• Title, Summary, Keyword: response surface methodology

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Optimization of the Cold-air-drying Condition for a Steamed Pumpkin-Sweet Potato Slab (증절간 호박고구마의 냉풍건조조건 최적화)

  • Shin, Mi-Young;Lee, Won-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.488-496
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    • 2011
  • Cold-air drying was conducted for a steamed pumpkin-sweet potato slab to improve its quality, convenience, and preference as a snack. A steamed pumpkin-sweet potato slab was dried from 10 to $25^{\circ}C$ for 48 h, and its moisture content, color, texture, and taste at different drying temperatures and drying times were evaluated. The lowest moisture content was 4.98%, at $25^{\circ}C$. The lightness decreased, but the other color values (a, b, and ${\Delta}E$) increased with the increasing drying temperature and drying time. The reducing sugar and soluble solid ranged from 98.7 to 194.75 mg/g and 19-70 $^{\circ}Brix$, respectively. The highest hardness of the steamed pumpkin-sweet potato slab was 23.88 $kg_f/cm^2$, and the springiness and cohesiveness were 91.15 and 98.36% when it was dried at $25^{\circ}C$ for 48 h. The sensory evaluation score was high at $10^{\circ}C$, 40 h and at $25^{\circ}C$, 24 h. The optimum drying condition was predicted at $19^{\circ}C$, 32 h via response surface methodology (RSM).

Prediction of the Optimum Conditions for Microwave-Assisted Extraction of the Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidative and Nitrite-scavenging Abilities of Grape Seed (포도씨의 총페놀 성분, 항산화능 및 아질산염소거능에 대한 마이크로웨이브 추출조건 예측)

  • Lee, Eun-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Hyun-Ku;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.546-551
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    • 2011
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the effective components of grape seed, such as its antioxidative and nitrite-scavenging abilities. Microwave power (2,450 MHz, 0-160W), ethanol concentration (0-100%), and MAE time (1-5 min) were used as independent variables (Xi) for the central composite design to yield 16 different MAE conditions. The optimum MAE conditions were predicted for the dependent variables of the extracts, such as the total phenolic content ($Y_1$) antioxidative ability ($Y_2$), and nitrite-scavenging ability ($Y_3$), depending on different microwave powers, ethanol concentrations, and MAE times. The determination coefficients ($R^2$) of the regression equations for the dependent variables ranged from 0.8024 to 0.9498. The maximal values of each dependent variable were predicted at different MAE conditions, as follows: 3.19% total phenolic content at 142.32W, 44.30% ethanol, and 4.36 min, and 1.22 antioxidative ability at 84.44W, 56.60% ethanol, and 3.28 min. More than 99.5% nitrite-scavenging ability was predicted at pH 1.2-3.0, 30.80-106.58W, 49.32-55.18% ethanol, and 3.72-4.58min, respectively. The results indicated that the total phenolic content and anti oxidative ability showed a higher correlation with each other in that they were more influenced by microwave power than by the other variables, while the nitrite-scavenging ability was largely influenced by the ethanol concentration.

Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Snack Using Cham chwi(Aster scaber) (참취를 이용한 스낵제품의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Jong-Mee;Chung, Hye-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 1999
  • This study was to investigate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of snack with various amounts Cham chwi and oil. This result was used to determine the optimum condition of adding levels of Cham chwi and oil. Flavor, crispness, greasiness, oil absorption, expansion rate were selected as the physicochemical and sensory characteristics to determine the optimum conditions of the amount of Cham chwi and oil. The predicted values were obtained by the regression method of RSM(response surface methodology). Conditions were standardized with maximum range of expansion rate when expected value of crispness was more than five and expected value of greasiness was less five. The optimum conditions of Cham chwi snack was established as the 8.6% of Cham chwi and 7.6% of oil.

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Monitoring for the Color Formation of a Doraji Tea by Soaking of Threonine and Sucrose Solution and Roasting (Threonine과 Sucrose 용액에 침지 및 볶음에 의한 도라지차의 색상 발현 모니터링)

  • Lee, Gee-Dong;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Park, Nan-Young;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.938-944
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    • 1999
  • Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for monitoring the changes of Hunter's color and organoleptic colors of roasted doraji tea with variations in threonine concentration of soaking solution and roasting condition. In soaking and roasting processes based on the central composite design with variations in threonine concentration of soaking solution, roasting temperature and roasting time, coefficients of determinations $(R^{2})$ of the models were above 0.87 (p<0.05) in Hunter's color parameters and organoleptic color. Hunter's color L value of roasted doragi tea was maximized in 0.09% threonine concentration of soaking solution, $142.37^{\circ}C$ and 21.94 min in roasting condition. Hunter's color a value of roasted doragi tea was maximized in 1.24% threonine concentration of soaking solution, $154.01^{\circ}C$ and 28.59 min in roasting condition, minimized in 1.67% threonine concentration of soaking solution, $137.61^{\circ}C$ and 24.62 min in roasting condition, Hunter's color b value of roasted doragi tea was maximized in 1.10% threonine concentration of soaking solution, $154.72^{\circ}C$ and 27.12 min in roasting condition. The maximum quality of organoleptic color of roasted doragi tea was soaked in 1.25% threonine concentration, and roasted at $141.81^{\circ}C$ for 34.14 min.

