• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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Study on Analysis of Transfer Torque and Improvement of Transfer Torque in Non-Contact Permanent Magnet Gear (비접촉 영구자석 기어의 전달토크 분석 및 전달토크 향상에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Gyu-Sang;Kim, Chan-Ho;Kim, Yong-Jae
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2015
  • The non-contact permanent magnet gear has advantages of high efficiency and improved reliability. It has other advantages of no mechanical friction loss, very little noise and vibration, and no need for lubricant. With these advantages, the non-contact permanent magnet gear that solves the physical contact problem of the mechanical gear has drawn attention. Due to this unique non-contact characteristic, the non-contact permanent magnet gear which is capable of non-contact torque transmission has replaced mechanical gear. The mechanical gears which is in many fields of the modern industry, is used mostly for power transmitting mechanical devices. However, it also has the problem of a low torque density, which requires improvement. In this paper, a novel pole piece shape is proposed in order to improve the problem of low torque density of the non-contact permanent magnet gear. The experiment data required for predicting the relationships among them are obtained using finiteelement Operating method based on two-dimensional (2-D) numerical analysis. Therefore, this paper derived an optimal model for thenon-contact permanent magnet gear with the novel pole piece using the Box-Behnken design, and the validity of the optimal design of the proposed pole piece shape through variance analysis and regression analysis demonstrated. In this paper, we performed the thransfer torque analysis in order to improve the torque density and power density, we have performed on optimal design of proposed pole piece shape using box-behnken.

Optimal Condition of TOC Removal Parameter for Sewage Effluent using Electrolysis Process (하수방류수 내 TOC 제거를 위한 전기분해공정의 최적 조건)

  • An, Sang-Woo;Jung, Hyuk-Sang;Lee, Hui-Kyung;Ko, Jun-Geol;Myoung, Dae-Won
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2017
  • As the Enforcement Ordinance of Environmental Policy Act was revised in 2013, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was added as an indicative parameter for organic matter in Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Environmental Criteria. Under these imminent circumstances, a regulatory standard is needed to achieve the proposed TOC limitation control water quality from the STP (Sewage Treatment Plant). In this study, a electrolysis utilizing the electrochemical reaction was investigated in lab-scale experiments for the treatment of TOC in sewage effluent. TOC reduction by a electrolysis was investigated response surface methodology using the Box-Begnken methods were applied to the experimental results. A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of the independent variables of electrode space ($x_1$), current density ($x_2$) and electrolyte concentration ($x_3$) on the dependent variables removal efficiency of TOC (y). The optimal conditions for electrolysis were determined: electrode space, current density and electrolyte concentration were 50 mm, $10.3mA/cm^2$ and 0.1M, respectively. Statistical results showed the order of significance of the independent variables to be electrode space > current density > electrolyte concentration.

Process Optimization of Peptides Production from Protein of Sea Cucumber and Its Antioxidant Capacity Analysis (해삼 단백질로부터 펩타이드 제조 최적공정 확립 및 항산화 특성)

  • Ha, Yoo Jin;Yoo, Sun Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.338-348
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    • 2017
  • Protein hydrolysates derived from plants and animals having antioxidant, suppression of hypertension, immunodulatory, alleviation of pain, and antimicrobial activity has been known as playing important role like hormone. This study was performed to optimize the hydrolysis of protein of sea of cucumber by a flavourzyme. The ranges of processes were the reaction temperature of 40 to $60^{\circ}C$, pH 6 to 8, and enzyme concentration 0.5 to 1.5%(w/v). As a result, the optimization of process was determined at temperature of $48-50^{\circ}C$, pH of 7.0-7.2, and enzyme concentration of 1.0-1.1%(w/v), and degree of hydrolysis was 43-45 at above conditions. The molecular weight of hydrolysate was distributed to 500-3,500 Da and showed typical peptides. Inhibition concentration ($IC_{50}$) of peptides of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, Hydroxy radical scavenging activity, $Fe^{2+}$ cheating activity was 1.25, 3.40, 10.3, and 22.11 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we expect that those products are useful as functional food ingredients.

