, Sang Jip
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.273-283
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    • 2018
  • Two diet energy levels (high or low) and two bedding material (rice husk or saw dust) treatments were designed for either male or female slow-growing Korean meat-type chicken (Hanhyop 3) to make totally eight treatments for 11~75 d feeding trial. Body weight gain (BWG) were influenced by energy levels, sex of bird and bedding material type. There were interaction effect among those three factors. Feed intakes (FI) by male bird during each and overall periods were higher than those by female. Diet energy levels and bedding material affected the FI only during final 56~75 d period, of which FI of high energy diet was higher in male whereas that of low energy diet was higher in female. Although feed conversion ratio (FCR) was improved by high energy diet, the better FCR has dissipated during 41~75 d, when the most of overall BWG were achieved. Apparent total tract retention (ATTR) of nutrients were higher in male than those in female birds with exception on fat ATTR. Fat ATTR was improved when fed low energy diet regardless of the sex of birds. Both energy levels and sex of bird influenced the color of breast. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of female thigh was higher than that of male. Levels of moisture and P in female thigh were lower although level of fat in female breast was higher than those in male, respectively. This study showed that diet energy levels for Hanhyop 3 chicken, especially during 41~75 d, should be differently formulated between male and female bird.

Growth and Fruit Characteristics of Highbush Blueberry by Mulching Materials (멀칭 자재가 하이부쉬블루베리 생육 및 과실 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Su-Jin;Lee, Dong-Hoon;Hur, Youn-Young;Im, Dong-Jun;Park, Seo-Jun;Jung, Sung-Min;Chung, Kyeong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.209-221
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    • 2020
  • Highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum), 'Duke', 'Bluecrop', and 'Elliott', were applied with ground cover mulch systems to evaluate bush growth and fruit characteristics. Soil temperature variation was lower in the woodchip mulching plot. Therefore, CEC, soil pH, phosphate, mineral ions were not significantly different among mulching materials. The number of main stem was higher in woodchip > sawdust > rice husk > plastic film mulching plot, respectively. Total shoot number was also higher in organic mulching plots than in plastic film plot. However, total shoot number was not significantly different among the organic mulching plots. Fruit weight was the highest in the woodchip mulching plot of all blueberry cultivars, however, soluble sugar content, organic acidity, fruit firmness were not significantly different in mulching materials. Yield was higher in organic mulching plots than in plastic film plot in all blueberry cultivars. Especially, yield per shrub of woodchip plots was the highest about 3.6 kg in 'Duke', 2.7 kg in 'Bluecrop', and 2.6 kg in 'Elliott'. Furthermore, correlation of main stem number and yield was highly significant (r2 = 0.8413). Therefore, woodchip mulching is expected to be an eco-friendly method to increase the number of stems and the yield of blueberries.

Effects of Soil mixtures and Soil Depths on the Growth of Zoysia japonica for the Artificial Planting Ground (인공지반의 토양조성과 토양심도가 중엽형들잔디의 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun-Yeob;Moon, Seok-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 1999
  • To develope appropriate soil base for planting on the artificial ground, 9 kinds of soil types(varying the components and mixing ratios) and 3 levels of soil depths(10cm, 15cm, 20cm) were chosen. And their plant growing effects were tested and analysed from the test plant Zoysia japonica. The results of the research are as follows. 1. Among the 9 type of soil mixtures, the "sandy loam" soil type gave the worst effects on germination, disease contamination and ground covering. 2. The soil types like VSH(vermiculite20%+sand70%+humus sawdust10%), VSS(vermiculite 40%+sand 50%+humus sawdust 10%) and VS(vermiculite 70%+sand 30%), where vermiculite and sand were added to, show better germination effect promoted from the better condition of aeration and saturation. 3. The plant growing effects(leaf length and ground covering ratio) was evident under the soil types like VSH(vermiculite20%+sand70%+humus sawdust10%) and VSS(vermiculite40%+sand50%+humus sawdust10%), where organic matters were added to. 4. Vermiculite added soil types effect fast leaf decolorization on the tested Zoysia japonica plant, on the contrary to organic matter mixed soil types including SCS(sandy loam 50%+carbonized rice husk30%+sand20%) and SHS(sandy loam 50%+humus sawdust30%+sand20%) with which green leaves subsist longer. S. Soil depth effect to plant growth was found. And a favorable covering rate was accomplished even at the soil depth of 15cm - the limit soil depth for grass survival - from the soil types where organic matters were mixed to. From this result, the soil depth limit for plant survival could be said to be shall owed if appropriate soil type were based.

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