• Title/Summary/Keyword: retrogradation

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Physicochemical Properties of Waxy Rice Starches Prepared from Three Different Cultivars (다수계 찰벼와 일반찰벼 전분의 이화학적 성질)

  • Kim, Hyong-Soo;Kang, Ock-Joo;Yoon, Gae-Soon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 1983
  • The physicochemical properties of starches isolated from three kinds of waxy ricer were investigated. The average diammeter of Orchal starch granule was 3.6u, and those of Hangang and Baegoon starch granules were 4.8u and 5.6u, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples were A types. Optical transmittance of starch suspensions was increased rapidly $60{\sim}62^{\circ}C$, $50{\sim}55^{\circ}C$ and $50{\sim}60^{\circ}C$ in Olchal, Hangang and Baegoon, respectively, and all of them exhibited maximum transmittance $75{\sim}80^{\circ}C$ in range. Initial gelationization temperature by means of amylogram pattern was $60{\sim}61^{\circ}C$, then, Olchal starch had a little higher temperature than others. Raising power of them was $260\sim220$, and then, Olchal starch has a little higher raising power. But, water binding capacity of Baegoon and Hangang were somewhat higher than that of Olchal. Blue values of Olchal and Hangang were similar with 0.13, and that of Baegoon was 0. 14. Alkari numbers of Olchal, Hangang and Baegoon were 4.2, 4.9 and 5.1. The degree of retrogradation of Hangang and Baegoon starch gels were somewhat higher than that of Olchal starch gel.

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Prevention of retrogradation for Korean rice cake (전통 떡의 상품화 및 노화억제에 의한 저장성 향상)

  • Park, Yang-Kyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.45-72
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    • 2005
  • 쌀을 주식으로 하는 우리의 식생활과 일치하고 전통적으로 나누어 함께 먹는 식품으로 자리 잡고 있는 떡을 현대화하기 위해서는 인식의 전환과 상품화 및 유통기간연장을 위한 연구가 이루어 져야한다. 영양학적으로 우수한 전통 떡류가 있지만 현대에 이르러서 생활양식과 식문화 등의 급격한 변화로 일반화 및 다소비 되지 못함은 소비자의 변화에 맞추지 못하기 때문이나 떡에 대한 인식은 매우 긍정적이라고 한다. 떡은 언제 어디서나 먹을 수 있는 간편한 생활 음식이며, 우수한 전통음식이라고 인식시킴으로써 떡에 대한 긍정적인 이미지를 확대해 나갈 필요가 있다. 전통의 맛을 유지하면서 기능성과 영양상의 균형을 갖춘 새로운 맛의 떡으로 소비층을 확대하여야 한다. 유통기간이 짧아 떡집에 자주 가서 구매해야 한다는 인식에 탈피 할 수 있도록 제품개발이 되어야 한다. 떡집은 영세하고, 비위생적이며 포장이 깨끗하지 못하다는 인식이 전환이 되도록 작업환경, 시설 및 제품포장을 현대화 하여야 한다. 새로운 형태의 매장을 운영하는 것도 필요하다. 새로운 형태의 카페 형 또는 베이커리형의 떡집이 선보임으로써 다양한 종류의 떡이 개발되어 편의성과 고급화되면 소비층이 점차 확대되고 있는 점은 떡의 상품화와 관련하여 매우 의미 있는 변화이다. 또한 떡 공장에서 위생적으로 생산, 소규모 포장, 급속 동결, 냉동 유통, 소비자에게 전달되는 냉동제품이 활성화 되어야 한다. 노화억제에 의한 저장성 향상은 상품화 떡의 품질향상이다. 품질과 관련된 인자는 원료 쌀의 품질, 분쇄 정도, 수분함량, 제조공정, 전분분해 효소처리, 당류, 유화제, 콜로이드 물질 등의 첨가제에 의한 연구가 지속되고 있다.학적 특성에는 영향을 미치지 않고 혈중 IGF-I 농도를 증가시켰다. 또한 이들 측정항목에서 Revalor H implant는 제한사양, 저에너지 사료, 혹은 Compudose 이상의 효과를 나타내었고, 증체를 억제하였으나 사료효율은 증진시켰으며, 후자(사양, 사료)와의 상호작용은 나타나지 않았다. 이상의 결과는 거세비육돈에서 1) androgen과 estrogen은 공히 자발적인 사료섭취와 등지방 침적을 억제하고 IGF-I 분비를 증가시키며, 2) 성선스테로이드호르몬의 이 같은 성장에 미치는 효과의 일부는 IGF-I을 통해 매개될 수도 있을을 시사한다. 약 $70 {\~} 90\%$의 phenoxyethanol이 유상에 존재하였다. 또한, 미생물에 대한 항균력도 phenoxyethanol이 수상에 많이 존재할수록 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 따라서, 제형 내 oil tomposition을 변화시킴으로써 phenoxyethanol의 사용량을 줄일 수 있을 뿐만 아니라, 피부 투과를 감소시켜 보다 피부 자극이 적은 저자극 방부시스템 개발이 가능하리라 보여 진다. 첨가하여 제조한 curd yoghurt는 저장성과 관능적인 면에서 우수한 상품적 가치가 인정되는 새로운 기능성 신제품의 개발에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 사료되었다. 여자의 경우 0.8이상이 되어서 심혈관계 질환의 위험 범위에 속하는 수준이었다. 삼두근의 두겹 두께는 남녀 각각 $20.2\pm8.58cm,\;22.2\pm4.40mm$으로 남녀간에 유의한 차이는 없었다. 조사대상자의 식습관 상태는 전체 대상자의 $84.4\%$가 대부분이 하루 세끼

