• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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Optimization of Peptides Production Derived from By-product Viscera of Yoensan Ogae Meat Process (연산 오계 부산물 내장육으로부터 펩타이드 생산 최적 공정 개발과 생산물의 특성 분석)

  • Ji, Joong Gu;Yoo, Sun Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.549-559
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    • 2016
  • Korean Black body fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus; Ogae) designated as a natural monument (registration number 265) has been known as a superb traditional Korean medicine. In this study, The production of peptide from the Viscera Waste of Yeonsan Ogae was optimized using commercial protease (bromelain) by response surface methodology under high pressure process. The range of processes was pressure (30 to 100 MPa), reaction time (1 to 5 h), and substrate concentration (10 to 30%, w/v). After reaction, the degree of hydrolysis, distribution of amino acids, and molecular weight of peptides were investigated. As a results, the optimization conditions were pressure 90 MPa, reaction time 3 to 4 h, and the amount of viscera meat 20% (w/v), respectively. The molecular weight of protein hydrolysates was distributed 400 to 1,000 Da. Accordingly we presumed that most products were peptides. Of those peptides, nonpolar or hydrophobic, polar but uncharged, positively charged, and negatively charged amino acids were 42.03, 26.0, 13.3, and 18.6%, respectively. Because higher amount of hydrophobic amino acids, we expected that those products would be able to utilize as the functional food ingredients.

Monitoring of Roast Color Formation in Ginseng Using Threonine and Sucrose (Threonine과 Sucrose를 이용한 인삼의 색상 발현 모니터링)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.735-740
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    • 2014
  • The study investigated the roast color formation properties of ginseng upon soaking in threonine/sucrose solution followed by roasting. To determine operational parameters, including threonine concentration ($X_1$, 0.1~0.9%), sucrose concentration ($X_2$, 1.0~3.0%), and roasting temperature ($X_3$, $130{\sim}170^{\circ}C$), response surface methodology was applied to monitor color properties, including brown color intensity, Hunter's colors, and organoleptic color. Coefficients of determinations ($R^2$) of the models were above 0.8758 (P<0.05) in terms of brown color intensity and Hunter's color parameters. Brown color intensity of roasted ginseng extract was maximized in 0.70% threonine and 2.32% sucrose soaking solution under roasting conditions of 25 min at $166.03^{\circ}C$. a values of roasted ginseng were maximized in 0.74% threonine and 2.19% sucrose soaking solution under roasting conditions of $165.40^{\circ}C$. b values of roasted ginseng were maximized in 0.61% threonine and 2.28% sucrose soaking solution under roasting conditions of $159.16^{\circ}C$. The maximum organoleptic color score of roasted ginseng extract was 7.27 in 0.53% threonine and 1.01% sucrose soaking solution under roasting conditions of $146.96^{\circ}C$.

Monitoring of antioxidant activities with dried Gugija (Lycium chinensis Mill) extraction (건조 구기자의 추출에 따른 항산화 효능 모니터링)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.859-865
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    • 2016
  • Thise study aimed to determine the optimum antioxidant extraction conditions of dried Gugija (Lycium chinensis Mill). To determine the operational parameters, including ethanol concentration ($X_1$, 0~80%) and extraction time ($X_2$, 1~5 hr), a response surface methodology was applied to monitor brown color intensity, total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity. Coefficients of determinations ($R^2$) of the models were 0.8486~0.9214 (p<0.05~0.1) in dependent parameters. Brown color intensity of Gugija extracts reached a maximum of 0.75 (OD in 420 nm) under extraction conditions of 2.88 hr in 78.10% ethanol. Total phenolic compounds reached a maximum of $2,355{\mu}g$ under extraction conditions of 4.94 hr in 30.17% ethanol. ABTS radical scavenging activity was 13.83% at 4.61 hr and 16.21% ethanol. $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity showed a maximum of 58.54% under extraction conditions of 3.39 hr in 0.76% ethanol. Optimum extraction conditions (5 hr extraction in 15% ethanol) were obtained by superimposing the contour maps with regards to total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity of dried Gugija. Maximum values of total phenolic compounds, ABTS radical scavenging activity, and $Fe^{2+}$ chelating activity under optimum extraction condition were $2,397{\mu}g$, 15.62% and 54.78%, respectively.