Biological Degradation of Cypermethrin by Marine Bacteria, Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 (해양 세균 Cellulophaga lytica DAU203에 의한 사이퍼메트린의 생물학적 분해)

  • Lee, Je-Hoon;Lee, Yong-Suk;You, Ah-Young;Choi, Yong-Lark
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.483-487
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    • 2018
  • Cypermethrin, a commonly used domestic and agricultural pyrethroid pesticide, is widely considered detrimental to the environment and to many organisms because of its residual property and toxicity. Cellulophaga lytica DAU203, isolated from coastal sediment, was chosen because it degrade cypermethrin. Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 effectively degraded cypermethrin, as the utilized carbon source and substrate, in a mineral salt medium. Effective factors, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, initial pH, and temperature, for cypermethtin biological degradation by Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 were analyzed by one factor at a time method. Temperature ($22{\sim}42^{\circ}C$), initial pH (5~9), and yeast extract concentration (0.1~2.5%[w/v]) were selected as the three most important factors. There were optimized at $33.4^{\circ}C$, pH 7.7, and 2.4%(w/v) by response surface methodology, respectively. The Box- Behnken design consisting of 46 experimental runs with three replicates was used to optimize the independent variables which significantly influenced the cypermethrin biological degradation. This model for cypermethrin degradation by Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 is highly significant (p<0.05). Under the optimized condition, Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 degraded approximately 83.7 % of the cypermethrin within 5 days. These results suggest that Cellulophaga lytica DAU203 may be useful for the biological degradation of cypermethrin in cypermethrin-contaminated environments.

Optimization of Culture Condition for the Hydrocinnamic Acid Production from Bacillus subtilis IJ-31 (Bacillus subtilis IJ-31에서 Hydrocinnamic Acid 생산을 위한 최적배양조건)

  • Joo, Gil-Jae;Kim, Young-Mog;Lee, Oh-Seuk;Kim, Joung-Woong;Kim, Won-Chan;Song, Kyung-Sik;Yoon, Sung-Joon;Kim, Jin-Ho;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2005
  • The metabolites released from cultures of rhizosphere bacteria can inhibit plant growth. Bacillus subtilis IJ-31 inhibited plant growth by the production of hydrocinnamic acid (HCA). The production of HCA by plant-growth inhibiting rhizobacterium B. subtilis IJ-31 was optimized. $90.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ of HCA was obtained under the condition of 1% rice bran as carbon source, 0.5% tryptone as nitrogen source, 0.1% $ZnCl_2$ as metal source at $37^{\circ}C$ for 60 h (pH 7.0). The optimal condition for the HCA production by B. subtilis IJ-31 in the jar fermenter was established using response surface methodology (RSM) of statistical analysis system(SAS) program. The production of HCA by B. subtilis IJ-31 in the jar fermenter culture reached $102.99\;{\mu}g/ml$ when 2.24% soil extracts was added and agitation speed was 290 rpm under the same condition. And the experimental value of HCA production is $102.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ in the same culture condition. The production of HCA by B. subtilis IJ-31 is higher as 12% than that from the flask culture.

Monitoring of Color Changes and Organoleptics Properties of Chungkookjang Products during Storage for Shelf-life Establishment (청국장 제품의 유통기한 설정을 위한 저장중의 색도변화 및 관능적 특성 monitoring)

  • Kim, Dong-Myung;Kim, Seong-Ho;Lee, Jin-Man;Dung, Nguyen-Thi;Kang, Sun-Chul
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.140-149
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    • 2005
  • In order to examine the changes of commercial value during storage conditions and shelf-life of Chungkookjang, response surface methodology of SAS program was applied to monitor orgenoleptic properties and color changes to determine optimum storage conditions. Lightness (L) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang showed under the 1% significance probability with high influence in all conditions such as sterilized temperature, storage time and storage temperature. Redness (a) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang was increased during highly sterilized and storage temperatures, and was individually influenced. One of the generally packed sample also showed that significance value was influenced under 10%, during high storage temperature. Yellowness (b) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang showed the significance probability under 1% during storage time and temperature, and under 5% during sterilized temperature. Also, stational point showed saddle type in both packaging samples. In case of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang, compatibility of odor was influenced by sterilized temperature under 10% significance probability. But generally packed samples have an effect on storage time under 1% significance probability effect on storage time, and sterilized temperature under 5%. In case of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang, compatibility of taste was highly concerned with storage time under 1% significance probability, whereas generally packed samples were concerned with storage temperature under 5% significance probability. Overall palatability of vacuum-packed samples showed maximum value of 5.15 on sterilized temperature ($61.92^{\circ}C$), storage temperature ($6.79^{\circ}C$) and storage time (56.48 days) during storage.

Monitoring of antioxidant activities with dried Gugija (Lycium chinensis Mill) extraction (건조 구기자의 추출에 따른 항산화 효능 모니터링)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.859-865
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    • 2016
  • Thise study aimed to determine the optimum antioxidant extraction conditions of dried Gugija (Lycium chinensis Mill). To determine the operational parameters, including ethanol concentration ($X_1$, 0~80%) and extraction time ($X_2$, 1~5 hr), a response surface methodology was applied to monitor brown color intensity, total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity. Coefficients of determinations ($R^2$) of the models were 0.8486~0.9214 (p<0.05~0.1) in dependent parameters. Brown color intensity of Gugija extracts reached a maximum of 0.75 (OD in 420 nm) under extraction conditions of 2.88 hr in 78.10% ethanol. Total phenolic compounds reached a maximum of $2,355{\mu}g$ under extraction conditions of 4.94 hr in 30.17% ethanol. ABTS radical scavenging activity was 13.83% at 4.61 hr and 16.21% ethanol. $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity showed a maximum of 58.54% under extraction conditions of 3.39 hr in 0.76% ethanol. Optimum extraction conditions (5 hr extraction in 15% ethanol) were obtained by superimposing the contour maps with regards to total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity of dried Gugija. Maximum values of total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity under optimum extraction condition were $2,397{\mu}g$, 15.62% and 54.78%, respectively.

