• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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Flavor Improvement of a Complex Extract from Poor-quality, Individually Quick-frozen Oysters Crassostrea gigas (IQF 굴(Crassostrea gigas) 복합엑스분의 추출 및 풍미개선)

  • Hwang, Seok-Min;Hwang, Young-Suk;Nam, Hyeon-Gyu;Lee, Jae-Dong;Ryu, Seong-Gwi;Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.733-739
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    • 2014
  • To develop an effective use for poor-quality individually quick-frozen (IQF) oysters Crassostrea gigas stored for a long period, the extract conditions, quality characteristics, and optimum reaction flavoring (RF) conditions of a complex extract from these IQF oysters were investigated. The moisture, pH, and volatile basic nitrogen contents of IQF oysters stored for 18 months (18M-IQFO) were 77.9%, 6.32, and 17.9 mg/100 g, respectively. Three different kinds of extract were prepared from 18M-IQFO: a hot-water extract (HE), scrap enzymatic hydrolysate (EH), and complex extract (CE). The respective extracts contained 5.5, 8.6, and 6.6% crude protein and 281.7, 366.0, and 343.0 mg/100 g amino nitrogen, and had 811, 359, and 1,170 mL/kg extraction yields. The CE was superior to the traditional HE in terms of the extraction yield, amino-nitrogen content, and organoleptic qualities, except for the odor. To improve flavor via the Maillard reaction, the reaction system used to produce a desirable flavor comprised CE (Brix $30^{\circ}$), 0.4 M glucose, 0.4 M glycine, and 0.4 M cysteine solution (4:2:1:1, v/v). The reaction time and pH were the independent variables, and the sensory scores for baked potato odor, masking shellfish odor, and boiled meat odor were the dependent variables. The surface response methodology (RSM) analysis of the multiple responses optimization gave a reaction time of 120.6 minutes and pH 7.33 at $120^{\circ}C$. The reaction improved the flavor of CE considerably, as compared to that of the unreacted extract.

The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

  • Cho, Sangbuem;Mbiriri, David Tinotenda;Shim, Kwanseob;Lee, A-Leum;Oh, Seong-Jin;Yang, Jinho;Ryu, Chaehwa;Kim, Young-Hoon;Seo, Kang-Seok;Chae, Jung-Il;Oh, Young Kyoon;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1652-1662
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    • 2014
  • The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at $30^{\circ}C$ and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower acetate:propionate (A/P) ratios than non-additive supplementation. High concentrate diets had significantly lower pH. Interactions between energy and additive were observed (p<0.01) in ammonia nitrogen production. Supplementation of diets with the additive resulted in lower rumen and rectal temperatures, hence the additive showed promise in alleviating undesirable effects of heat stress in cattle.

Conditions for Obtaining Optimum Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Korean Berry and Green Tea Extracts (반응표면분석을 이용한 오가자, 오디, 복분자 및 녹차의 항산화 활성 추출 최적화)

  • Lee, Ji-Hye;Kim, Yang;Lee, Suyong;Yoo, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.410-417
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    • 2014
  • Berries and green tea are underutilized in the food industry despite their great potential as a functional food ingredients. The purpose of this study was to determine the extraction conditions under which total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of berry and green tea extracts are maximized. Extracts produced using 0-80% ethanol and temperatures ranging from $5-65^{\circ}C$ were evaluated for total phenolic content (TP), as well as for DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities by using response surface methodology. Both ethanol and temperature had significant effects (p<0.05). Ogaja extract produced at $67^{\circ}C$ by using 33% ethanol yielded maximum TP, ABTS, and DPPH values of 23.74 mg GAE/g, 19.77, and 25.04 mg VCE/g, respectively. Optimum conditions for mulberry and raspberry extraction were found to be $65^{\circ}C$ by using 69% and 40% ethanol, respectively. Mulberry and raspberry extracts had TP, DPPH, and ABTS values of 20.74 mg GAE/g, 23.55, and 35.44 mg VCE/g, and 26.08 mg GAE/g, 39.93, and 55.60 mg VCE/g, respectively. Green tea extraction at $57^{\circ}C$ by using 43% ethanol was found to be optimal, yielding TP, ABTS, and DPPH values of 101.15 mg GAE/g, 171.38, and 177.56 mg VCE/g, respectively.

