• Title/Summary/Keyword: retrogradation

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Retarding Retrogradation of Korean Rice Cakes(Karedduk) with a Mixture of Trehalose and Modified Starch Analyzed by Avrami Kinetics (Avrami Kinetics에 적용한 트레할로스와 변성 전분 혼합 사용 떡의 노화 억제 분석)

  • Kim, Sang-Sook;Chung, Hae-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2010
  • Retarding retrogradation of Korean rice cakes(Karedduk) with a mixture of trehalose and Sun-Tender added, after 0, 24, and 48 hr of storage at $5^{\circ}C$, was analyzed by Avrami kinetics. A central composite design was used for arrangement of treatment. The two independent variables selected for retarding retrogradation analysis were amounts of trehalose(x) and Sun-Tender(y). Trehalose was added at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12% levels, and Sun-Tender added at 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2% levels, to dry rice flour. The Avrami exponent(n) for the mixtures of 9% trehalose and 0.3% Sun-Tender, and 9% trehalose and 0.9% Sun-Tender were lower than in the control. The time constant(1/k) for the mixture of trehalose and Sun-Tender was higher than in the control. The effect of retarding retrogradation of Korean rice cakes with added mixtures of trehalose and Sun-Tender showed an increasing trend as the amount of trehalose increased. These results suggest that adding a mixture of 9% trehalose and 0.3% Sun-Tender, or 9% trehalose and 0.9% Sun-Tender to Korean rice cakes(Karedduk) is effective for retarding retrogradation.

Retrogradation Characteristics of Jeungpyun by Different Milling Method of Rice Flour (쌀가루의 제분방법에 따른 증편의 노화도 특성)

  • Kim, Young-In;Kum, Jun-Seok;Lee, Sang-Hyo;Lee, Hyun-Yu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.834-838
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    • 1995
  • The relative retrogradation of Jeungpyun investigated with different milling methods of rice flour. The relative retrogradation of Jeungpyun was reduced in order that of W-C, W-P, D-M, D-J in DSC(Differential Scanning Calorimetry) method while W-C, D-M, D-J, W-P in Diastase method. In wet milling method, the relative retrogradation of Jeungpyun by pin mill (W-P) was lower than Jeungpyun by colloid mill (W-C). In dry milling method, the relative retrogration of Jeungpyun by jet mill (D-J) was lower than Jeungpyun by micro mill(D-M). The relative retrogradation of Jeungpyun by DSC method was similar to the diastase method. The relative retrogradation of Jeungpyun was decreased with decreasing particle size and setback value for amylogram and increasing damaged starch.

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The Effect of Vital Gluten and Gum on the Retrogradation of Breads Made with Korean Wheat Flour and Sprouted Brown Rice (활성 글루텐 및 검질 첨가에 따른 발아 현미 첨가 우리밀 식빵의 노화 특성)

  • Kim, Sun-Kyung;Lee, Seung-Joo;Yoon, Jang-Ho;Lee, Seung-Ju
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.384-390
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    • 2008
  • This study examined the effects of sprouted brown rice (SR), gluten (G), and hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose (H) on the suppression of retrogradation in breads made with Korean wheat flour. An amylograph was used to determined the pasting properties of dough samples made with Korean wheat flour and additions of SR, SR+G, SR+H, and SR+G+H, respectively. In addition, a texture analyzer was employed to measure the hardness changes of bread samples left at room temperature for 72 hours. Finally, the type of retrogradation was calculated by the Avrami equation. The results showed that the addition of SR significantly decreased dough viscosity. However, the dough samples containing SR, G, and H all displayed reduced cold paste viscosity and setback, indicating a suppression of staling. The bread samples containing SR added to Korean wheat flour had increased hardness, but the addition of gluten (SR+G) reduced hardness. Upon examining the bread samples stored at room temperature for 24 hours, it was shown that the addition of G and H with SR (SR+G+H) suppressed retrogradation. Finally, the Avrami model data indicated that the type of retrogradation varied according to the addition of SR, G, and H. The breads made with hard wheat flour (HWF), WM, and WM+SR+H had similar Avrami exponents ($1.20{\sim}1.28$), while those for WM+SR, WM+SR+G, and WM+SR+G+H ranged from 2.7 to 3.3. Overall, the combined addition of SR and H was considered effective for preventing retrogradation in bread made with Korean wheat flour.

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Changes in Retrogradation Degree of Nonwaxy Rice Cooked at Different Pressure and Stored in Electric Rice Cooker (압력 취반 백미의 전기밥솥 보온중 노화도의 변화)

  • Park, Seok-Kyu;Ko, Yong-Duck;Choi, Ok-Ja;Shon, Mi-Yae;Seo, Kwon-Il
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.705-709
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    • 1997
  • Changes in retrogradation degree of nonwaxy milled rice cooked at different pressure and stored in electric rice cooker at $74^{\circ}C$ were investigated. The moisture contents of nonwaxy milled rice cooked at $1.0{\sim}1.9\;atm\;and\;1.2{\sim}1.5$ water/rice ratio were $59.9{\sim}64.3%$. When nonwaxy milled rice was cooked at high pressure, X-ray diffraction patterns of cooked rice exhibited the V-type having nearly no crystallinity. Retrogradation peak of cooked rice from DSC thermogram was observed in the temperature range of $41.9{\sim}62.4^{\circ}C$ and was not appeared in cooked rice above 1.5 atm. During storage at cooker for 24 hr, retrogradation enthalpy of cooked rice was increased and retrogradation peak was not appeared above 1.7 atm. In cooking and storage of cooked rice, retrogradation degree measured by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method in high pressure gelatinized samples was lower than that in low pressure gelatinized ones.

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Determination of Degree of Retrogradation of Cooked Rice by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외 분광분석법에 의한 밥의 노화도측정)

  • Cho, Seung-Yong;Choi, Sung-Gil;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.579-584
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    • 1994
  • Near infrared reflectance(NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the degree of retrogradation of cooked rice. Cooked rice samples were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 120 hours, and the degree of retrogradation was measured at every 6 hour during the storage time. Stored cooked rices were freeze-dried, milled and passed through a 100 mesh sieve. Enzymatic method using glucoamylase was used as reference method for the determination of the degree of retrogradation. Spectral differences due to retrogradation of cooked rice were observed at 1434, 1700, 1928, 2100, 2284 and 2320 nm. 32 samples of which moisture content were below 5% were used for calibration set, and 16 samples were used for validation set. High correlations were achieved between degree of retrogradation determined by conventional enzymatic method and by NIR with multiple correlation coefficient of 0.9753, and a standard error of calibration(SEC) of 3.64%. Comparable results were obtained with 3.91% of standard error of prediction(SEP), when the calibration equation was applied to independent group of samples of which moisture contents were in the range of calibration set. But when the calibration equation was applied to samples of which moisture contents were outer range of calibration set, SEP and bias were increased and correlation coefficient was decreased. The determination of degree of retrogradation was affected by sample moisture content. To determine degree of retrogradation of cooked rice by NIR using this calibration equation, it was suggested that sample moisture content should be controlled to below 5%.

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Retrogradation of Rice Starch Gels by Additives (첨가물이 쌀전분겔의 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Ji-Young;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Sung-Kon;Kim, Kwang-Joong;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.289-293
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    • 1997
  • The effects of different types of additives(sucrose fatty acid ester(SE), oligosaccharide and alum) on 40% nonwaxy rice starch gels stored at $20{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ were investigated by ${\alpha}-amylase-iodine$ method, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of SE retarded the retrogradation of gels throughout storage period and the antistaling effect of SE was increased with increasing concentration. Oligosaccharide(0.1%) inhibited the retrogradation, but oligosaccharide(0.1% or 0.5%) retarded the retrogradation at early stage of storage, and stimulated the retrogradation after 3 days. Alum of 0.1% level retarded the retrogradation, but 0.3% level activated the retrogradation after 24 hours and 0.5% level did after 12 hours. The effect of additives on the retrogradation of rice starch gels showed the different tendencies at the level of additives. On 0.1% level, the effect of those was similar but on 0.5%, the degree of retardation increased in order of oligosaccharide, SE1170, alum, no addition for up to 2 days of storage and SE1170, no addition, oligosaccharide, alum for 3 days of storage.

