• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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The multi-level understanding of Shamanistic myth Princess Bari as a narrative: focusing on levels of story, composition, and communication (무속신화 <바리공주> 서사의 다층적 이해 - 이야기·생성·소통의 세 층위를 대상으로)

  • Oh, Sejeong
    • 기호학연구
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    • no.54
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    • pp.119-145
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    • 2018
  • This paper attempts to divide the narrative into three levels and review the approach methodology to understand Princess Bari as a narrative. If the stratification of the narrative, the analysis of each levels, and the integrated approach to them are made, this can contribute to suggesting new directions and ways to understand and study Princess Bari. The story level of Princess Bari, the surface structure, is shaped by the space movement and the chronological sequential structure of the life task that started from the birth of the main character. This story shows how a woman who was denied her existence by her father as soon as she was born finds an ontological transformation and identities through a process. Especially, the journey of finding identity is mainly formed through the events that occur through the relationship with family members. This structure, which can be found in the narrative level, forms a deep structure with the oppositional paradigm of family members' conflict and reconciliation, life and death. The thought structure revealed in this story is the problem of life is the problem of family composition, and the problem of death is also the same. In response to how to look at the unified world of coexistence of life and death, this tradition group of myths makes a relationship with man and God. This story is mainly communicated in the Korean shamanistic ritual(Gut) that sent the dead to the afterlife. Although the shaman is the sender and the participants in the ritual are the receivers, the story is well known a message that does not have new information repeated in certain situations. In gut, the patrons and participants do not simply accept the narrative as a message, but accept themselves as codes for reconstructing their lives and behavior through autocommunication. By accepting the characters and events of as a homeomorphism relationship with their lives, people accept the everyday life as an integrated view of life and death, disjunction and communication, conflict and reconciliation, and the present viewpoint. It can not change the real world, but it changes the attitude of 'I' about life. And it is a change and transformation that can be achieved through personal communication like the transformation of Princess Bari into god in myth. Thus, Princess Bari shows that each meaning and function in the story level, composition level, and communication level is related to each other. In addition, the structure revealed by this narrative on three levels is also effective in revealing the collective consciousness and cultural system of the transmission group.

Fermentation Property of Chinese Cabbage Kimchi by Fermentation Temperature and Salt Concentration (발효온도 및 소금농도에 따른 배추김치의 발효 특성)

  • Chang, Moon-Jeong;Kim, Myung-Hwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2000
  • The effects of fermentation temperature$(0{\sim}l5^{\circ}C)$ and salt concentration$(1.5{\sim}4.0%)$ on the fermentation property of Chinese cabbage Kimchi were analyzed by response surface methodology. The pH decreased and acidity increased with increasing fermentation time. The reduction and increment velocities of pH and acidity were increased by increasing fermentation temperature and decreasing salt concentration. The optimum pH 4.2 was reached within $14{\sim}24$ days at $5{\sim}15^{\circ}C$, while pHs of 24 days at $0{\sim}5^{\circ}C$ were still lower value than 4.2. The effect of salt concentration more affected terminal fermentation period than initial fermentation period. The maximum edible acidity, 0.75%, was reached within 8 days at $15^{\circ}C$, while acidifies of 24 days at $0^{\circ}C$ were $0.35{\sim}0.43%$. The effects of salt concentration at $0^{\circ}C$ was higher than those at $15^{\circ}C$. The fermentation time, fermentation temperature and salt concentration were the first, second and third affecting factors on the pH and acidity of Kimchi. Based on the coefficients of determination, pH and acidity were highly fitted to the experimental data$(r^2>0.9276)$. For the suitable acidity range, $0.40{\sim}0.75%$, the edible period of Kimchi at $15^{\circ}C,\;10^{\circ}C\;and\;5^{\circ}C$ were 4 days, 10 days and 18 days at the 2.75% of salt concentration, respectively. The edible period increased from 14 days to 19 days with increased salt concentration from 1.50% to 4.00% at $5^{\circ}C$ of fermentation temperature.

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반응표면분석에 의한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성 변화

  • 이용욱;금준석;은종방
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.167.2-168
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    • 2003
  • 현대 사회는 서구적인 식생활의 변화로 인해 조리가 간편하고 조리 시간이 짧은 즉석식품과 영양 기호식품을 동시에 충족시켜주는 음식에 대한 소비가 늘고 있는 실정이다. 또한 최근 미곡의 공급량에 비해서 소비량이 해마다 감소하여 재고미의 증가를 볼 때, 쌀의 새로운 이용방법 모색이 절실히 요망된다. 따라서 쌀의 소비촉진과 현대사회의 소비형태를 접목시켜서 쇠고기와 야채를 이용한 즉석쌀죽을 개발하고자 하였다. 쇠고기, 야채 및 쌀가루를 이용한 soup mix의 최적 배합비를 설정하기 위하여 제조조건에 따라 다르게 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성에 미치는 변화를 조사하였다. 이때 야채의 배합비에 따른 이화학적 및 관능적 특성을 모니터링 하고자 반응표면분석법 (response surface methodology, RSM)을 이용하였다. 요인변수(Xn)를 쌀의 양에 대한 버섯의 비율 (X$_1$), 당근의 비율 (X$_2$), 대파의 비율 (X$_3$)로 하여 중심합성계획에 따라 17실험구로 구분하여 조리실험을 실시하였고, 반응변수(Yn)는 soup mix를 이용하여 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 이화학적 특성인 색도의 L*값 (Y$_1$), a*값 (Y$_2$), b*값 (Y$_3$), 점도(Y$_4$), 퍼짐성 (Y$_{5}$), 고형분 함량(Y$_{6}$), PH (Y$_{7}$)으로 하였으며 관능적 특성인 색 (Y$_{8}$), 향 (Y$_{9}$), 점성 (Y$_{10}$), 맛 (Y$_{11}$), 전체적인 기호도 (Y$_{12}$)를 종속변수로 하여 회귀분석에 이용하였다. 회귀분석에 의한 모델식의 예측에는 SAS (statistical analysis system)program을 사용하였으며, 3차원 반응표면 분석법으로 해석하였다. 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 물리적 특성인 색도의 L*, a*, b* 값에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각 0.6098(p> 0.05), 0.8803 (p <0.05), 0.6781(p> 0.05)로서 b값에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 인정되어 b값에 미치는 영향이 크다는 것을 알 수 있었다. L*값은 63-68사이로, a*값은 0.13에서 -0.89사이를 b*값은 2-5값 사이에서 변화하여 제조한 죽의 색이 옅은 황색임을 알 수 있었다. 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH에 대한 $R^2$은 각각 0.4280, 0.5433과 0.2406임을 볼 때 버섯, 당근, 대파의 비율에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 고형분 함량, 퍼짐성과 pH는 설정된 범위내에서 그 유의성이 인정되지 않아 큰 영향을 미치지 않음을 알 수 있었다. 관능검사 결과, 색과 향에 대한 반응표면 회귀식의 $R^2$은 각각0.6000과 0.7825이고 P-value는 각각 0.4290과 0.0942로서 5% 수준에서 유의한 상관성이 없음을 확인할 수 있었다. 맛과 점성에 대한 $R^2$은 0.8717과 0.8068이고 P-value는 각각 0.0195 (p <0.05)와 0.0612로서 야채의 배합비에 따라 맛에 있어서 유의확률 5%수준에서 그 유의성이 인정되었으며, 전체적인 기호도에 대한 유의성은 $R^2$이 0.8463이고 P-value는 0.0344 (p <0.05)임을 볼 때, 설정된 범위내에서 야채의 배합비에 따라 제조한 쇠고기 야채 쌀죽의 맛과 기호도에 큰 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 최대 임계점이 버섯의 첨가량은 0.99%, 당근의 첨가량은 0.97%, 대파의 첨가량은 0.59%에서 최적 반응표면을 나타내었다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때, 야채의 배합비에 따른 맛과 전체적인 기호도에 있어서 그 유의성이 5%수준에서 모두 유의한 상관관계를 보였으며, soup mix 제조시 쌀가루 양에 대한 야채의 최적 배합비는 버섯, 당근, 대파에 있어서 각각 0.99, 0.97과 0.59%임을 알 수 있었다.

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Food Quality of Muffin with Germinated Brown Rice Soaked in Mycelial Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus (상황버섯균사체 배양액 침지 발아현미를 첨가한 머핀의 식품학적 특성)

  • Jung, Kyong-Im;Cho, Eun-Kyung;Choi, Young-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.875-884
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of optimized muffins with germinated brown rice soaked in mycelial culture broth of Phellinuslinteus (GBRP) using response surface methodology. Firstly, general compositions of optimized muffins with GBRP were higher than that of control and total sugar contents were similar. However, the total free amino acid and constitutional amino acid contents except for GABA were lower than those of control. Starch hydrolysis in control was higher than in optimized muffins with GBRP, whereas protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio were not. The weights of optimized muffins with GBRP were higher than that of control (p<0.01), whereas height (p<0.01) and pH (p<0.001) were similar. The hardness (p<0.05) and chewiness (p<0.05) of optimized muffins with GBRP were higher compared to control; adhesiveness, springiness, and gumminess were similar, but cohesiveness (p<0.01) was not. The flavor (p<0.05) and taste (p<0.01) of optimized muffins with GBRP were higher than those of control; appearance, texture and overall acceptability were similar, but color (p<0.05) was not. The total polyphenol contents (p<0.01), DPPH radical scavenging activity (p<0.01), and superoxide dismutase-like activity (p<0.05) of optimized muffins with GBRP were higher than those of control, but nitrite scavenging activity was similar.

Optimization of Solvent Extraction Process on the Active Functional Components from Chinese Quince (모과내 기능성 유용성분 용매추출공정의 최적화)

  • Jeon, Ju-Yeong;Jo, In-Hee;Kyung, Hyun-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-A;Lee, Chang-Min;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 2010
  • In this study, various active functional components in Chinese Quince were extracted by solvent extraction method. A central composit design for optimization was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables such as solvent to sample ratio ($X_{1}$), extraction temperature ($X_{2}$), and extraction time ($X_{3}$) on the soluble solid contents ($Y_{1}$), total phenols ($Y_{2}$), electron donating ability ($Y_{3}$), browning color ($Y_{4}$) and reducing sugar contents ($Y_{5}$). It was found that extraction temperature and extraction time were the main effective factors in this extraction process. The maximum soluble solid contents of 35.77% was obtained at 26.38 mL/g ($X_{1}$), 72.82$^{\circ}C$ ($X_{2}$) and 74.86 min ($X_{3}$) in saddle point. Total phenols were rarely affected by solvent ratio and extraction time, but it was affected by extraction temperature. The maximum total phenols of 20.70% was obtained at 22.61 mL/g ($X_{1}$), 84.49$^{\circ}C$ ($X_{2}$), 77.25 min ($X_{3}$) in saddle point. The electron donating ability was affected by extraction time. The maximum electron donating ability of 94.12% was obtained at 10.65 mL/g ($X_{1}$), 67.78$^{\circ}C$ ($X_{2}$), 96.75 min ($X_{3}$) in saddle point. The maximum browning color of 0.32% was obtained at 23.77 mL/g ($X_{1}$), 87.27$^{\circ}C$ ($X_{2}$), 96.68 min ($X_{3}$) in saddle point. The maximum value of reducing sugar content of 10.55% was obtained at 26.83 mL/g ($X_{1}$), 82.167$^{\circ}C$ ($X_{2}$), 81.94 min ($X_{3}$). Reducing sugar content was affected by extraction time.

Sensory Characteristics of Doenjang with Added Licorice Powder as Assessed by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석법을 이용한 감초분말 첨가 된장의 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Mi-Lim;Park, Eun-Jung;Jeong, Ji-Suk
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.62-71
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    • 2010
  • The followings describes the result of making doenjang with added licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) powder. and investigating its sensory characteristics and physicochemical quality. General preference was high at 20% salinity and 2% licorice (LD204), and 16% salinity and 2% licorice (LD162). The moisture content was unchanged in the control group, while it was reduced in LD204 and LD162 in the first week of fermentation, but showed little change after then. pHs were all in the range 5.90~5.97 on day 0, but decreased from 5.90 to 5.72 in the control group in the fifth week. LD204 changed from 5.95 on day 0to 5.42 in the first week, and then it gradually increased again and became 5.93 in the fifth week, which was similar to that of day 0. LD162 was 5.97 on day 0 and showed cyclic slight increases and decreases in the first week. It increased to 6.32 in the fifth week, which was higher than that of day 0 that is, its pH was higher than that of LD204. The acidity showed a difference right after it was made. In the control group, lactic acid content gradually increased from 0.16% on day 0 to the highest, 0.59%, in the fourth week. It slightly decreased in the fifth week. LD204 slowly increased from 0.25% on day 0 to a maximum, 0.50%, in the fourth week. It also slightly decreased in the fifth week, quite similarly to that of the control group. LD162, gradually increased from 0.22% on day 0 to the highest, 0.49, in the third week, and decreased after the fourth week. Salinity was 29.5%, 22.0%, and 18% in each of the control group, LD204, and LD162 on day 0 but increased to 34.0%, 29.0%, and 26.0% in the fifth week. Soluble solid was $32^{\circ}Brix$, $28^{\circ}Brix$, and $26^{\circ}Brix$ in each of the control group, LD204, and LD162 on day 0, but slightly increased to $40^{\circ}Brix$, $32^{\circ}Brix$, and $30^{\circ}Brix$ on the fifth day. It is thought that because of the sweetness of licorice, the higher-salinity doenjang earned a higher sensory test score than that of traditional doenjang. If its salinity is lowered a little, it could be used as a sauce, even possibly having medical effects as well.

Optimization of Ethanol Extraction of $\gamma$-oryzanol and Other Functional Components from Rice Bran (미강의 $\gamma$-oryzanol 및 생리활성물질의 에탄올 추출공정 최적화)

  • Jo, In-Hee;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.281-289
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    • 2010
  • We determined the optimum ethanolic conditions for extraction of $\gamma$-oryzanol and other functional components from rice bran, using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of the independent variables of solvent ratio ($X_1$), extraction temperature ($X_2$), and extraction time ($X_3$), on dependent variables including yield ($Y_1$), total phenolic content ($Y_2$), electron-donating activity ($Y_3$), ferulic acid level ($Y_4$), and $\gamma$-oryzanol concentration ($Y_5$). Solvent ratio and extraction temperature were the most important factors in extraction. The maximum yield was at 22.56 mL/g ($X_1$), 78.19C ($X_2$), and 522.15 min ($X_3$), at the saddle point. Total phenolic levels were little affected by solvent ratio or extraction temperature. The maximum concentration of extracted total phenolics was 90.78mg GAE/100 g at 21.26 mL/g, $94.65^{\circ}C$, and 567.97 min. A maximum electron-donating ability of 54.72% was obtained with the parameters 20.20 mL/g,$81.89^{\circ}C$, and 701.87 min, at the highest point. The maximum level of ferulic acid components was 210.47 mg/100g at 5.22 mL/g, $79.66^{\circ}C$, and 575.24 min. In addition, the maximum $\gamma$-oryzanol concentration was 660.39 mg/100g at 5.10 mL/g, $81.83^{\circ}C$, and 587.39 min. The optimum extraction conditions were a solvent ratio of 10.45 mL/g, $80^{\circ}C$ extraction temperature, and 535 min extraction time. Predicted extraction levels under optimized conditions were in line with experimental values.

Optimization of Extraction of Effective Components from Vitis coignetiae, the Crimson Glory Vine (산머루 유용성분 추출공정의 최적화)

  • Jo, In-Hee;Kim, Chang-Youn;Lee, Tae-Wook;Lee, Geun-Ho;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.659-666
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    • 2010
  • A central composite design was used to investigate the effects of the three independent variables of extraction temperature ($X_1$), ethanol concentration ($X_2$), and extraction time ($X_3$), on dependent variables including yield ($Y_1$), total phenol levels ($Y_2$), electron-donating ability ($Y_3$), brownness ($Y_4$), and reducing sugar content ($Y_5$) of Vitis Coignetiae. Yield was affected by extraction temperature and time. The maximum yield was obtained at $91.62^{\circ}C(X_1)$, and, 25.37% (w/v) ethanol ($X_2$), after 317.70 min of extraction ($X_3$), evident as a saddle when displayed graphically. Total phenol levels were essentially unaffected by extraction temperature or ethanol concentration, but were highly influenced by extraction time. The maximum total phenol levels was 4,763.46 GAE mg/100 g obtained at $88.20^{\circ}C(X_1)$, and 47.79% (w/v) ethanol ($X_2$), after 349.32 min ($X_3$) of extraction. Electron-donating ability (EDA) was affected by extraction temperature and time. Maximum EDA was 55.90% at $86.72^{\circ}C(X_1)$, 50.61% (w/v) ethanol ($X_2$), and 265.96 min ($X_3$) of extration time, again shown by a graphical saddle. Brownness was affected by extraction time. The maximum extent of brown coloration was obtained at $82.66^{\circ}C(X_1)$, 99.27% (w/v) ethanol ($X_2$), and 252.63 min of extraction time ($X_3$), once again shown by graphical saddle. The maximum reducing sugar content was obtained at $96.24^{\circ}C(X_1)$, 22.59% (w/v) ethanol ($X_2$), and 216.06 min extraction time($X_3$).

Optimization for the Process of Osmotic Dehydration for the Manufacturing of Dried Kiwifruit (건조키위 제조를 위한 삼투건조공정의 최적화)

  • Hong, Joo-Hun;Youn, Kwang-Seob;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.348-355
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    • 1998
  • The developments of various processed foods and the high quality dried fruits, in particular, are urgently needed for the enhancement of fruit consumption and their competitive values. Therefore, in this study, three variables by three level factorial design and response surface methodology were used to determine optimum conditions for osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit. The relationships of moisture losses, solid gains, weight reductions, sugar contents, titratable acidities and vitamin C contents depending on changes with temperature, sugar concentration and immersion time were investigated. The moisture loss, solid gain, weight reduction and reduction of moisture content after osmotic dehydration were increased as temperature, sugar concentration and immersion time increased. The effect of concentration was more significant than those of temperature and time on mass transfer. Sugar content was increased by increasing sugar concentration, temperature, immersion time during osmotic dehydration. Titratable acidity and vitamin C content were increased by decreasing temperature, immersion time and increasing concentration during osmotic dehydration. The regression models showed a significant lack of fit (P>0.05) and were highly significant with satisfying values of $R^2$. At the given conditions such as $66{\sim}69%$ moisture content, above $24^{\circ}Brix$ sugar content and more than 23 mg% vitamin C, the optimum condition for osmotic dehydration was $37^{\circ}C,\;55^{\circ}Brix$ and 1.5 hour.

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Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Process for Extraction of Effective Components from Mosla dinthera M. (마이크로파 추출공정에 의한 쥐깨풀 유용성분의 추출조건 최적화)

  • Lee Eun-Jin;Kwon Young-Ju;Noh Jung-Eun;Lee Jeong-Eun;Lee Sung-Ho;Kim Jae-Keun;Kim Kwang-Soo;Choi Yong-Hee;Kwon Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.617-623
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    • 2005
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to microwave-assisted process (MAP) extraction for effective components from Mosla dianthera M. Microwave power (2,450 MHz, 0-160 W) and extraction time (1-5 min) were used as independent variables ($X_i$) for central composite design to yield 10 different extraction conditions. Optimum conditions were predicted for dependent variables of $75\%$ ethanol extracts, such as total yield($Y_1$), total phenolics($Y_2$), total flavonoids($Y_3$), and electron donation ability($Y_4$, EDA). Determination coefficients ($R^2$) of regression equations for dependent variables ranged from 0.8397 to 0.9801, and microwave power was observed to be more influential than extraction time in MAP. The maximal values of each dependent variable predicted at different extraction conditions of microwave power (W) and extraction time (min) were as follows; $6.76\%$ of total yield at 142.00 W and 4.36 min, 78.68 mg/g of total phenolics at 136.78 W and 4.40 min, 6.75 mg/g of total flavonoids at 159,69 W and 3.17 min, and $49.81\%$ of EDA at 133.87 W and 4.47 min, respectively. The superimposed contour maps for maximizing dependent variables illustrated the MAP conditions of 79 to 113 W in power and of 2.73 to 3.84 min in extraction time.