• 제목, 요약, 키워드: response surface methodology

검색결과 1,308건 처리시간 0.075초

김치로부터 분리된 Leuconostoc sp. strain YSK 균주에 의한 덱스트란 생산 조건의 최적화 (Process Optimization of Dextran Production by Leuconostoc sp. strain YSK. Isolated from Fermented Kimchi)

  • 황승균;홍준택;정경환;장병철;황경숙;신정희;임성팔;유선균
    • 생명과학회지
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1377-1383
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구는 발효 김치 액으로부터 덱스트란 생산 균주를 분리하고 생산 최적 생산 조건을 정하기 위하여 반응표면 분석법을 이용하였다. 발효 조건의 독립변수들은 배양 온도,pH, 효모 추출물의 농도, 온도, 기질의 농도로 정하고 Box- Benken 디자인를 이용하여 실험을 설계하였다. 최종 분리된 균주는 Leuconostoc sp. strain SKY로 잠정적으로 명하였다. 연구 결과 덱스트란 생산은 3.90 - 22.40 g/l이고, 균체량 생산은 0.69-2.85 g/l, 수율은 0.10-0.64, 생산 속도 0.16-0.85 g/l-hr의 범위에서 분석이 되었다. 표면반응분석 결과 덱스트란 생산에 가장 영향을 미치는 것은 배양 pH이고 다음에 효모 추출물의 농도 그리고 온도의 순으로 나타났다. 균체량 생산에 가장 영향을 미치는 것은 배양 pH이고 다음에 효모 추출물의 농도 그리고 온도의 순으로 나타났다. 생산 수율에 가장 영향을 미치는 것은 배양 pH 이고 다음에 효모 추출물의 농도 그리고 온도의 순으로 나타났다. 덱스트란 생산 속도에 가장 영향을 미치는 것은 배양 pH이고 다음에 효모 추출물의 농도 그리고 온도의 순으로 나타났다. 결론적으로 최적 생산 조건은 온도는 $27-28^{\circ}C$이고, pH는 7.0이며, 효묘 추출물은 6-7%의 범위에서 결정이 되었다. 이러한 조건에서 생산된 덱스트란 양은 22g/l이고, 생산 수율은 약 60%정도이며, 생산 속도는 0.8g/l/hr이었다.

팽화미 제조 공정조건의 최적화 (Optimization of Processing Conditions for the Production of Puffed Rice)

  • 천희순;조원일;진창호;백경환;류경헌;임수연;정명수;최준봉;임태환;황금택
    • 한국조리학회지
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 2015
  • 본 연구는 팽화미를 제조할 때 팽화미 품질에 영향을 미치는 세 가지의 조건인 건조 온도, 수분함량, 퍼핑 온도를 달리하고, 반응표면분석법과 등고선분석법을 이용하여 팽화미의 최적 제조 조건을 검토한 연구이다. 팽화미 제조에 적합한 국내산 신동진미를 팽화미 원료로 사용했고, 총 27가지 조건($3{\times}3$)에서 팽화미를 제조 후, 관능검사, 조직감, 색도, 밀도, 복원율, 크기 등 총 29개의 반응변수를 분석하였다. 그 결과, 공정에서 유의적으로 영향을 주는 반응변수는 선호도, 색의 강도, 밀도, 복원율, 명도, 응집성이었다. 반응표면분석과 등고선분석 결과, 기호도는 수분 함량, 명도는 수분 함량 및 퍼핑 온도와 상관관계가 높았다. 퍼핑 전과 퍼핑 후의 팽화미를 SEM 촬영을 통해 비교한 결과, 수분함량이 높을수록 쌀 단면 공극이 더 균일했으며, 기공이 많이 발생했다. 반응변수의 최적범위는 선호도 3.5 이상을 기본조건으로 하여 밀도는 40 이상, 응집성은 0.37부터 0.4까지, 그리고 복원율, 색의 강도, L value는 각각 2.75부터 3.0까지, 2.92 미만, 80.7 이상일 때 유효한 범위를 나타냈다. 팽화미 제조의 최적 공정조건은 건조온도 $40^{\circ}C$, 수분함량 11%, 퍼핑온도 $232.7^{\circ}C$ 이었다. 본 연구는 팽화미 제조에 영향을 미치는 요인들에 관한 기초 자료를 제공해 주며, 팽화미의 최적 조건을 활용하여 제조 시, 전자레인지 및 열수에 복원되는 팽화미의 품질의 향상이 기대된다.

파이롯트 규모에서 미강을 이용한 해양미생물 Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14 유래의 cellobiase 생산 (Enhanced Production of Cellobiase by a Marine Bacterium, Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14, in Pilot-Scaled Bioreactor Using Rice Bran)

  • 고와;김형우;이잔홍;이진우
    • 생명과학회지
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.542-553
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    • 2013
  • 본 연구의 목적은 통계학적 방법을 사용하여 해양미생물 Cellulophaga lytica LBH-14가 생산하는 cellobiase의 생산조건을 확립하는 것이었다. 이 균주의 생육에 최적인 미강, ammonium chloride 및 배지의 초기 pH는 100.0 g/l, 5.00 g/l 및 7.0이었으나, 이 균주가 생산하는 cellobiase의 생산에 최적인 조건은 각각 91.1 g/l, 9.02 g/l 및 6.6이었다. 이 균주의 생육에 최적인 $K_2HPO_4$, NaCl, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$$(NH_4)_2SO_4$ 등과 같은 배지의 염농도는 각각 6.25, 0.62, 0.28 및 0.73 g/l이었으나, cellobiase 생산에 최적인 염들의 농도는 각각 4.46, 0.36, 0.27 및 0.73 g/l이었다. 또한, 균체의 생육 및 cellobiase의 생산에 최적인 온도는 각각 35 및 $25^{\circ}C$이었다. 플라스크 규모에서 최적화한 조건으로 파이롯트 규모의 생물배양기에서 cellobiase를 생산한 결과, 이 균주가 생산하는 cellobiase의 생산성은 92.3 U/ml이었으며, 이는 최적화하기 전에 비하여 5.4배 향상된 것 이었다. 본 연구를 통하여 쌀 도정공정의 부산물인 미강 및 ammonium chloride를 cellobiase를 생산하는 기질로 개발하였으며 해양 미생물을 사용하여 cellobiase의 생산기간을 7일에서 3일로 단축시켰다. 또한, 본 연구를 통하여 C. lytica LBH-14가 생산하는 cellobiase의 최적 생산조건은 이 균주가 생산하는 CMCase의 최적 생산조건과 다르다는 사실을 확인하였다.

Cyclodextrin을 이용한 발효홍삼농축액 최적 포접 조건 (Optimization of Encapsulation Conditions for Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts by Using Cyclodextrin)

