• Title, Summary, Keyword: reverse electron transfer

Search Result 7, Processing Time 0.027 seconds

Temporal changes in mitochondrial activities of rat heart after a single injection of iron, including increased complex II activity

  • Kim, Mi-Sun;Song, Eun-Sook
    • Animal cells and systems
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-98
    • /
    • 2010
  • Male rats were given a single injection of iron, and temporal changes in iron content and iron-induced effects were examined in heart cellular fractions. Over a period of 72 h, the contents of total and labile iron, reactive oxygen species, and NO in tissue homogenate, nuclear debris, and postmitochondrial fractions were mostly constant, but in mitochondria they continuously increased. An abrupt decrease in membrane potential and NAD(P)H at 12 h was also found in mitochondria. The respiratory control ratio was reduced slowly with a slight recovery at 72 h, suggesting uncoupling by iron.While the ATP content of tissue homogenate decreased steadily until 72 h, it showed a prominent increase in mitochondria at 12 h. Total iron and calcium concentration also progressively increased in mitochondria over 72 h. Enzyme activity of the oxidative phosphorylation system was significantly altered by iron injection: activities of complexes I, III, and IV were reduced considerably, but complex II activity and the ATPase activity of complex V were enhanced. A reversal of activity in complexes I and II at 12 h suggested reverse electron transfer due to iron overload. These results support the argument that mitochondrial activities including oxidative phosphorylation are modulated by excessive iron.

Photoelectron Transport Across Phospholipid Liposomes Pigmented by Anthracene and Naphthalene Derivatives

  • Lee, Yong-Ill;Kwon, Hwang-Won;Shin, Dae-Hyon;Yoon, Min-Joong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.7 no.2
    • /
    • pp.120-124
    • /
    • 1986
  • In order to investigate effective solar energy conversion system, the light-induced electron transfer reactions have been examined across single-lamellar liposomes incorporated organic photosensitizers such as anthracene and naphthalene derivatives. We have observed photosensitized reduction of methyl viologen (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-$bipyridinium^{2+}$) dissolved in the exterior aqueous phase of the pigmented phospholipid liposomes when EDTA, as electron donor, is dissolved in the enclosed aqueous phase of the liposomes. The anthroyl stearic acid incorporated in the hydrophobic bilayer of liposomes leads to much less quantum yield for the photosensitized reduction of $MV^{2+}$ than the anthracene carboxylate incorporated in the outer hydrophilic layer. However, ${\beta}$-carotene with anthroyl stearic acid incorporated into the bilayer enhances the quantum yield significantly (${\Phi}{\simeq}0.2-0.3$), preventing the reverse reaction of electron transfer ($MV^+_\ {\rightarrow}MV^{2+}$) so that it might be useful for solar energy conversion into chemical energy. A naphthalene derivative, octadecyl naphthylamine sulfonic acid incorporated into the outer layer of liposomes results in less efficiency of $MV^{2+}$ reduction than anthroyl stearic acid. These results have been also tested with respect to lipid components of liposomes.

  • PDF

PHOSPHATE-DEFICIENCY REDUCES THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CAPACITIES OF THYLAKOID MEMBRANES THROUGH LIMITING PHOTOSYSTEM II IN LEAVES OF CHINESE CABBAGE

  • Park, Youn-Il;Hong, Young-Nam
    • Journal of Photoscience
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.95-105
    • /
    • 1994
  • Experiments were carried out to investigate whether P, deficiency in detached 25 mM mannose-feeding led to a decline of the photosynthetic electron transport rates through acidification of the thylakoid lumen. With increasing mannose-feeding time, the maximal CO2 exchange rates and the maximal quantum yields of photosynthesis decreased rapidly up to 6 h by 73% then with little decrease up to 12 h. The ATP/ADP ratio declined by 54% 6 h after the treatment and then recovered to the control level at 12 h. However, the NADPH/NADP~ ratio was not significantly altered by mannose treatment. Electron transport rates of thylakoid membranes isolated from 6 h treated leaves did not change, but they decreased by 30% in 12 h treated leaves. The quenching analysis of Chl fluorescence in mannose-treated leaves revealed that both the fraction of reduced plastoquinone and the degree of acidification of thylakoid lumen remained higher than those of the control. The reduction of PSI in mannose fed leaves was inhibited due to acidification of thylakoid lumen (high qE). The reduction of primary quinone acceptor of PSII was inhibited by mannose feeding. Mannose treatment decreased the efficiency of excitation energy capture by PSII. Fo quenching was induced when treated with mannose more than 6 h, and had a reverse linear correlation with (Fv)m/Fm ratio. These results suggest that Pi deficiency in Chinese cabbage leaves reduce photosynthetic electron transport rates by diminishing both PSII function and electron transfer from PSII to PSI through acidification ofthylakoid lumen, which in turn induce the modification of photosynthetic apparatus probably through protein (de)phosphorylation.