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Microstructural Changes of Starch Aqueous Solutions during Gelatinization and Retrogradation Studied through X-ray Scattering (X-선 산란을 이용한 전분의 호화와 노화 과정중의 미세구조 변화)

  • Kang, Min Kwan;Jeon, Hye-Jin;Song, Hyun Hoon
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2014
  • Microstructural changes of potato and corn starch aqueous solutions associated with their gelatinization and retrogradation processes were examined through the use of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It was found that the structural changes during these two processes were dominantly affected by the amount of phospholipids and phosphates contained in the starch. The phosphates contained in the amylopectin of the starch granule allow easy penetration of water into the structure, thus causing easy swelling or high solubility. This simultaneously allows greater freedom of chains, thus causing the recrystallization of the chains during the retrogradation process. On the other hand, in corn starch, which contains a lower amount of phosphates and a complex structure formed between phospholipid and amylose, the chain movements are much reduced, resulting in a higher gelatinization temperature and a reduction of recrystallization during retrogradation and a broad distribution of crystal size. In both starches, a micro-phase separated inhomogeneous structure was suggested in the amorphous state above the gelatinization temperature, which appears to be associated with the presence of highly branched amylopectin units.

Retrogradation of Dilute Starch Dispersion (희석 전분 현탁액의 노화)

  • Kim, Nam-Soo;Nam, Young-Jung;Shin, Dong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 1988
  • Retrogradation characteristics of 1% dilute rice starch dispersion were analyzed. The retrogradation was increased with prolonged storage, however, the trend in increase was more conspicuous during the initial phase of retrogradation period. The Avrami exponent, rate constant, and time constant of 1% dilute Chuchong starch dispersion were 0.96, 0.21 $days^{-1}$, and 4.77 days, respectively As the Avrami exponent approaches unity (n=1), it is confirmed that the dilute rice starch dispersion retrogrades following the formation of a rod-like growth of crystals from instantaneous nuclei. When the retrogradation process of dilute rice starch dispersion was traced, the three-dimensional structure of crystals which had different contour from native stach was formed.

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Quality Characteristics of Heunmi (Brown Waxy Rice)-Ssuck (Mugwort)-Injeolmi (현미쑥인절미의 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Kun-Jong;Choi, Bong-Soon
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.316-325
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    • 2015
  • The characteristics of Heunmi (brown waxy rice)-ssuck (mugwort)-injeolmi containing different contents of mugwort over a storage period of 2 days were studied. The pH level ranged from 6.4 to 6.5, whereas moisture rate ranged from 34.4 to 51.4% with different amounts of mugwort. Heunmi-ssuck-injeolmi with different amounts of mugwort showed significantly different characteristics in the texture analysis. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness all decreased, whereas adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness increased with greater amount of mugwort added. Colorimeter analysis showed that L-, a- and b-values of Heunmi-ssuck-injeolmi were inversely proportional to the amount of mugwort. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confirmed that the stoma size of Heunmi-ssuck-injeolmi was directly proportional to the amount of mugwort, whereas the largest stable stoma size was observed with 30% mugwort. In the control group, retrogradation was preceded by expelling water, known as syneresis, whereas Heunmi-ssuck-injeolmi showed less retrogradation with a higher moisture rate. It is expected that mugwort containing cellulose discourages the retrogradation process. In conclusion, 30% mugwort showed the least retrogradation and was the most preferred in terms of taste with stable stoma over the storage period at $25^{\circ}C$. Therefore, it is appropriate for the manufacture and commercialization of Heunmi-ssuck-injeolmi.

Studies on Storage Stability of Soybean Cake by Pakaging Method (포장방법에 의한 콩떡의 저장 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • 정혜숙;김경자
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.190-195
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    • 2001
  • The objective of this study consists in finding the ways to make soybean cake (which is made of soaked soybean flour containing protein and lipid) a scientific and practical food even more easily. This study took a measurement of the change of pH, organic acid, microorganism, retrogradation and so soon. observing soybean cake prepared with soybean flour containing 6% of soybean oil at room temperature(19$^{\circ}C$) in two types of packaging, that is to say, $CO_2$ modified packing(CMP) and liner low density poly ethylene(LLDPE) packaging. As storing time went by, packed soybean cake didn't appeared in 12 days, either. Using modified atmosphere packaging soybean cake showed higer pH as well as less organic acid than unpacked. In addition, mould method makes water - activity lower, and it Puts a curb on the development of aerobic perishable microorganism and the retrogradation of rice cake. Unpacked soybean cake showed higher values than CMP Soybean Cake with enthalpy of retrogradation and the longer storing period the greater retrogradation process. Thus, storing or circulation period can be increased effectively without chemical or physical treatment.

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