  • 신명곤;이규희
    • 한국식품영양과학회지
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1708-1714
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    • 2015
  • 생리활성이 우수한 발효홍삼농축액 특유의 쓴맛과 발효과정 중 생성된 신맛 등의 이미를 개선하기 위해 ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}$-cyclodextrin(CD) 혼합시료를 이용하여 이미를 포접시켜 관능평가와 ginsenoside Rb1 및 총산도를 분석하고 최대 포접효율을 나타내는 ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}-CD$ 혼합시료의 농도를 반응표면분석 중심합성법으로 계획하여 기호성이 증진된 발효홍삼농축액을 제조하는 최적화 조건을 확인하였다. ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}-CD$ 혼합시료를 이용한 쓴맛 포접 효과를 확인한 결과 예측된 정상점은 최저점으로 ${\beta}-CD$가 3.74%이고 ${\gamma}-CD$ 20.63%일 때 쓴맛이 2.07로 최소값을 나타내었다. Ginsenoside Rb1 포접 효과를 확인한 결과 예측된 정상점은 최대값으로 분석한 결과 ${\beta}-CD$가 3.47%이고 ${\gamma}-CD$가 19.89%일 때 ginsenoside Rb1이 96.75%로 최대값을 나타내었다. ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}-CD$ 혼합시료를 이용한 신맛 포접 효과는 ${\beta}-CD$가 9.34%이고 ${\gamma}-CD$ 7.96%일 때 신맛이 5.63으로 최소값을 나타내었다. 젖산의 포접 효과는 ${\beta}-CD$가 16.00%이고 ${\gamma}-CD$ 13.18%일 때 젖산의 포접효율이 67.73%로 최대값을 나타내었다. 실험 결과를 중심으로 최적 조건을 중첩시켜 ${\beta}-CD$${\gamma}-CD$의 함량을 달리하여 발효홍삼농축액의 이미를 줄이기 위해서는 신맛의 포접 정도는 6, 쓴맛 포접 정도는 4, 산의 포접 정도는 65%, ginsenoside 포접 정도는 95%로 하는 조건을 만족하는 영역으로 ${\beta}-CD$${\gamma}-CD$의 첨가량은 ${\beta}-CD$가 10%이고 ${\gamma}-CD$가 13%임을 알 수 있었다.

흑미 미강의 기능성 성분 추출 공정 최적화 (Optimization of Extraction of Functional Components from Black Rice Bran)

  • 조인희;최용희
    • 산업식품공학
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.388-397
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    • 2011
  • 본 연구에서는 추출시간을 단축시키고자 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction(UAE)를 이용한 전처리 추출공정을 수행 후 기능성 성분 추출 시 시료에 대한 용매비와 추출 온도, 추출 시간의 영향을 알아보기 위하여 용매비는 10-30 mL/g, 추출온도 60-100$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 2-6시간으로 하여 각 조건에서 추출함량을 측정하였으며 최적 추출 조건을 구하기 위해 반응표면 분석을 실시하였다. 그 결과, 미강의 기능성 성분의 추출 시 추출온도에 가장 영향을 많이 받았으며 추출시간은 크게 영향을 받지 않았다. 시료에 대한 용매비는 추출온도 다음으로 종속변수에 비교적 유의하게 영향을 주었다. 총페놀함량의 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비 17.43, 추출온도 82.13$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 3.76시간일 때 최대값 176.57 mg GAE/100g을 나타내었고, 총플라보노이드 함량은 18.32 mL/g, 77.51$^{\circ}C$, 2.04시간일 때 291.09 mg/ 100 g으로 최대값을 나타내었다. 전자공여능은 14.37 mL/g, 78.46$^{\circ}C$, 2.87시간일 때 94.34%로 최대값을 나타내었다. Ferulic acid의 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비 17.71 mL/g, 추출 온도 80.58$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 3.62시간일 때 최대값 265.18 mg/100 g으로 예측되었고, $\gamma$-oryzanol은 시료에 대한 용매비 16.39 mL/g, 추출온도 76.45$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 3.41시간 에서 최대값 226.46 mg/100 g을 나타났다. $\alpha$-toopherol은 시료에 대한 용매비 25 mL/g, 추출온도 79.18$^{\circ}C$, 추출 시간 5.73시간일 때 최대값 9.71 mg/100 g을 나타내었다. 흑미 미강의 기능성 성분의 최적 추출 조건을 예측하기 위하여 각 종속변수에 대한 각각의 contour map을 superimposing을 한 결과 시료에 대한 용매비 20.35mL/g, 추출 온도 79.4$^{\circ}C$, 추출 시간 2.88시간으로 나타났다. 이 조건에서 실험한 결과 각각 종속변수들의 예측값과 실제값이 유사하게 나타났다.