  • PDF

CNTs Electric Field Enhancement of CIGS Solar Cells

  • Han, Seong-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.67-67
    • /
    • 2011
  • Compound semiconductor/CNTs composites have shown considerably improved efficiency improvement in photovoltaic devices, which is often attributed to two different factors. One is the formation of efficient electronic energy cascade structures. The other effect of CNTs on the performance of photovoltaic devices is the decrement of interfacial resistance. The interfacial resistances at n-type/ p-type materials and/or n-type materials/TCO electrode are reduced by an outstanding electrical property of CNTs. In addition to the effects of CNTs, we report the third reason for increment of efficiency in photovoltaic devices by CNT's well-known electrical field enhancement effects. The improved ${\beta}$ values in reverse-FE currents of CIGS electrode with SWNTs layers indicate the enhancement of electrical field in photovoltaic devices, which implies the acceleration of the electron transfer rate in the cell. Due to the formation of an efficient electronic energy cascade structure and the decrease of the interfacial resistance as well as the improvement of the electrical field in the photovoltaic devices, the power conversion efficiency of electrochemically deposited superstrate-type CIGS solar cells was increased 24.3% in the presence of SWNTs and showed 10.40% conversion efficiency.

  • PDF

Enhancement of Photocurrent Generation by C60-encapsulated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Ru-sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cell

  • Lee, Jung-Woo;Park, Tae-Hee;Lee, Jong-Taek;Jang, Mi-Ra;Lee, Seung-Jin;Kim, Hee-Su;Han, Sung-Hwan;Yi, Whi-Kun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.33 no.8
    • /
    • pp.2689-2693
    • /
    • 2012
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and $C_{60}$-encapsulated SWNTs ($C_{60}@SWNTs$) are introduced to Ru-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (PECs), and photocurrents are compared between two cells, i.e., an $RuL_2(NCS)_2$/DAPV/SWNTs/ITO cell and an $RuL_2(NCS)_2$/DAPV/$C_{60}@SWNTs$/ITO cell. [L = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DAPV = di-(3-aminopropyl)-viologen, and ITO = indium-tin oxide] The photocurrents are increased by 70.6% in the presence of $C_{60}@SWNTs$. To explain the photocurrent increase, the reverse-field emission method is used, i.e., $RuL_2(NCS)_2$/DAPV/SWNTs/ITO cell (or $RuL_2(NCS)_2$/DAPV/$C_{60}@SWNTs$/ITO cell) as an anode and a counter electrode Pt as a cathode in the external electric field. The improved field emission properties, i.e., ${\beta}$ (field enhancement factor) and emission currents in the reverse-field emission with $C_{60}@SWNTs$ indicate the enhancement of the PEC electric field, which implies the improvement of the electron transfer rate along with the reduced charge recombination in the cell.

A Novel Method for 3D Surface and Solid Construction Analysis of Fabric Microstructure (직물 미세구조의 3차원 표면 및 솔리드 형성 방법)

  • Lee, Ye-Jin;Lee, Byung-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
    • /
    • v.21 no.3
    • /
    • pp.539-550
    • /
    • 2012
  • In-depth knowledge of fabric microstructure is essential for understanding clothing comfort since it plays a significant role in heat and mass transfer between the human body and clothing. In this study, a novel method was employed for investigating 3D surfaces and solid construction characteristics of specific fabrics by using a reverse engineering technique. The surface construction data were obtained by a confocal laser scanning microscope and then manipulated by a 3D analysis program. Triangle mesh was used for connecting each 3D point, with clouds and fabric surface characteristics created by rendering techniques. For generating a 3D solid model, determinants of radius of curvature was used. According to the proposed method, actual surface expression of the real fabric was achieved successfully. The results from this methodology can be applied to the detailed analysis of clothing comfort that is highly influenced by the microstructure of the fabric.

Identification of Functional and In silico Positional Differentially Expressed Genes in the Livers of High- and Low-marbled Hanwoo Steers

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Park, Eung-Woo;Cho, Yong-Min;Yoon, Duhak;Park, Jun-Hyung;Hong, Seong-Koo;Im, Seok-Ki;Thompson, J.M.;Oh, Sung-Jong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.20 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1334-1341
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study identified hepatic differentially expressed genes (DEGs) affecting the marbling of muscle. Most dietary nutrients bypass the liver and produce plasma lipoproteins. These plasma lipoproteins transport free fatty acids to the target tissue, adipose tissue and muscle. We examined hepatic genes differentially expressed in a differential-display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ddRT-PCR) analysis comparing high- and low-marbled Hanwoo steers. Using 60 arbitrary primers, we found 13 candidate genes that were upregulated and five candidate genes that were downregulated in the livers of high-marbled Hanwoo steers compared to low-marbled individuals. A BLAST search for the 18 DEGs revealed that 14 were well characterized, while four were not annotated. We examined four DEGs: ATP synthase F0, complement component CD, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP). Of these, only two genes (complement component CD and IGFBP3) were differentially expressed at p<0.05 between the livers of high- and low-marbled individuals. The mean mRNA levels of the PEBP and ATP synthase F0 genes did not differ significantly between the livers of high- and low-marbled individuals. Moreover, these DEGs showed very high inter-individual variation in expression. These informative DEGs were assigned to the bovine chromosome in a BLAST search of MS marker subsets and the bovine genome sequence. Genes related to energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0, ketohexokinase, electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and NADH hydrogenase) were assigned to BTA 1, 11, 17, and 22, respectively. Syntaxin, IGFBP3, decorin, the bax inhibitor gene and the PEBP gene were assigned to BTA 3, 4, 5, 5, and 17, respectively. In this study, the in silico physical maps provided information on the specific location of candidate genes associated with economic traits in cattle.