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Effect of Pretreatments on the Physicochemical Properties of Lotus Root Powder (전처리 방법에 따른 연근가루의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Ok-Suk;Choi, Ok-Ja;Shim, Ki-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2012
  • To enhance the application of lotus roots and to provide basic data for processed foods with lotus roots, lotus root powder was processed under four different conditions, and their physicochemical properties were analyzed as follows. In the Hunter's color value results, the salted sample had the highest L value, and the vinegared sample had the highest a and b values. The water-holding capacities of the salted, vinegared, and blanched samples were higher than that of the control sample. The amylase contents were in the 19.57-20.43% range but were not significant. The swelling power and solubility of the processed samples increased as the temperature rose. The blanched sample had the highest swelling power and solubility (65 and $60^{\circ}C$, respectively). The crystallinity of the processed samples, as determined via X-ray diffraction, reached their peak at $16.9^{\circ}$, and the other peaks at 14.6, 22.2, and $23.8^{\circ}$ were typical of the B type. In addition, the relative crystallinity, gelatinization temperature, and enthalpy, as determined via DSC thermogram, were highest in the vinegared sample and lowest in the blanched sample. In the amylogram results, the vinegared sample had the highest maximum viscosity and breakdown. The retrogradation of the vinegared sample was the slowest as its setback value was the lowest.

Changes in Textural Properties of Jeung-Pyon (Korean Traditional Fermented- and Steamed-Rice Bread) during Storage (증편의 저장 중 조직 특성 변화)

  • Chang, Kyu-Seob;Lee, Jeong-Shik;Choi, Seok-Hyun;Park, Young-Duck
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 1991
  • This study was carried out to investigate the storage conditions and methods required for commercialization of Jeung-Pyon. The storage characteristics of Jeung-Pyon were examined with Universal Testing Machine (UTM, Instron model 1000) for textural properties during storage of under the conditions such as sealing, nonsealing, and temperatures. The differences in storage characteristics on the different varieties and years of rices were not shown. When the Jeung-Pyon was lost it's quality as a commercial product, the measured value of UTM was increased as hardness 0.74Kg to 1.0Kg, gumminess 0.23Kg to 0.59Kg, chewiness 6Kg.mm to 18Kg.mm, but decreased in adhesiveness 0.65Kg.mm to 0.40Kg.mm, cohesiveness 0.61 to 0.34, springiness 41mm to 32mm. The nonsealed Jeung-Pyon was lost it's quality for storing at room temperature because of the case-hardening after 2 days. In the case of sealed Jeung-Pyon, the case-hardening phenomena by the evaporation of moisture was not occured, therefore it was a significant factor for an extension in sealed Jeung-Pyon. The shelf-life of sealed Jeung-Pyon was 20 days and 5 days respectively during storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ and $20^{\circ}C$. The sealed Jeung-Pyon stored at $5^{\circ}C$ was lost it's quality, in consideration of cold chain this temperature was suitable for retrogradation of starch. The Jeung-Pyon sealed with air and mosture proof packaging material stored at the accelerated condition as 92% R.H. and $35^{\circ}C$ lost it's quality within two or three days.