모과내 기능성 유용성분 용매추출공정의 최적화 (Optimization of Solvent Extraction Process on the Active Functional Components from Chinese Quince)

  • 전주영;조인희;경현규;김현아;이창민;최용희
    • 산업식품공학
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 2010
  • 본 연구에서는 모과내의 여러 가지 기능성 유용성분을 효과적으로 추출하기 위해서, 모과나무의 익은 열매로 만든 약재인 모과를 사용 하였다. 모과의 기능성 유용성분 용매 추출 공정의 최적 조건을 확립하고자 하였다. 모과를 에탄올에 추출하여 반응표면 분석법으로 모니터링하여 최적 용매 조건을 설정하였다. 중심합성계획법에 따라 시료에 대한 용매비($X_{1}$)와 추출온도($X_{2}$), 추출시간($X_{3}$)을 요인변수로 하고 추출수율($Y_{1}$), 총 페놀 함량($Y_{2}$), 전자공여능($Y_{3}$), 갈색도($Y_{4}$), 환원당($Y_{5}$)을 종속변수로 하여 시행하였다. 실험 결과 추출수율은 추출 온도와 추출 시간에 유의하게 영향을 받음을 알 수 있었다. 안장점에서 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 26.38 mL/g, 추출온도는 72.82$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간은 74.86 min에서 최대값을 나타내었다. 총페놀 함량은 용매비와 시간에 영향을 거의 받지 않았고 추출시간에는 영향을 받았으며, 최대값은 20.70 mg/mL 로 나타났다. 이때의 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비는 22.61 mL/g, 추출온도는 84.49$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간은 77.25 min으로 나타났다. 전자공여능은 추출온도에 따라 유의하게 영향을 받은 것으로 나타났다. 안장점에서의 추출조건인 시료에 대한 용매비 10.65 mL/g, 추출온도 67.78$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 96.75 min에서 추출수율은 94.12%로 예측되었다. 갈색도에 대한 추출조건은 시료에 대한 용매비 23.77 mL/g, 추출온도 87.27$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 96.68 min 일 때 안장점이 나타났다. 환원당은 시료에 대한 용매비 26.83 mL/g, 추출온도 82.167$^{\circ}C$, 추출시간 81.94 min에서 10.55 mg/mL로 최대값을 나타내었고 추출시간에 영향을 받았다.

Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • 대한의용생체공학회:의공학회지
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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흑토란의 식품재료화를 위한 숙성 조건에 따른 토란의 특성 및 관능 최적화 (Characteristics and Sensory Optimization of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) under Different Aging Conditions for Food Application of Black Taro)