Optimal Roasting Conditions for Maximizing the Quality of Tea Leached from High Functional Perilla frutescens Leaves (고기능성 들깻잎을 이용한 침출차의 품질 극대화를 위한 최적 볶음조건 연구)

  • Yun, Ung-Jae;Yang, Sung-Yong;Lee, Hyun-Sun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the optimal roasting conditions for developing perilla leaf leached tea, which has high functional Perilla frutescens leaves. The roasting processes were carried out with variations in roasting temperature ($120-200^{\circ}C$) and roasting time (15-35 min), the response surface methodology was applied to monitor the changes in qualities of the roasted Perilla frutescens leaves. The antioxidant, bioactive substance in roasted Perilla frutescens leaves, and their extracts were the quality parameters. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents increased with time and temperature up to 25 min and $160^{\circ}C$. Antioxidative activities showed a positive correlation with the amount of phenolic compound. Caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid contents increased with time up to a mild temperature, $160^{\circ}C$, while they decreased at high temperatures over $160^{\circ}C$. The optimum roasting conditions selected for developing perilla leaf leached tea were thus $180^{\circ}C$ and 20 min, given the conditions in the above experiments.

Optimization Processing Conditions of Water Soluble Fraction from Alaska Pollock Theragra chalcogramma Head and Non-forming Sea Tangle Laminaria japonica under High Temperature/High Pressure (명태(Theragra chalcogramma) 두부와 비정형 다시마(Laminaria japonica)로부터 고온가압 추출물의 최적 제조 조건)

  • Noh, Yun-I;Park, Kwon-Hyun;Lee, Ji-Sun;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Min-Ji;Kim, Hyeon-Jeong;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to optimize the processing conditions, including the ingredient ratio and extraction time, for a water-soluble fraction of Alaska pollock head and non-forming sea tangle by response surface methodology. Our results indicated that the optimal independent variables for obtaining extracts with a high yield and desirable sensory characteristics were 1.32 for $X_1$ (extraction time), 1.36 for $X_2$ (sea tangle concentration) and 0.93 for $X_3$ (water volume) in coded values, and 5.48 h for $X_1$, 18.18% for $X_2$ and 6.86 times for $X_3$ in uncoded values. The predicted values of $Y_1$ (yield), $Y_2$ (TCA soluble-N) and $Y_3$ (overall acceptance) for extracts produced under these optimized conditions were 22.10%, 1.83 g/100 mL and 5.9, respectively, their experimental values were 21.4%, 1.7 g/100 mL and 5.7, respectively. No significant differences between the actual and predicted values were found.

Optimization of the Preparation Conditions and Quality Characteristics of Sweet Pumpkin-Doenjang Sauce (단호박된장소스 제조조건의 최적화 및 품질 특성)

  • Chang, Kyung-Ho;Cho, Kyung-Hoon;Kang, Min-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.492-500
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to develop a sauce prepared with sweet pumpkin and Korea Doenjang. The optimum conditions for manufacturing sweet pumpkin-doenjang sauce were investigated using the response surface methodology, based on the central composition design. The amount of stock added, the thickening agent, and doenjang were used as the independent variables, and the sensory characteristics (taste, flavor, color, and overall acceptability) were used as the dependent variables to evaluate the optimum conditions for the preparation of the sauce. The optimum conditions for the maximized-responses variables in the preparation of the sauce were 448.5 g of sweet pumpkin stock, 331.5 g of the thickening agent, and 20.0 g of doenjang. The quality characteristics of sweet pumpkin-doenjang sauce that was manufactured at optimum conditions were as follow: 89.55% moisture content, 0.70% crude protein, 0.10% crude lipids, and 0.71% crude ash. The pH of the sauce was 5.96; total acidity, 0.08%; and soluble solids, 6.80$^{\circ}Brix$. The total polyphenol content of the sauce was 5.70 mg/L. The electron-donating ability and reducing power of the sauce were, 14.24% and 1.64 OD, respectively.

