• Title/Summary/Keyword: retrogradation

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Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Preservation of Pumpkin Rice Cake (호박 설기떡의 저장성에 미치는 변형기체포장의 영향)

  • Moon, Ki-Bok;Kim, Hwan-Ki;An, Duck-Soon;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.908-913
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    • 2010
  • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was evaluated for the storage of pumpkin rice cake as a means of preserving quality and extending shelf-life. Retail-sized amounts of rice cake were packaged in trays under different modified atmosphere conditions (air, vacuum, 60% $CO_2$/40% $N_2$ and 100% $CO_2$) using gas-barrier plastic film; control was in air-permeable stretch wrap. The packages were stored at $20^{\circ}C$ with periodical measurement of package atmosphere and cake quality attributes. The modified atmosphere packages of 60% $CO_2$/40% $N_2$ and 100% $CO_2$ inhibited the growth of molds/yeasts completely and significantly retarded the growth of aerobic bacteria. All the packages except that of 100% $CO_2$ showed the reduction of internal $O_2$ concentration and increase of the $CO_2$ with storage time due to the microbial activity. There has been slight decrease of $CO_2$ concentration for 60% $CO_2$/40% $N_2$ and 100% $CO_2$ packages just after start of the storage possibly due to dissolution of headspace $CO_2$ into the cake. Any MAP conditions did not affect the retrogradation of the rice cake. Surface color of the cake within affordable microbial quality limit was not affected significantly by packaging conditions.

Impact of Xanthan-locust Bean Gum Mixtures on Pasting/Paste Characteristics and Freeze-thaw Stabilities of Waxy Rice Starch (찹쌀 전분의 페이스팅/페이스트 특성 및 냉해동 안정성에 대한 잔탄검-로커스트콩검 혼합물의 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.593-600
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    • 2014
  • Normal rice starch (NRS) possesses high gelling and retrogradation tendencies, with poor freeze-thaw stability. This study investigated the effects of partial replacement of waxy rice starch (WRS) with gums on the pasting and viscoelastic properties as well as the freeze-thaw stability of the WRS paste. Xanthan gum (XAT), locust bean gum (LBG), and their mixtures were individually mixed with WRS at a ratio of 1:19 (w/w). WRS-gum mixtures were pasted using a rapid visco-analyzer at 5% total solid content, and analyzed with respect to the pasting and viscoelastic characteristics, and freeze-thaw stability. Pasting properties of WRS were retarded in pasting temperature and enhanced in pasting viscosity (although peak viscosity was varied) by partial replacement with gum and gum mixtures. Storage moduli of WRS-XAT:LBG pastes became similar to those of NRS paste with increasing angular frequency from 1 to 10 rad/s. Finally, WRS-XAT and WRS-XAT:LBG possessed more enhanced freeze-thaw stability than NRS.

Quality Characteristics of Cookies with Resistant Starches (저항전분을 첨가하여 제조한 쿠키의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Suk;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.5 s.95
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    • pp.659-665
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    • 2006
  • The effects of resistant starches on the quality characteristics of cookies were investigated by the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties of RS-added flours and cookies. Retrograded RS3 by autoclaving-cooling cycle and cross-linked RS4 after annealing treatment were used. The protein content of RS-added flour decreased, but the ash content of RS4-added flour increased slightly with increasing RS content. The RS levels of wheat flour, RS3- and RS4-added flours were 7.0%, 9.6-13.4% and 11.5-17.9%, respectively. The swelling powers of RS-added flours at 80$^{\circ}C$ decreased, but the solubility of RS3-added flour increased by 2-3 fold compared to that of control flour. Initial pasting temperature increased, but peak, holding, and final viscosities decreased with increasing RS content. The retrogradation degree of RS-added flours was lowered, because of the decreased consistency and breakdown viscosity. The yellowness of RS3-added flour increased with increasing RS3 content which induced browning reaction during baking. On the sensory test, RS-added cookies were significantly different in shape, color and overall quality (p<0.05), and their texture also affected. Overall quality was higher in peanut cookies than in AACC standard cookies and RS addition (up to 30%, w/w), regardless of the RS type, improved the cookie quality.

Characteristics of Rice Flours Prepared by Moisture-Heat Treatment (수분-열처리에 의해 제조한 멥쌀가루의 특성)

  • Lee Mi-Kyung;Shin Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.2 s.92
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    • pp.147-157
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    • 2006
  • To improve the properties of non-waxy rice flours for baking, soaked-wet milled rice flour (SWRF) was adjusted moisture content (MC) to 30 and 50 % and heated at 50 and $70^{\circ}C$ in a shaking water bath for 6 and 18 hrs, respectively. Moisture-heat treated rice flours were investigated with regard to particle size distribution, and morphological, physicochemical and pasting properties for comparing dry and wet milled flours. The particle size of rice flour treated with 30% MC was distributed between $4-20{\mu}m\;and\;100-200{\mu}m$, like SWRF. The particles above $200{\mu}m$ in the flour were produced at higher heating temperature. By SEM, starch granules were found in the rice flours treated with 30% MC, who whereas aggregated starch granules were shown in the flours treated with 50% MC. Moisture-heat treatment using higher MC and heating temperature decreased the lightness and increased the yellowness of non-waxy rice flours. Water binding capacity of 30% moisture treated rice flour was similar to that of SWRF. In the same moisture treated rice flour, swelling power was higher, but solubility was lower at $50^{\circ}C$ than at $70^{\circ}C$. The initial pasting temperature by RVA increased after moisture-heat treatment. The peak viscosity of moisture-heat treated rice flour was higher for 30% moisture than that of the others. The rice flour treated with 30% MC and heated at $50^{\circ}C$ showed low setback and increased stability for retrogradation.

The Properties of Rice Flours Prepared by Dry- and Wet-Milling of Soaked Glutinous and Normal Grains (수침과 건조조건을 달리하여 만든 찹쌀가루와 멥쌀가루의 특성)

  • Kim, Wan-Soo;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.908-918
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    • 2007
  • To prepare ready-to-use rice flour as de novo material for processed rice foods, glutinous(W) and normal rice grains (N) were soaked for 1, 8, and 12 hours prior to processing. One half (DG) was air-dried and milled, and the other (WG) was milled and air-dried. General, morphological and pasting properties of the flours (NDG, NWG, WDG, WWG) were compared to those of a control (raw milled rice without soaking). The general compositions of the rice flours varied with soaking. Crude ash was considerably decreased at the beginning of soaking (1 hour). With the soaking, the rice flour, having polygonal shaped particles and a layered surface, acquired particles with smooth edges, which were then uniformly distributed. Additionally, the WG flour was lighter and had a lower ${\Delta}E$ value than the DG flour, due to a higher L and less +b as a result of soaking. Compared to the control, the WBC of the normal rice flour was decreased significantly with soaking, and the WG flour had significantly lower WBCs than the DG flour. Stirring number (SN), an indicator of ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity, was highly and significantly correlated with WBC (r=-0.85, p=0.0001) in the normal rice flour. At $80^{\circ}C$, the SP and solubility of all the soaked rice flours were much higher than those of the control. Positive (r=+0.85, p=0.0001) and negative (r=-0.61, p=0.02) correlations between the SP and solubility of the normal and glutinous rice flours were found, respectively. Using RVA, the pasting temperature of NDG was lower than that of NWG (p<0.0001). The peak viscosities of all the soaked flours were significantly decreased with soaking (p<0.0l), with the highest viscosity in the normal rice flour soaked for 8 hrs. Total setback, indicative of retrogradation, was lower in NDG than in NWG, with the lowest setback at 8 hrs of' soaking. Based on these finding, the NDG flour with 8 hrs of soaking was less damaged, and had a lower total setback and lower pasting temperature, which would make it an appropriate rice flour for commercial mass production.

Baking Qualities of Bread Dough Substituted with High Amount of ${\beta}-Glucan$ from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197Bp (Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP로부터 생산된 ${\beta}-glucan$ 고함유 식빵 반죽의 특성)

  • Kang, Eun-Young;Yang, Yun-Hyoung;Oh, Sang-Hee;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Kim, Hye-Yooung;Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Cho, Han-Young;Kim, Mee-Ree
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.348-354
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    • 2006
  • Baking quality of dough made of flour substituted with insoluble ${\beta}-glucan$ (10, 20, and 30%), functional food material produced from Agrobacterium spp. R259 KCTC 10197BP, was evaluated. Optimum time to reach 1st stage of dough fermentation decreased with increasing ${\beta}-glucan$ content, whereas mixing time increased. Addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ did not affect pH of dough. Hunter color L, a, and b values of dough added with up to 20% ${\beta}-glucan$ were not significantly different from those of control. Rheology properties such as cohesiveness and springiness of ${\beta}-glucan$ added dough increased, while hardness and gumminess decreased. Amylogram showed addition of ${\beta}-glucan$ to flour lowered setback and consistency, which are suggested to delay retrogradation.

Quality Characteristics of Bread added with Aronia Powder (Aronia melanocarpa) (아로니아 분말을 첨가한 식빵의 품질특성)

  • Yoon, Hyang-Sik;Kim, Ji Won;Kim, Sang Hee;Kim, Yee Gi;Eom, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.273-280
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics of bread added with Aronia powder. Breads were prepared with different amounts of Aronia powder (in ratios of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10% of total flour). As the Aronia powder content increased, the pH level decreased while total acidity increased. For color, bread added with 10% Aronia powder showed low lightness and yellowness but high redness. As the Aronia powder content increased, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content, and baking loss also significantly increased. For the preservation period, breads added with Aronia showed mold growth within 4 days, whereas the control showed growth within 2 days. Bread added with 10% Aronia showed strong retrogradation. In the sensory evaluation, appearance, color, and overall acceptance of bread added with 3% Aronia showed remarkably higher values than both the control and others samples.

Shelf Life Extension of Steamed Bread by the Addition of Fermented Pine Needle Extract Syrup as an Ingredient (솔잎 발효액의 첨가에 의한 찐빵의 저장성 향상)

  • Choi, Dong-Man;Chung, Sun-Kyung;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.616-621
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    • 2007
  • In order to improve the storage stability of steamed bread, fermented pine needle extract syrup potentially with several functional properties was added in manufacturing the products at levels of 8.3, 11 and 18% based on Brix degree of the dough. The manufactured bread was stored at ambient conditions and measured for quality attributes. Dough added with the fermented pine needle extract syrup maintained its pH and water activity at levels of $5.45{\sim}5.90\;and\;0.94{\sim}0.96$, which are normally suitable for yeast fermentation and for appropriate dough hardness. Addition of the extract syrup increased the bread volume by more than 20%. The bread with higher content of the pine needle extract syrup showed slower increase of bread hardness during storage, suggesting retardation of bread retrogradation. The addition of the pine needle extract syrup in bread dough also inhibited growth of the aerobic bacteria and molds on the bread surface (by $0.8{\sim}24$ in log (CFU/g) at 4 day storage). Use of higher than 11% concentration presented initially a strong fine needle flavor to the bread, which disappeared soon after 2 days. Generally addition of the pine needle extract syrup did not give negative effects on the bread quality including sensory quality. Therefore, the addition of the needle extract syrup could contribute to improving the storage stability and extending the shelf life of the bread.

Physico-chemical Properties of Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) Root Starch - II. Physical Properties- (고사리(Pteridium aquilinum) 뿌리 전분의 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구 -제2보 : 전분의 물리적 특성-)

  • Jo, Jae-Sun;Kim, Sung-Kon;Lee, Ke-Ho;Kwon, Tai-Wan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 1981
  • The gelatinization phenomena of bracken root starch were examined by means of the loss of birefringence, degree of digestibility by amylase and X-ray diffraction. These results indicated that gelatinization temperature of the starch was $55{\sim}60^{\circ}$ and over 95% of starch were gelatinized at the temperature between 60 and $70^{\circ}C$. The swelling power of the bracken root starch was much less steeper than that of potato or tapioca starch. Amylograph data on the various starch concentrations showed the pasting temperature of $62{\sim}68^{\circ}$, peak height of $80{\sim}840$ Brabender unit (BU) and peak after cooling to $50^{\circ}C$ of $110{\sim}555\;BU.$. According to the information obtained from amylograph data, the bracken root starch showed low set back. The rate of retrogradation of the starch as tested by Texturometer was slower and faster than that of potato and tapioca starches, respectively.

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Product Characteristics as Factors of Process Parameters in Starch Phosphates Preparation by Twin-screw Extruder (이축압출성형기로 인산전분 제조시 Process Parameters에 따른 제품의 특성)

  • Kim, Chong-Tai;Kim, Dong-Chul;Kim, Chul-Jin;Kim, Hae-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 1991
  • Starch phosphates were prepared from the corn starch mixed with 2% sodium tripolyphosphate by twin-screw extruder with a feed rate of 20 kg/hr and an extrusion temperature of $130^{\circ}C$, and the effects of extrusion variables on the physicochemical properties (target parameters) of starch phosphates were investigated. Interrelations of system parameters (specific mechanical energy and extrudate moisture) and rheological properities of starch was analyzed by using the response surface analysis. Degree of substitution (DS) was increased with increasing the feed moisture, and showed the maximum value at the screw of near 250 rpm, Degree of gelatinization was proportionally increased with increasing the screw speed and decreasing the feed moisture. Apparent viscosity of the paste was increased with increasing the feed moisture, but it was not significantly affected by the screw speed. It was found by scanning electron microscopy that the starch microgranules were much more degradaded, and as consequent result, the intrinsic viscosity was decreased, whereas, water solubility index was increased. The rate of retrogradation of the gels was retarded with increasing DS and decreasing viscosity.

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