  • 전유호;이지원;손양주;황인경
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.133-141
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    • 2016
  • 토란은 풍부한 영양 성분과 다양한 효능을 가지고 있으나 활용도가 높지 않고, 옥살산 등의 독성 성분과 높은 수분 함량을 가지며 갈변 현상이 쉽게 일어나기 때문에 상품화를 위해서는 새로운 가공 방법에 대한 연구가 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 토란을 증자, 숙성, 건조하는 과정을 통해 차로 음용할 뿐만 아니라 다양한 식품 재료로 활용할 수 있는 새로운 가공 방법을 개발하고자 하였으며, 이를 흑토란이라 명명하였다. 흑토란을 제조하기 위하여 증자($95{\pm}3^{\circ}C-1\;h$) 후 다양한 조건(85, 90, $95^{\circ}C-20$, 40, 60 h)에서 숙성시켰으며, 이를 건조($60^{\circ}C-24h$)하여 분말화하였다. 그 후, 이화학적 특성, 산화방지 활성을 분석하였으며, 반응표면분석을 이용하여 관능적 최적점을 탐색하였다. 토란의 일반성분 분석 결과, 생토란은 87.69%의 수분 함량을 보였고 증자 시 90.70%으로 증가하였다가 흑토란에서 4.87-8.56%로 감소하였다. 흑토란은 생토란과 증자 토란에 비해 탄수화물, 조단백, 조지방, 조회분 함량이 모두 증가하였으며, 조섬유는 생토란에서 0.45%, 흑토란에서 5.23-7.86%의 함량을 나타내었다. 무기질 성분 분석 결과, 모든 시료에서 포타슘 함량이 가장 높았다. 토란의 총당과 함량 결과, 생토란은 112.53 mg/g, 증자 토란은 70.51 mg/g을 나타냈으며, 흑토란은 숙성 시간에 따라 유의적으로 증가하였고 54.94-120.03 mg/g의 함량을 보였다. 환원당은 42.48 mg/g에서 증자 후 12.29 mg/g로 감소하였으며, 흑토란에서 12.73-24.14 mg/g의 함량을 나타내었다. 분말색도는 생토란을 열처리함에 따라 L값이 84.57에서 증자 토란의 71.05, 그리고 흑토란에서 47.91-55.28으로 감소하였으며, a값은 증가하고 b값은 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 갈색도는 생토란에서 0.08의 값을 나타냈고, 증자 후 0.02로 감소하였다가 흑토란에서 급격하게 증가하였으며 $90^{\circ}C$에서 40시간 숙성한 토란에서 0.88의 가장 높은 값을 보였다. 옥살산칼슘 함량 측정 결과, 생토란에서 59.07 mg/100 g의 함량을 보였으며, 증자 후 37.20 mg/100 g으로 감소하였고, 숙성 과정을 거치며 시간에 따라 유의적으로 감소하여 $90^{\circ}C$에서 60시간 숙성시킨 토란에서 11.46mg/100 g의 가장 낮은 값을 보였다. 흑토란의 총 폴리페놀 함량을 측정한 결과, 20.61-28.30 mg GAE/g의 값을 나타냈으며, 숙성 온도에 따라서 폴리페놀 함량이 유의적으로 증가함을 확인하였다. 흑토란의 산화방지 활성을 DPPH, ABTS 자유라디칼 소거능 및 FRAP 활성으로 측정하였다. DPPH와 ABTS 라디칼 소거능 모두 숙성 온도가 높아짐에 따라 증가하는 경향을 보였다. DPPH 라디칼 소거능은 3.67-7.52 mg VCE/g의 값을, ABTS 라디칼 소거능은 9.63-20.32 VCE/g의 값을 나타냈으며, 두 소거능 모두 $95^{\circ}C$에서 60시간 숙성시킨 시료에서 가장 높았다. FRAP 활성 또한 유사한 경향을 보였고, 3.43-6.79 mg VCE/g의 값을 나타내었다. 흑토란의 관능 최적 숙성 조건을 탐색하기 위하여 색, 맛, 향, 전체적인 기호도에 대하여 반응표면분석을 실시하였다. 색($R^2=0.8471$), 맛($R^2=0.8244$), 전반적인 기호도($R^2=0.7480$)에 대하여 유의한 반응 표면을 이끌어낼 수 있었으며, 맛과 전반적인 기호도 항목에서 실험 범위 내의 최적점을 이끌어낼 수 있었다(맛: $88.73^{\circ}C$, 39.50시간, 전반적인 기호도: $88.82^{\circ}C$, 42.60시간). 관능 특성간의 상관 분석 결과, 전반적인 기호도에는 색, 맛, 향 모두 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며, 맛(r=0.884)의 영향이 가장 큰 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구를 통해 토란의 숙성 조건에 따른 이화학적 특성 및 산화방지 활성의 차이를 확인하였으며, 관능적으로 최적이 되는 토란의 숙성 조건을 확인하였다. 실험 결과를 종합해 보았을 때, 생토란에 비해 흑토란에서 섬유소 함량의 증가, 옥살산칼슘의 유의적인 감소, 그리고 갈변 반응으로 인한 생리활성 성분의 증가 효과를 기대할 수 있다. 높은 산화방지 효과를 위해서는 높은 온도에서 오랜 시간 숙성이 필요하며, $88.73-88.82^{\circ}C$의 온도에서 39.50-42.60시간 동안 숙성시켰을 시 관능적으로 우수한 흑토란을 생산할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. 본 연구는 토란의 이용성을 증대시키며 흑토란 분말의 다양한 식품재료로서의 활용 가능성을 탐색하기 위한 기초 자료가 될 것으로 기대된다.