Study on Analysis of Transfer Torque and Improvement of Transfer Torque in Non-Contact Permanent Magnet Gear (비접촉 영구자석 기어의 전달토크 분석 및 전달토크 향상에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Gyu-Sang;Kim, Chan-Ho;Kim, Yong-Jae
    • KEPCO Journal on Electric Power and Energy
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2015
  • The non-contact permanent magnet gear has advantages of high efficiency and improved reliability. It has other advantages of no mechanical friction loss, very little noise and vibration, and no need for lubricant. With these advantages, the non-contact permanent magnet gear that solves the physical contact problem of the mechanical gear has drawn attention. Due to this unique non-contact characteristic, the non-contact permanent magnet gear which is capable of non-contact torque transmission has replaced mechanical gear. The mechanical gears which is in many fields of the modern industry, is used mostly for power transmitting mechanical devices. However, it also has the problem of a low torque density, which requires improvement. In this paper, a novel pole piece shape is proposed in order to improve the problem of low torque density of the non-contact permanent magnet gear. The experiment data required for predicting the relationships among them are obtained using finiteelement Operating method based on two-dimensional (2-D) numerical analysis. Therefore, this paper derived an optimal model for thenon-contact permanent magnet gear with the novel pole piece using the Box-Behnken design, and the validity of the optimal design of the proposed pole piece shape through variance analysis and regression analysis demonstrated. In this paper, we performed the thransfer torque analysis in order to improve the torque density and power density, we have performed on optimal design of proposed pole piece shape using box-behnken.

Optimization of KOH pretreatment conditions from Miscanthus using high temperature and extrusion system (고온 압출식 반응시스템을 이용한 억새 바이오매스의 KOH 전처리조건 최적화)

  • Cha, Young-Lok;Park, Sung-Min;Moon, Youn-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Soo;Lee, Ji-Eun;Kwon, Da-Eun;Kang, Yong-Gu
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1243-1252
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the optimum conditions of biomass pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH) for efficient utilization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from Miscanthus. The optimization of variables was performed by response surface methodology (RSM). The variation ranges of the parameters for the RSM were potassium hydroxide 0.2~0.8 M, reaction temperature 110~190℃ and reaction time 10~90 min. The optimum conditions of alkali pretreatment from Miscanthus were determined as follows: concentration of KOH 0.47 M, reaction temperature 134℃ and reaction time 65 min. At the optimum conditions, the yield of cellulose from the solid fraction after pretreatment was predicted to be 95% by model prediction. Finally, 66.1 ± 1.1% of cellulose were obtained by verification experiment under the optimum conditions. The order contents of solid extraction were hemicellulose 26.4 ± 0.4%, lignin 3.7 ± 0.1% and ash 0.5 ± 0.04%. The yield of ethanol concentration of 96% was obtained using separated saccharification and fermentation.

Optimization of anthocyanidin extraction conditions from sweet potato tips and tuber (고구마 끝순 및 괴근의 안토시아니딘 추출 조건 최적화)

  • Hong, Chae Young;Seo, Jeong Hyun;Kim, Min Young;Lee, Yoon Jeong;Yoon, Hyang Sik;Nam, Sang Sik;Lee, Junsoo;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2020
  • In this study, the optimum conditions were established for anthocyanidin extraction from sweet potato tips and tubers. The dependent variables of ethanol concentration (X1), citric acid concentration (X2), and extraction temperature (X3) were designed using a central composite design. All three variables significantly affected anthocyanidin extraction, and the influence of X1 was greater than that of X2 and X3. The highest anthocyanidin content in tips and tubers were 26.58±0.07 and 117.32±0.39 mg/100 g at 50% (X1), 0.3% (X2), and 50℃ (X3), respectively. The optimal extraction conditions for the tips were 56.10% (X1), 0.25% (X2), and 52.24℃ (X3) and tubers were 55.08% (X1), 0.30% (X2), and 53.06℃ (X3). The predicted values under optimal extraction conditions were 27.45 and 119.61 mg/100 g, and the experimental values were 27.09±0.11 and 118.72±0.67 mg/100 g, respectively. The extraction conditions were validated by comparing the predicted and actual values with those of 98.69 and 99.26%, respectively.

Processing Optimization of Seasoned Laver Pyropia yezoensis Using Seasoning Sauce with Conger Eel Conger myriaster (붕장어(Conger myriaster) 시즈닝을 활용한 조미김(Pyropia yezoensis)의 제조공정 최적화)

  • Kim, Do Youb;Kang, Sang In;Lee, Chang Young;Kim, Hye Jin;Lee, Jung Suck;Heu, Min Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.368-381
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to optimize the processing conditions of seasoned laver Pyropia yezoensis with conger eel Conger myriaster seasoning sauce (CES) using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM program results for bonesoftness showed that the optimum independent variables based on the dependent variables (Y1, lipid removal rate; Y2, texture; and Y3, sensory fish odor score) were 431.0% for X1 (water amount), 115.6℃ for X2 (retort-operated temperature), and 50.1 min for X3 (retort-operated time). The RSM program results for the CES blend showed that the optimum independent variables (X1, amount of bone-softened conger eel by-products; X2, mixed sauce amount; and X3, starch amount) based on the dependent variables (Y1, amino-N; Y2, Hunter redness; and Y3, drying time) were 44.8% for A (pre-treated conger eel by-product), 36.0% for B (mixed sauce), and 19.2% for C (starch). The RSM program results for seasoned laver with CES showed that the optimum independent variables based on the dependent variables (Y1, water activity; Y2, Hunter yellowness; and Y3, overall acceptance) were 5.0% for X1, (CES amount), 313.8℃ for X2 (roasting temperature), and 6.0 s for X3 (roasting time). The seasoned laver with CES prepared under the optimum conditions was superior to commercial seasoned laver in terms of overall acceptance.

A study on the Degradation and By-products Formation of NDMA by the Photolysis with UV: Setup of Reaction Models and Assessment of Decomposition Characteristics by the Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behnken Technique (UV 공정을 이용한 N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 광분해 및 부산물 생성에 관한 연구: 박스-벤켄법 실험계획법을 이용한 통계학적 분해특성평가 및 반응모델 수립)

  • Chang, Soon-Woong;Lee, Si-Jin;Cho, Il-Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2010
  • We investigated and estimated at the characteristics of decomposition and by-products of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) using a design of experiment (DOE) based on the Box-Behken design in an UV process, and also the main factors (variables) with UV intensity($X_2$) (range: $1.5{\sim}4.5\;mW/cm^2$), NDMA concentration ($X_2$) (range: 100~300 uM) and pH ($X_2$) (rang: 3~9) which consisted of 3 levels in each factor and 4 responses ($Y_1$ (% of NDMA removal), $Y_2$ (dimethylamine (DMA) reformation (uM)), $Y_3$ (dimethylformamide (DMF) reformation (uM), $Y_4$ ($NO_2$-N reformation (uM)) were set up to estimate the prediction model and the optimization conditions. The results of prediction model and optimization point using the canonical analysis in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions were $Y_1$ [% of NDMA removal] = $117+21X_1-0.3X_2-17.2X_3+{2.43X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2+{3.2X_3}^2-0.08X_1X_2-1.6X_1X_3-0.05X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 96%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 88%) and 99.3% ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;190\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.2$), $Y_2$ [DMA conc] = $-101+18.5X_1+0.4X_2+21X_3-{3.3X_1}^2-{0.01X_2}^2-{1.5X_3}^2-0.01X_1X_2+0.07X_1X_3-0.01X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 99.4%, 수정 $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 35.2 uM ($X_1$: 3 $mW/cm^2$, $X_2$: 220 uM, $X_3$: 6.3), $Y_3$ [DMF conc] = $-6.2+0.2X_1+0.02X_2+2X_3-0.26X_1^2-0.01X_2^2-0.2X_3^2-0.004X_1X_2+0.1X_1X_3-0.02X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 94.4%) and 3.7 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;$mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;290\;uM$, $X_3:\;6.2$) and $Y_4$ [$NO_2$-N conc] = $-25+12.2X_1+0.15X_2+7.8X_3+{1.1X_1}^2+{0.001X_2}^2-{0.34X_3}^2+0.01X_1X_2+0.08X_1X_3-3.4X_2X_3$ ($R^2$= 98.5%, Adjusted $R^2$ = 95.7%) and 74.5 uM ($X_1:\;4.5\;mW/cm^2$, $X_2:\;220\;uM$, $X_3:\;3.1$). This study has demonstrated that the response surface methodology and the Box-Behnken statistical experiment design can provide statistically reliable results for decomposition and by-products of NDMA by the UV photolysis and also for determination of optimum conditions. Predictions obtained from the response functions were in good agreement with the experimental results indicating the reliability of the methodology used.

Evaluation of Efficacy and Development of Predictive Reduction Models for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on Food Contact Surfaces as a Function of Concentration and Contact Time of Chlorine Dioxide (대장균과 황색포도상구균에 대한 이산화염소의 살균소독력 평가 및 살균예측모델 개발)

  • Yoon, So-Jeong;Park, Shin Young;Kim, Yong-Soo;Ha, Sang-Do
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.507-512
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    • 2017
  • There has been increasing concern regarding misuse of disinfectants and sanitizers such as ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide for food contact surfaces in the food industry. Examining the efficacy of the concentration of currently used disinfectants and sanitizers is urgently required in the Korean society. This study aimed to develop predictive reduction models for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in suspension, as a function of $ClO_2$ (chlorine dioxide) and contact time using response surface methodology. E. coli ATCC 10536 and S. aureus ATCC 6538 (initial inoculum, 8-9 log CFU/mL) in tryptic soy broth were treated with different concentrations of $ClO_2$ (5, 20, and 35 ppm) for different contact times (1, 3, and 5 min) following a central composite design. The polynomial reduction models for $ClO_2$ on E. coli and S. aureus were developed under the clean condition. E. coli reduction by 35 ppm $ClO_2$ for 1, 3, and 5 min was 2.49, 2.70, and 3.65 log CFU/mL, respectively. Also, S. aureus reduction by 35 ppm $ClO_2$ for 1, 3, and 5 min was 4.59, 5.25, and 5.81 log CFU/mL, respectively. The predictive response polynomial models developed were $R=0.43231-0.056492^*X_1-0.097771^*X_2+9.24167E-003^*X_1^*X_2+3.06333E-003^*X_1{^2}$ ($R^2=0.98$) on E. coli and $R=1.10542-0.20896^*X_1-0.046062^*X_2+8.30000E-003^*X_1^*X_2+8.73300E-003^*X_1{^2}$ ($R^2=0.99$) on S. aureus, where R was the bacterial reduction (log CFU/mL), $X_1$ was the concentration and $X_2$ was the contact time. Our predictive reduction models should be validated in developing the optimal concentration and contact time of $ClO_2$ for inhibiting E. coli and S. aureus on food contact surfaces.

The multi-level understanding of Shamanistic myth Princess Bari as a narrative: focusing on levels of story, composition, and communication (무속신화 <바리공주> 서사의 다층적 이해 - 이야기·생성·소통의 세 층위를 대상으로)

  • Oh, Sejeong
    • 기호학연구
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    • no.54
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    • pp.119-145
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    • 2018
  • This paper attempts to divide the narrative into three levels and review the approach methodology to understand Princess Bari as a narrative. If the stratification of the narrative, the analysis of each levels, and the integrated approach to them are made, this can contribute to suggesting new directions and ways to understand and study Princess Bari. The story level of Princess Bari, the surface structure, is shaped by the space movement and the chronological sequential structure of the life task that started from the birth of the main character. This story shows how a woman who was denied her existence by her father as soon as she was born finds an ontological transformation and identities through a process. Especially, the journey of finding identity is mainly formed through the events that occur through the relationship with family members. This structure, which can be found in the narrative level, forms a deep structure with the oppositional paradigm of family members' conflict and reconciliation, life and death. The thought structure revealed in this story is the problem of life is the problem of family composition, and the problem of death is also the same. In response to how to look at the unified world of coexistence of life and death, this tradition group of myths makes a relationship with man and God. This story is mainly communicated in the Korean shamanistic ritual(Gut) that sent the dead to the afterlife. Although the shaman is the sender and the participants in the ritual are the receivers, the story is well known a message that does not have new information repeated in certain situations. In gut, the patrons and participants do not simply accept the narrative as a message, but accept themselves as codes for reconstructing their lives and behavior through autocommunication. By accepting the characters and events of as a homeomorphism relationship with their lives, people accept the everyday life as an integrated view of life and death, disjunction and communication, conflict and reconciliation, and the present viewpoint. It can not change the real world, but it changes the attitude of 'I' about life. And it is a change and transformation that can be achieved through personal communication like the transformation of Princess Bari into god in myth. Thus, Princess Bari shows that each meaning and function in the story level, composition level, and communication level is related to each other. In addition, the structure revealed by this narrative on three levels is also effective in revealing the collective consciousness and cultural system of the transmission group.