Optimization of ${\beta}$-Glucanase-assisted Extraction of Starch from Domestic Waxy Barley and Its Physicochemical Properties (${\beta}$-Glucanase를 이용한 국내산 찰보리 전분 추출공정의 최적화 및 추출 전분의 주요 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Yong-Seon;Bae, Jae-Seok;Kim, Jeong-Won;Lee, Eui-Seok;Lee, Ki-Teak;Lee, Mi-Ja;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.789-798
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, optimization on ${\beta}$-glucanase-assisted extraction was made in order to isolate waxy barley starch from domestic cultivar using the D-optimal design suitable for response surface methodology (RSM). The results demonstrated that the amount of enzyme was found to be a major influencing factor on the extraction yield, which was substantially increased by increasing the amount of enzyme. It was also influenced by the reaction time and amount of water addition; however, the two factors were less influential than the amount of enzyme. The optimized condition by RSM for the reaction time was found to be 2.63 hours and amount of enzyme 1.7%, and amount of water addition 4.38 times the weight of raw material. With the enzyme treatment, the starch content in residues (R), particularly in R1 and R5, was reduced considerably, resulting in an increase in the extraction yield and therefore primarily and effectively releasing B-type starch small granule confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy. In addition, the study determined the physicochemical properties of isolated waxy starch (i.e., purity, water adsorption capacity, thermal properties, rheology and starch morphology) and compared them with those from the enzyme-not treated sample. It was found that they were almost similar to each other, except for the purity of starch, which was lower in the enzyme-treated sample than in the enzyme-not treated one.

A study of optimization of non-fried rice snack using Baekjinju rice flour (백진주 쌀가루를 이용한 비유탕 쌀과자 제조조건의 최적화 연구)

  • Choi, Ok Ja;Jung, Hee Nam;Kim, Young Doo;Shim, Jae-Han;Shim, Ki Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.810-817
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the properties of rice snack puffed in a microwave oven after drying its dough according to Baekjinju soaking time and additional soybean milk. The optimum conditions for the non-fried rice snack using Baekjinju wetted flour were determined through the design of an experiment using response surface methodology. The independent variables were the Baekjinju soaking time and the additional soybean milk, and the dependent variables were the weight, volume, density, expansibility, Hunter's color value, hardness, and sensory properties. The quadratic model was chosen for the weight, density, expansibility, b value, and hardness. The two-factor interaction model was chosen for the volume, flavor, appearance, and overall preference. The linear model was chosen for the L value, taste, and texture. The weight was increased to longer than 11.26 days with the increase in the rice soaking. The volume, expansibility, L value, and b value increased with the increase in the rice soaking time and in the additional soybean milk ratio. However, the density was decreased was in reverse. The hardness increased most, with the rice soaking time rising from 5.28 to 8.53 days and the soybean milk additional ratio increasing from 5.34 to 20.26%. The sensory properties improved as rice soaking time decreased, and the soybean milk additional ratio was revered. As for the desirability, the optimal formulation of the dough of non-fried rice snack was achieved by mixing 200 g of Baekjinju flour with a 0.69 days rice soaking time and a 26.67% soybean milk of rice ratio according to weight.

Statistical Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Production of Aphicidal Metabolites of Beauveria bassiana Bb08 (Beauveria bassiana Bb08의 살충성 물질 생산을 위한 배양조건의 통계적 최적화)

  • Go, Eunsu;Lim, Younghoon;Jeong, Hyeongchul;Choi, Jaepil;Park, Inseo;Kim, Jeong Jun;Lee, Dong-Jin;Kim, Keun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.398-406
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    • 2013
  • For the maximal production of aphicidal metabolites produced by the Beauveria bassiana Bb08, statistical methods such as the Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology were used. The fungal culture filtrate was sprayed towards 3-star aphids and the mortality was examined. After the statistical analysis of the aphid mortality, the optimal culture conditions were found to be a culture temperature of $26.2^{\circ}C$, medium pH 5.9, flask shaking speed of 209.0 rpm, and culture time of 5.9 days. The expected mortality on days 4, 5, and 6 after spraying the filtrate on to the aphids were 76.8%, 84.9%, and 89.4%, respectively. All 4 factors of the culture conditions significantly affected the production of the aphicidal metabolites, and the order of significance was temperature, pH, culture time and shaking speed.

Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts (적양배추 새싹채소의 발아 및 저장 조건 최적화)

  • Baek, Kyeong-Hwan;Jo, Doekjo;Yoon, Sung-Ran;Kim, Gui-Ran;Park, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Gee-Dong;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Yuri;Han, Bumsoo;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content ($R^2$=0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content ($R^2$=0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content ($R^2$=0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage.