• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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Elimination of Heavy Metals(Pb, Cd) by Steaming and Roasting Conditions of Polygonatum odoratum Roots (둥굴레 근경의 증자 및 볶음조건에 따른 중금속(Pb, Cd) 제거 특성)

  • Kim Kyung-Tae;Noh Jungeun;Lee Jungeun;Kim Jung-Ok;Lee Gee-Dong;Kwon Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2005
  • Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to monitor the elimination rate of heavy metals(Pb, Cd) and soluble solids depending on the steaming and roasting conditions of Polygonatum odoratum roots. Experiments of 16 different steaming and roasting conditions based on a central composite design for steaming time($60{\sim}180$ min), roasting temperature($110{\sim}150^{\circ}C$), and roasting time($10{\sim}50$ min) were conducted, thereby predicting the steaming and roasting conditions for the maximal responses; soluble solids($71.47\%$) at 65.24 min, $126.93^{\circ}C$ and 37.58 min; Pb removal rate($18.87\%$) at 71.23 min, $119.81^{\circ}C$ and 24.35 min; Cd removal rate($50,85\%$) at 160.89 min, $126.43^{\circ}C$ and 15.81 min, respectively. The optimum conditions estimated by RSM for the maximized values of soluble solids and heavy metal elimination rates were $165{\sim}180$ min of steaming time, $120{\sim}135^{\circ}C$ of roasting temperature, and $30{\sim}45$ min of roasting time, respectively. These estimated values were in agreement with those measured by real experiments.

Prediction of Optimal Extraction Conditions in Microwave-Assisted Process for Antioxidant-Related Components from Thymus quinquecostatus (Microwave-Assisted Process에 의한 섬백리향의 항산화 관련 성분의 최적 추출조건 예측)

  • Kwon Young-ju;Noh Jung-eun;Lee Jung-eun;Lee Sung-Ho;Choi Yong-Hee;Kwon Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.344-349
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    • 2005
  • Microwave-assisted process (MAP) was applied to extract antioxidant-related components from Thymus quinquecostatus var. japonica Hara. Microwave power(2,450 MHz, $0{\sim}160$ W) and extraction time($1{\sim}5\;min$) were used as independent variables($X_i$) for central composite design to yield 10 different extraction conditions. Response surface methodology was applied to predict optimum extraction conditions for dependent variables of extracts, such as total yield, total phenolics, flavonoid, and electron donation ability depending on different powers and extraction times of MAP. Determination coefficients($R^2$) of regression equations for dependent variables were higher than 0.93 excluding that of total phenolics, and microwave power was predicted more influential than extraction time in MAP (p<0.05). The optimal extraction time for each dependent variable was ranged from 3.36 to 4.97 min, but microwave power showed wide ranges depending on variables. The superimposed contour maps for maximized dependent variables illustrated extraction conditions of 64 to 100 W in microwave power and 2.9 to 4.0 min in extraction time.

Antioxidative and Nitrite Scavenging Activities of Polygonatum odoratum Root Extracts with Different Steaming and Roasting Conditions (둥굴레 근경의 증자 및 볶음조건에 따른 추출물의 항산화성 및 아질산염 소거능 변화)

  • Kim Kyung-Tae;Kim Jung-Ok;Lee Gee-Dong;Kwon Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2005
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to monitor the effects of steaming and roasting conditions of Polygonatum odoratum roots an total phenolics content, electron donating ability (EDA) and nitrite-scavenging ability (NSA) of the extract. In steaming and roasting processes based on the central composite design. with variations in steaming time $(60\~180\;min)$, roasting temperature $(110\~150\;min)$ and roasting time $(10\~50\;min)$, coefficients of determinations $(R^2)$ were 0.9356 (p<0.01) in total phenolics, 0.9578 (p<0.01) in EDA and 0.9436 (p<0.01) in NSA (pH 3.0). The maximum value of total phenolics was $2847.67\;mg\%$ at 135.59 min of steaming time, $143.84^{\circ}C$ of roasting temperature and 43.47 min of roasting time. The maximum value of EDA was $75.00\%$ in 108.98 min, $135.56^{\circ}C$ and 48.86 min. The maximum value of NSA (pH 3.0) was $87.38\%$ in 162.80 min, $143.88^{\circ}C$ and 31.97 min, respectively. Total phenolics content of the extract was influenced by heating conditions in the order of roasting temperature, steaming time and roasting time. While EDA and NSA were appreciably influenced by roasting time, followed by roasting temperature and steaming time.

Optimization of Steaming and Roasting Conditions for Maximized Hypoglycemic Properties of Polygonatum odoratum Tea (둥굴레차의 혈당강하 성분을 극대화시킬 수 있는 증자 및 볶음조건의 최적화)

  • Kim, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Jung-Ok;Lee, Gee-Dong;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2005
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in steaming and roasting processes of Polygonatum odoratum roots in order to monitor hypoglycemic components and sensory property. In steaming and roasting processes based on the central composite design with variations in steaming time $(60\~180\;min)$, roasting temperature $(110\~150^{\circ}C)$ and roasting time $(10\~50\;min)$, coefficients of determinations $(R^2)$ were 0.8691 (p<0.05), 0.8253 (p<0.l0), 0.8727 (p<0.05), 0.8706 (p<0.05) and 0.8316 (p<0.10) in soluble solid, stigmasterol, $\beta-sitosterol$, hypoglycemic component (total), and overall acceptability, respectively. The maximum value of soluble solid was $71.47\%$ in 65.24 min of steaming time, $126.93^{\circ}C$ of roasting temperature and 37.58 min of roasting time. The maximum value of hypoglycemic component (total) was $764.10\;{\mu}g/g$ in 107.76 min, $117.78^{\circ}C$ and 14.70 min. Meantime, the maximum value of overall acceptability was 6.89 in 126.04 min, $115.79^{\circ}C$ and 43.93 min. The predicted values in optimum conditions for hypoglycemic components and sensory property were in good agreement with experimental values.

Effects of Ethanol and Organic Acids on Color, Fishy Odor and in vitro Absorption Rate of Calcium of Dried Large Anchovy (자건대멸의 색택, 어취 및 in vitro 칼슘 흡수율에 미치는 주정과 유기산 처리의 효과)

  • Jo, Jin-Ho;Jang, Hae-Jin;Cho, Seung-Mock;Lee, Yang-Bong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.1471-1476
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    • 2005
  • The optimization of ethanol treatment was carried out by response surface methodology (RSM) which was expressed through change of ${\Delta}$E value for improvement of color of dried large anchovy. The optimum condition was shown as treatment with 7 volumes (v/m) of ethanol at $50^{\circ}C$ for 9 hrs. At this condition, the removal rates of trimethylamine (TMA) and fat considered as fishy odor-causing materials were 81.1 and $77.4\%$, respectively, when analyzed by solid phase microextraction (SPME)/gas chromatography and soxhlet method, respectively The effect of citric acid on the removal rate of TMA was the highest one among organic acid treatments. The removal rate of TMA was affected greatly by the concentration of organic acid rather than the temperature and time of treatment. $73\%$ of TMA was removed by treatment of $1\%$ of citric acid at $20^{\circ}C$ for 20 min. Specially, above $90\%$ of TMA could be removed by the combination of alcohol and citric acid treatment. In vitro absorption rate of calcium was also increased to $12.3\%$ by the combination of alcohol and citric acid treatment compared with $2.9\%$ of control.

Monitoring of Color Changes and Organoleptics Properties of Chungkookjang Products during Storage for Shelf-life Establishment (청국장 제품의 유통기한 설정을 위한 저장중의 색도변화 및 관능적 특성 monitoring)

  • Kim, Dong-Myung;Kim, Seong-Ho;Lee, Jin-Man;Dung, Nguyen-Thi;Kang, Sun-Chul
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.140-149
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    • 2005
  • In order to examine the changes of commercial value during storage conditions and shelf-life of Chungkookjang, response surface methodology of SAS program was applied to monitor orgenoleptic properties and color changes to determine optimum storage conditions. Lightness (L) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang showed under the 1% significance probability with high influence in all conditions such as sterilized temperature, storage time and storage temperature. Redness (a) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang was increased during highly sterilized and storage temperatures, and was individually influenced. One of the generally packed sample also showed that significance value was influenced under 10%, during high storage temperature. Yellowness (b) value of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang showed the significance probability under 1% during storage time and temperature, and under 5% during sterilized temperature. Also, stational point showed saddle type in both packaging samples. In case of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang, compatibility of odor was influenced by sterilized temperature under 10% significance probability. But generally packed samples have an effect on storage time under 1% significance probability effect on storage time, and sterilized temperature under 5%. In case of vacuum-packed Chungkookjang, compatibility of taste was highly concerned with storage time under 1% significance probability, whereas generally packed samples were concerned with storage temperature under 5% significance probability. Overall palatability of vacuum-packed samples showed maximum value of 5.15 on sterilized temperature ($61.92^{\circ}C$), storage temperature ($6.79^{\circ}C$) and storage time (56.48 days) during storage.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Cabbage (홍월적 양배추의 추출조건 최적화)

  • Do, Jeong-Ryong;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Hong, Joo-Heon;Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.1625-1632
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to monitor the extraction yields and functional properties from cabbage by a response surface methodology. The extract yield was maximized as 44.47$\%$ under the temperature of 79.86$^{\circ}C$, ethanol concentration of 56.84$\%$ and solvent to sample ratio 25.58 mL/g . The maximum value of electron donating ability was 85.46$\%$ at 46.38$^{\circ}C$,57.06$\%$ of ethanol concentration and 27.71 mL/g of solvent to sample ratio. The maximum value of tyrosinase inhibitory effect was 69.37$\%$ at 37.5$^{\circ}C$,47.71$\%$ of ethanol concentration and 16.03 mL/g of solvent to sample ratio. The maximum value of SOD-like activity was 48.36$\%$ in 66.12$^{\circ}C$, 70.35$\%$ of ethanol concentration and 29.13 mL/g of solvent to sample ratio. Estimated conditions for the maximized extraction including yield, electron donating ability and SOD-like activity were 20 $\∼$ 30 mL/g in ratio of solvent to sample, 25$\∼$85$\%$ in ethanol concentration, and 40$\∼$90$^{\circ}C$ in extraction temperature.

Optimization of Culture Condition for the Hydrocinnamic Acid Production from Bacillus subtilis IJ-31 (Bacillus subtilis IJ-31에서 Hydrocinnamic Acid 생산을 위한 최적배양조건)

  • Joo, Gil-Jae;Kim, Young-Mog;Lee, Oh-Seuk;Kim, Joung-Woong;Kim, Won-Chan;Song, Kyung-Sik;Yoon, Sung-Joon;Kim, Jin-Ho;Rhee, In-Koo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.207-211
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    • 2005
  • The metabolites released from cultures of rhizosphere bacteria can inhibit plant growth. Bacillus subtilis IJ-31 inhibited plant growth by the production of hydrocinnamic acid (HCA). The production of HCA by plant-growth inhibiting rhizobacterium B. subtilis IJ-31 was optimized. $90.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ of HCA was obtained under the condition of 1% rice bran as carbon source, 0.5% tryptone as nitrogen source, 0.1% $ZnCl_2$ as metal source at $37^{\circ}C$ for 60 h (pH 7.0). The optimal condition for the HCA production by B. subtilis IJ-31 in the jar fermenter was established using response surface methodology (RSM) of statistical analysis system(SAS) program. The production of HCA by B. subtilis IJ-31 in the jar fermenter culture reached $102.99\;{\mu}g/ml$ when 2.24% soil extracts was added and agitation speed was 290 rpm under the same condition. And the experimental value of HCA production is $102.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ in the same culture condition. The production of HCA by B. subtilis IJ-31 is higher as 12% than that from the flask culture.

Quality Characteristics of Gugija.Heukimja Jook Containing Different Levels of Black Sesame Powder (흑임자 첨가량을 달리한 구기자흑임자죽의 품질특성)

  • Min, Eun-Seol;Cho, Jung-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.106-118
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    • 2009
  • This study was to investigated optimum preparation conditions for Gugija Heukimja jook by response surface methodology (RSM). The important materials used for the Gugija Heukimja product were Lycium chinese, Seasamum indicum L., Ziziphus jujuba Mill. and rice. Moisture content, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and crude fiber content were 15.62, 16.60, 13.62, 4.93 and 11.17% for Lycium chinese, 3.62, 20.94, 43.56, 5.67 and 10.72% for Seasamum indicum L., 24.12, 5.38, 0.73, 2.30 and 1.25% for Ziziphus jujuba Mill., and 12.36, 6.98, 0.46, 0.43 and 0.41% for rice, respectively. Optimal extraction conditions of brix, color, pH and total acidity in the materials for Gugija Heukimja jook were temperature $80^{\circ}C$, water volume 850 mL and extraction time of 63 min. The spreadability of jook with Lycium chinese and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. extracts was the highest when black sesame was 12 g pH was the lowest when black sesame was 9 g. PH showed a significant difference when the added black sesame ratio changed. The 'value L' of chromaticity was lower with an increase of the black sesame ratio, 'value a' was higher with an increase of the black sesame ratio, 'value b' was lower with an increase of the black sesame ratio. Brix was lower when black sesame in jook was added. Total acidity was highest (7.27%) when black sesame was 12 g. The degree of gelatinization tended to be lower with additional black sesame. Higher scores of sensory evaluation were found for the product containing 9 g black sesame with Lycii furctus and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. extracts ompared to the other samples with 3 and 6g. No significant difference in taste occurred for Gugija Heukimja jook prepared with over 9 g black sesame, while a great difference showed in color, pH and total acid. Therefore, the Gugija Heukimja jook prepared under the optimal conditions of 9 g black sesame with Lycium chinese and Ziziphus jujuba Mill. extracts exhibited higher qualities. Gugija Heukimja jook can use the easier for Yacksun jook. It is expected to become functional in the product's development.

Hot Water Extraction Optimization of Dandelion Leaves to Increase Antioxidant Activity (항산화 활성 증진을 위한 민들레 잎의 열수추출 조건의 최적화)

  • Koh, Yoon-Jeoung;Cha, Dong-Su;Choi, Hee-Don;Park, Yong-Kon;Choi, In-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2008
  • This study used response surface methodology (RSM) in an effort to optimize the hot water extraction conditions of dandelion leaves in order to increase antioxidant activity in the extract. A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of independent variables, which included the ratio of solvent to sample ($X_1$), extraction temperature ($X_2$), and extraction time ($X_3$), on dependent variables of the extracts, including soluble solid ($Y_1$), total polyphenols ($Y_2$), total flavonoid ($Y_3$), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability ($Y_4$), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability ($Y_5$), and superoxide radical scavenging ability ($Y_6$). The estimated optimal conditions were as follows: $83.77{\pm}1.07^{\circ}C$ of the extraction temperature, $20.85{\pm}0.24 mL/g$ of solvent per sample, and $1.59{\pm}0.12$ hr of extraction time. At the optimal conditions, the predicted characteristic values were: a yield of 38.98%, a total polyphenol level of $74.28{\mu}g/mg$, a total flavonoid level of $74.00{\mu}g/mg$, a DPPH radical scavenging ability ($IC_{50}$) of 0.14 mg/mL, a ABTS radical scavenging ability ($IC_{50}$) of 3.24 mg/mL, and a superoxide radical scavenging ability ($IC_{50}$) of 2.49 mg/mL.