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Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Noodles Added with Rehmanniae Radix Preparata Powder (숙지황 분말을 첨가한 국수의 품질 특성 및 항산화성)

  • Min, A Young;Son, Ah Young;Kim, Hyun Jeong;Shin, Suk Kyung;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.386-392
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of noodles added with Rehmanniae Radix Preparata powder (RP). Wheat flour noodles were prepared with four levels of RP (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5%). Moisture absorption of RP added noodles was somewhat greater than that of control. The turbidity of RP noodles decreased according to addition of RP. Hunter L (lightness) and b (yellowness) values of RP added noodles decreased according to addition of RP amount. Textural properties (measured by a texture analyzer), hardness, and springiness of RP noodles up to 5% were not significantly different from those of control. Antioxidant activity of RP added noodles increased according to addition of RP: $IC_{50}$ values of DPPH radical scavenging activity for raw noodles was 3.77 mg/g, whereas values of raw noodles with RP 2.5 and 7.5% were 3.69 mg/g and 2.47 mg/g, respectively. Polyphenol content increased according to addition of RP. Amylogram showed that RP addition increased initial gelatinization temperature, decreased breakdown, and reduced setback and consistency, which indicates protection against retrogradation. The sensory preference test revealed that cooked noodles with added 2.5% RP showed the highest scores for color, odor, taste, and overall preference. It is suggested that RP up to 2.5% could be substituted for wheat flour to improve noodle quality.

Characteristics of Rice Flours Prepared by Moisture-Heat Treatment (수분-열처리에 의해 제조한 멥쌀가루의 특성)

  • Lee Mi-Kyung;Shin Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2006
  • To improve the properties of non-waxy rice flours for baking, soaked-wet milled rice flour (SWRF) was adjusted moisture content (MC) to 30 and 50 % and heated at 50 and $70^{\circ}C$ in a shaking water bath for 6 and 18 hrs, respectively. Moisture-heat treated rice flours were investigated with regard to particle size distribution, and morphological, physicochemical and pasting properties for comparing dry and wet milled flours. The particle size of rice flour treated with 30% MC was distributed between $4-20{\mu}m\;and\;100-200{\mu}m$, like SWRF. The particles above $200{\mu}m$ in the flour were produced at higher heating temperature. By SEM, starch granules were found in the rice flours treated with 30% MC, who whereas aggregated starch granules were shown in the flours treated with 50% MC. Moisture-heat treatment using higher MC and heating temperature decreased the lightness and increased the yellowness of non-waxy rice flours. Water binding capacity of 30% moisture treated rice flour was similar to that of SWRF. In the same moisture treated rice flour, swelling power was higher, but solubility was lower at $50^{\circ}C$ than at $70^{\circ}C$. The initial pasting temperature by RVA increased after moisture-heat treatment. The peak viscosity of moisture-heat treated rice flour was higher for 30% moisture than that of the others. The rice flour treated with 30% MC and heated at $50^{\circ}C$ showed low setback and increased stability for retrogradation.

The Properties of Rice Flours Prepared by Dry- and Wet-Milling of Soaked Glutinous and Normal Grains (수침과 건조조건을 달리하여 만든 찹쌀가루와 멥쌀가루의 특성)

  • Kim, Wan-Soo;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.908-918
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    • 2007
  • To prepare ready-to-use rice flour as de novo material for processed rice foods, glutinous(W) and normal rice grains (N) were soaked for 1, 8, and 12 hours prior to processing. One half (DG) was air-dried and milled, and the other (WG) was milled and air-dried. General, morphological and pasting properties of the flours (NDG, NWG, WDG, WWG) were compared to those of a control (raw milled rice without soaking). The general compositions of the rice flours varied with soaking. Crude ash was considerably decreased at the beginning of soaking (1 hour). With the soaking, the rice flour, having polygonal shaped particles and a layered surface, acquired particles with smooth edges, which were then uniformly distributed. Additionally, the WG flour was lighter and had a lower ${\Delta}E$ value than the DG flour, due to a higher L and less +b as a result of soaking. Compared to the control, the WBC of the normal rice flour was decreased significantly with soaking, and the WG flour had significantly lower WBCs than the DG flour. Stirring number (SN), an indicator of ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity, was highly and significantly correlated with WBC (r=-0.85, p=0.0001) in the normal rice flour. At $80^{\circ}C$, the SP and solubility of all the soaked rice flours were much higher than those of the control. Positive (r=+0.85, p=0.0001) and negative (r=-0.61, p=0.02) correlations between the SP and solubility of the normal and glutinous rice flours were found, respectively. Using RVA, the pasting temperature of NDG was lower than that of NWG (p<0.0001). The peak viscosities of all the soaked flours were significantly decreased with soaking (p<0.0l), with the highest viscosity in the normal rice flour soaked for 8 hrs. Total setback, indicative of retrogradation, was lower in NDG than in NWG, with the lowest setback at 8 hrs of' soaking. Based on these finding, the NDG flour with 8 hrs of soaking was less damaged, and had a lower total setback and lower pasting temperature, which would make it an appropriate rice flour for commercial mass production.

Baking Qualities of Bread Dough Substituted with High Amount of ${\beta}-Glucan$ from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197Bp (Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP로부터 생산된 ${\beta}-glucan$ 고함유 식빵 반죽의 특성)

  • Kang, Eun-Young;Yang, Yun-Hyoung;Oh, Sang-Hee;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Kim, Hye-Yooung;Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Cho, Han-Young;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2006
  • Baking quality of dough made of flour substituted with insoluble ${\beta}-glucan$ (10, 20, and 30%), functional food material produced from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP, was evaluated. Optimum time to reach 1st stage of dough fermentation decreased with increasing ${\beta}-glucan$ content, whereas mixing time increased. Addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ did not affect pH of dough. Hunter color L, a, and b values of dough added with up to 20% ${\beta}-glucan$ were not significantly different from those of control. Rheology properties such as cohesiveness and springiness of ${\beta}-glucan$ added dough increased, while hardness and gumminess decreased. Amylogram showed addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ to flour lowered setback and consistency, which are suggested to delay retrogradation.

Quality Characteristics of Bread added with Aronia Powder (Aronia melanocarpa) (아로니아 분말을 첨가한 식빵의 품질특성)

  • Yoon, Hyang-Sik;Kim, Ji Won;Kim, Sang Hee;Kim, Yee Gi;Eom, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics of bread added with Aronia powder. Breads were prepared with different amounts of Aronia powder (in ratios of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10% of total flour). As the Aronia powder content increased, the pH level decreased while total acidity increased. For color, bread added with 10% Aronia powder showed low lightness and yellowness but high redness. As the Aronia powder content increased, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, and baking loss also significantly increased. For the preservation period, breads added with Aronia showed mold growth within 4 days, whereas the control showed growth within 2 days. Bread added with 10% Aronia showed strong retrogradation. In the sensory evaluation, appearance, color, and overall acceptance of bread added with 3% Aronia showed remarkably higher values than both the control and others samples.

Physico-chemical Properties of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) Root Starch - II. Physical Properties- (고사리(Pteridium aquilinum) 뿌리 전분의 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구 -제2보 : 전분의 물리적 특성-)

  • Jo, Jae-Sun;Kim, Sung-Kon;Lee, Ke-Ho;Kwon, Tai-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 1981
  • The gelatinization phenomena of bracken root starch were examined by means of the loss of birefringence, degree of digestibility by amylase and X-ray diffraction. These results indicated that gelatinization temperature of the starch was $55{\sim}60^{\circ}$ and over 95% of starch were gelatinized at the temperature between 60 and $70^{\circ}C$. The swelling power of the bracken root starch was much less steeper than that of potato or tapioca starch. Amylograph data on the various starch concentrations showed the pasting temperature of $62{\sim}68^{\circ}$, peak height of $80{\sim}840$ Brabender unit (BU) and peak after cooling to $50^{\circ}C$ of $110{\sim}555\;BU.$. According to the information obtained from amylograph data, the bracken root starch showed low set back. The rate of retrogradation of the starch as tested by Texturometer was slower and faster than that of potato and tapioca starches, respectively.

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