Optimization of Peptides Production Derived from By-product Viscera of Yoensan Ogae Meat Process (연산 오계 부산물 내장육으로부터 펩타이드 생산 최적 공정 개발과 생산물의 특성 분석)

  • Ji, Joong Gu;Yoo, Sun Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.549-559
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    • 2016
  • Korean Black body fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus; Ogae) designated as a natural monument (registration number 265) has been known as a superb traditional Korean medicine. In this study, The production of peptide from the Viscera Waste of Yeonsan Ogae was optimized using commercial protease (bromelain) by response surface methodology under high pressure process. The range of processes was pressure (30 to 100 MPa), reaction time (1 to 5 h), and substrate concentration (10 to 30%, w/v). After reaction, the degree of hydrolysis, distribution of amino acids, and molecular weight of peptides were investigated. As a results, the optimization conditions were pressure 90 MPa, reaction time 3 to 4 h, and the amount of viscera meat 20% (w/v), respectively. The molecular weight of protein hydrolysates was distributed 400 to 1,000 Da. Accordingly we presumed that most products were peptides. Of those peptides, nonpolar or hydrophobic, polar but uncharged, positively charged, and negatively charged amino acids were 42.03, 26.0, 13.3, and 18.6%, respectively. Because higher amount of hydrophobic amino acids, we expected that those products would be able to utilize as the functional food ingredients.

Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction Conditions for Production of Bioactive Material from Corn Stover (옥수수 대로부터 생리활성물질 생산 증대를 위한 마이크로파 추출 공정 최적화)

  • Min, Bora;Han, Yeojung;Lee, Dokyeoung;Jo, Jaemin;Jung, Hyunjin;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.66-72
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    • 2018
  • Corn stover is known as a good candidate for a functional food ingredient when the main lignocellulosic material, lignin, is used as bioactive materials as form of polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the microwave extraction conditions under which total phenolic compounds (TPC) and flavonoid contents of corn stover were maximized. Microwave-assisted extracts using sulfuric acid ranging from 0 to 1.0 mol with extraction time between 40 and 240 sec were conducted by using response surface methodology (RSM). Microwave power showed significant effects (p<0.05) and the concentrations of TPC and flavonoids increased with increased level of microwave power and extraction time. The optimum conditions for corn stover extraction were determined as 698.6 W, 240 sec, and 0 mol sulfuric acid, and the predicted value of TPC and flavonoid is 82.4 mg GAE/g DM and 18.1 mg/g DM, respectively. Microwave extraction was evaluated as an economic process with low energy consumption, short extraction and high extraction yield of bioactive including TPC and flavonoids compared to conventional extractions.

Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment Conditions for Enzyme-free Hydrolysis of Lipid Extracted Microalgae (탈지미세조류의 무효소 당화를 위한 마이크로파 전처리 조건 최적화)

  • Jung, Hyun jin;Min, Bora;Kim, Seung Ki;Jo, Jae min;Kim, Jin Woo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.229-239
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to effectively produce the biosugar from cell wall of lipid extracted microalgae (LEA) by using microwave-assisted pretreatment without enzymatic hydrolysis process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimization of microwave-assisted pretreatment conditions for the production of biosugar based on enzyme-free process from LEA. Microwave power (198~702 W), extraction time (39~241 sec), and sulfuric acid (0~1.0 mol) were used as independent variables for central composite design (CCD) in order to predict optimum pretreatment conditions. It was noted that the pretreatment variables that affect the production of glucose (C6) and xylose (C5) significantly have been identified as the microwave power and extraction time. Additionally, the increase in microwave power and time had led to an increase in biosugar production. The superimposed contour plot for maximizing dependent variables showed the maximum C6 (hexose) and C5 (pentose) yields of 92.7 and 74.5% were estimated by the predicted model under pretreatment condition of 700 w, 185.7 sec, and 0.48 mol, and the yields of C6 and C5 were confirmed as 94.2 and 71.8% by experimental validation, respectively. This study showed that microwave-assisted pretreatment under low temperature below $100^{\circ}C$ with short pretreatment time was verified to be an effective enzyme free pretreatment process for the production of biosugar from LEA compared to conventional pretreatment methods.