• Title/Summary/Keyword: retrogradation of cooked rice

Search Result 8, Processing Time 0.083 seconds

Varietal Difference in Retrogradation of Cooked Rice and Its Association with Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain

  • Choi, Hae Chune;Hong, Ha Cheal;Cho, Soo Yeon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.355-363
    • /
    • 1999
  • The experiments were carried out to elucidate the varietal variation of retrogradation in aged cooked rice and its association with some physicochemical properties of milled rice. The fifteen rice materials were selected from forty-three low-amylose japonica and Tongil-type rice cultivars based on palatability and retrogradation of cooked rice stratified by preliminary sensory evaluation of warm and cooled cooked rice. One japonica glutinous rice variety was included for comparison of retrogradation of cooked rice. The $\alpha$-amylase-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The desirable checking time for evaluating the varietal difference in deterioration of aged cooked rice was four hours after storing in room temperature and two hours after preserving in refrigerator based on the largest coefficients of variations in degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. The retrogadation index represented by the percentage of retrogradation difference between warm and cooled cooked rice to original estimates of warm cooked rice was significantly affected by the degree of retrogradation of cooled cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked nce. The varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice can be effectively classified by scatter diagram on the plane of upper two principal components based on some retrogradation properties of cooked rice. The deteriorated structural change in cooled cooked rice by observing through the scanning electron microscope was more conspicuous in the fastly retrograded cooked rice than in the slower one.

  • PDF

Determination of Degree of Retrogradation of Cooked Rice by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외 분광분석법에 의한 밥의 노화도측정)

  • Cho, Seung-Yong;Choi, Sung-Gil;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.26 no.5
    • /
    • pp.579-584
    • /
    • 1994
  • Near infrared reflectance(NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. Cooked rice samples were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 120 hours, and the degree of retrogradation was measured at every 6 hour during the storage time. Stored cooked rices were freeze-dried, milled and passed through a 100 mesh sieve. Enzymatic method using glucoamylase was used as reference method for the determination of the degree of retrogradation. Spectral differences due to retrogradation of cooked rice were observed at 1434, 1700, 1928, 2100, 2284 and 2320 nm. 32 samples of which moisture content were below 5% were used for calibration set, and 16 samples were used for validation set. High correlations were achieved between degree of retrogradation determined by conventional enzymatic method and by NIR with multiple correlation coefficient of 0.9753, and a standard error of calibration(SEC) of 3.64%. Comparable results were obtained with 3.91% of standard error of prediction(SEP), when the calibration equation was applied to independent group of samples of which moisture contents were in the range of calibration set. But when the calibration equation was applied to samples of which moisture contents were outer range of calibration set, SEP and bias were increased and correlation coefficient was decreased. The determination of degree of retrogradation was affected by sample moisture content. To determine degree of retrogradation of cooked rice by NIR using this calibration equation, it was suggested that sample moisture content should be controlled to below 5%.

  • PDF

Effects of Freezing Rate and Storage Temperature on the Degree of Retrogradation, Texture and Microstructure of Cooked Rice (동결속도 및 저장온도가 취반된 쌀의 노화도, 조직감 및 미세구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Sung-Gil;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.27 no.5
    • /
    • pp.783-788
    • /
    • 1995
  • Cooked rices were frozen at four different rates(3, 5, 7 and 12 hr) of maximum ice crystal formation zone and stored at $-20^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$ for 3 months. Freezing rate, storage temperature and storage period all affected the degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. As the maximum ice crystal formation zone increased from 3 hrs to 12 hrs, the degree of retrogradation of cooked rice increased from 14.9% to 40.0%. Further retrogradation occurred during the freezing storage and cooked rice stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ retrograded faster than that held at $-70^{\circ}C$. The hardness and adhesiveness of frozen cooked rice thawed in $40^{\circ}C$ water were measured. Hardness of the frozen cooked rice was higher than that of non-frozen sample and was higher at lower freezing rate. However, the hardness of cooked rice decreased after 3 months of storage. On the other hand, the adhesiveness decreased during the freezing processing, and adhesiveness decreased more rapidly at a higher freezing rate. However, the adhesiveness of cooked rice increased after 3 months of the storage, and the level of decrease was higher at $-70^{\circ}C$ than at $-20^{\circ}C$. After 3 months of storage, ice crystal size of frozen cooked rice became larger by recrystalization than that of frozen sample prior to storage. Microstructure of cooked rice was damaged by ice crystal formation and its growth when observed by scanning electron microscope.

  • PDF

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Microbial and Physicochemical Properties of Ong-keun jook(Korean Whole Rice Porridge) (방사선 조사가 옹근죽(통쌀죽)의 미생물학적 및 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Yun-Hyoung;Oh, Sang-Hee;Kwon, Oh-Yun;Byun, Myung-Woo;Lee, Ju-Woon;Park, Soo-Cheon;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.130-135
    • /
    • 2007
  • Ong-keun jook(Korean whole rice porridge)is a traditional Korean porridge made with whole rice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of gamma-irradiation on the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of rice porridge gamma-irradiation, even at a 1-kGy dose, decreased the total bacteria in cooked rice porridge to lower than the detectable limit($10^2CFU/g$). The viscosity of gamma-irradiated rice porridge was decreased compared to that of control. Upon examination of granule morphology by SEM, cracks were observed on the starch granules in samples irradiated at above 5 kGy. The results of the DSC curve suggest that gamma-irradiation delayed retrogradation of cooked rice porridge. Based on the present results, gamma-irradiation was helpful for developing sterile and tube diets that are needed for ill, old or infant subjects.

  • PDF

Comparison of starch properties of rice varieties in different eating quality

  • Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kwak, Jieun;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Lee, Jeom-Sig;Kim, Mi-Jung;Jung, Tae-Wook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
    • /
    • 2017.06a
    • /
    • pp.295-295
    • /
    • 2017
  • Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world. The eating quality of cooked rice is the most important trait japonica rice breeding in Korea. Rice varieties that produce kernels that are firm and fluffy after cooking are generally favored in countries such as India, Pakistan, and Indonesia. Whereas varieties with kernels that maintain its shape, glossiness, savory odor, stickiness, and tenderness when cooked are preferred in Korea. This study analyzed the major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the eating quality of 20 japonica rice varieties. Physicochemical components such as the amylose content, protein content, amylographic characteristics of polished rice, and texture of cooked rice were tested using a Tensipresser as alternative indirect methods in determining rice eating quality. Evaluation of eating quality of cooked rice using sensory test was conducted with 20 well trained members. The 20 rice varieties in different eating quality showed amylose contents of 17~20%. The amylose content of rice varieties had negative correlation with peak viscosity, however positive correlation with setback viscosity was observed. The stickiness and adhesiveness of cooked rice showed correlation with the amylose content and amylopectin chain length distribution. Rice varieties with good eating quality showed less retrogradation of cooked rice and higher hot viscosity of rice flour in amylogram.

  • PDF

Effect of Storage Conditions on the Sensory Characteristics of Cooked Rice (보온 조건이 쌀밥의 관능 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kweon, Mee-Ra;Han, Jin-Suk;Ahn, Seung-Yo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.45-53
    • /
    • 1999
  • Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of cooked rice during warm-keeping with different temperature $(70,\;75,\;80^{\circ}C)$ and period (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 hr) were investigated. As the storage temperature increased, sweet flavor, glossiness, moistness, taste and moisture content decreased but off-flavor, color and sensory and texturometric hardness increased. This trend was significant with storage period. As the storage time and temperature increased, yellowness(b) measured by Hunter color difference meter increased while lightness(L) and whiteness decreased. Degree of retrogradation of cooked rice during storage increased, particularly did in cooked rice stored at $80^{\circ}C$. Cooked rice stored at 70 and $75^{\circ}C$, 6 hr had the least changes in flavor and appearance but more changes in them longer storage time. Cooked rice stored at $80^{\circ}C$ had rapid changes in flavor, appearance and texture at initial state of storage. These results showed that the changes in moisture content of cooked rice stored at various conditions had the most important effect upon sensory characteristics of cooked rice.

  • PDF

Physicochemical Characteristics and Varietal Improvement Related to Palatability of Cooked Rice or Suitability to Food Processing in Rice (쌀 식미 및 가공적성에 관련된 이화학적 특성)

  • 최해춘
    • Proceedings of the Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition Conference
    • /
    • 2001.12a
    • /
    • pp.39-74
    • /
    • 2001
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s∼1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great, progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and qualify evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice caltivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and torture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak. hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscogram with year difference. The high-quality rice variety “Ilpumbyeo” showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic mcroscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high Probability of determination. The ${\alpha}$ -amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were Ilpumbyeo, Chucheongbyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tongil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, shelved the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogiadation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice bread. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large gram rices showed better suitability for fermentation and brewing. Our breeding efforts on rice quality improvement for the future should focus on enhancement of palatability of cooked rice and marketing qualify as well as the diversification in morphological and physicochemical characteristics of rice grain for various value-added rice food processings.

  • PDF

Current Status and Perspectives in Varietal Improvement of Rice Cultivars for High-Quality and Value-Added Products (쌀 품질 고급화 및 고부가가치화를 위한 육종현황과 전망)

  • 최해춘
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.47
    • /
    • pp.15-32
    • /
    • 2002
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s-1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and quality evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice cultivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm, aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer, Recently, new special rices such as extremely low-amylose dull or opaque non-glutinous endosperm mutants were developed. Also, a high-lysine rice variety was developed for higher nutritional utility. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and texture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak, hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscosities with year difference. The high-quality rice variety "IIpumbyeo" showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic microscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high probability of determination. The $\alpha$-amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were IIpumbyeo, Chucheongyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tonsil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice breed. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large grain rices showed better suitability far fermentation and brewing. The glutinous rice were classified into nine different varietal groups based on various physicochemical and structural characteristics of endosperm. There was some close associations among these grain properties and large varietal difference in suitability to various traditional food processing. Our breeding efforts on improvement of rice quality for high palatability and processing utility or value-adding products in the future should focus on not only continuous enhancement of marketing and eating qualities but also the diversification in morphological, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of rice grain suitable for processing various value-added rice foods.ice foods.