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Effects of Cryoprotectants on the Textural Changes of Whole-coagulated Soybean Curd (Tofu) during Frozen Storage (비압착 냉동저장 두부의 조직감 변화에 미치는 항냉동제의 효과)

  • Chung, Sun-Hwa;Choi, Won-Seok;Son, Hye-Sook;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.957-963
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    • 1999
  • Effects of cryoprotectants on protein denaturation of soybean curd, tofu, during frozen storage were examined. A whole-coagulated non-press tofu was prepared by adding 2% of isolated soybean protein to soy milk in order to prevent loss of added cryoprotectants. The cryoprotectants added were glocose, glycerol, sorbitol, propylene glycol, and tripolyphosphate. The texture characteristics of soybean curds before and after frozen storage were measured by sensory evaluation and Texture analyzer, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Glucose, glycerol, sorbitol, and sodium tripolyphosphate were effective as single cryoprotectant, and the mixtures of glucose and sodium tripolyphosphate, and sorbitol and propylene glycol were also effective in minimizing textural change during freezing. Overall, the mixture of cryoprotectants were more effective than single cryoprotectant. According to the RSM, the maximum effect of cryoprotectants in minimizing textural changes during freezing was obtained with the mixture of 2.1% glucose, 6.7% glycerol, 2.1% sorbitol, 0.4% propylene glycol, and 0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate. However, considering the sensory acceptability, the optimum use of cryoprotectants in frozen tofu was 1% glucose, 2% glycerol, 1% sorbitol, 0.2% propylene glycol, and 0.5% sodium tripolyphosphate.

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Quality Characteristics of Seolgiddeok added with Green Tea Powder (가루녹차를 첨가한 설기떡의 관능적 품질특성)

  • 홍희진;최정화;양정아;김귀영;이순재
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the optimal mixing ratio of green tea powder, sugar, and water for the preparation of Seolgiddeok through Response Surface Methodology based on the color, sensory, and texture test. The oganoleptic and textural properties of Seolgiddeok prepared with various concentrations of green tea powder (0% (control group), 0.5% (GT-0.5 group), 1% (GT-1.0 group), 1.5% (GT-1.5 group), 2% (GT-2.0 group)), and their quality changes during storage were also investigated. The optimal mixing ratio of green tea powder, sugar, and water for preparing the best quality Seolgiddeok was 1.0%, 12%, and 22%, respectively. The proximate composition of green tea powder was 21.70% of crude protein, 8.49% of crude lipid, 2.95% of reducing sugar, and 6.40% of ash. The contents of crude lipid, reducing sugar, and catechins in Seolgiddeok added with a green tea powder were increased with increasing the content of green tea powder. The hardness and gumminess of GT-1.0 group were the lowest among four groups, whereas GT-1.0 and GT-2.0 groups had the lowest cohesiveness. While the control group was the lowest in adhesiveness, the springness was not significantly different among all groups. GT-0.5 and GT-1.5 groups were the highest in sweet taste and colorfulness, respectively. However, GT-1.0 group had the best overall quality. Total microbial numbers, the acidity and pH in Seolgiddeok during storage were decreased with increasing green tea powder content, and especially those of GT-1.0 and GT-1.5 groups were relatively the lower than others. The “L” value (lightness) of the control group (no additives) was the highest among five groups, and the value was decreased with storage period, and especially GT-0.5 groups had the lowest brightness. The“a”value (reddness) of the control group was the highest, followed by GT-0.5, GT-1.0, GT-1.5, and GT- 2.0 group in order. The“b”value (yellowness) was increased with the increase of green tea powder content. Above results indicated that GT-1.0 group showed the best quality of Seolgiddeok through organoleptic and rheology tests.

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The Characteristics of Sensory Evaluation by Various Cooking Methods of Salted-Dried Flathead (염건양태의 조리방법에 따른 관능적 특성(I))

  • 신애숙;이현덕;김경자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.512-523
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    • 1999
  • A purpose of this study was to figure out the best cooking conditions of salted-dried fish by a sensory evaluation on cooked salted-dried flathead. Cooking of the salted-dried fish is traditional and popular in Korea, and salted-dried flathead is a favorite with southern Korea. The raw material for the examination were a raw flathead and 3 degrees salted(2%, 4%, 6%)-dried flathead which added 3 kinds cooking treatment (steaming, boiling, baking) within three different times(5, 10 and 15 min.) respectively. The category scaled descriptive test and response surface methodology were applied for the evaluation, and the results of the evaluation were analyzed by SAS program. The result of the study were as follows : 1. For the steaming cooking, scale at 6% salt concentration and 5 minutes cooking time were the best conditions of the salted-dried flathead cooking. 2. For the boiling, 6% salt concentration and 10 minutes cooking time were the best conditions. 3. For the baking, 6% salt concentration and 10 minutes cooking time were the best conditions. 4. The baking group got higher estimations on the items of browning, cooked condition and meaty aroma than steaming and boiling group on Duncan's multiple range test. According to the result of the Duncan's test, baking is better cooking way for the salted-dried flathead.

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Optimal Processing Parameters of Low Molecular Weight Carrageenan by Ultrasound (초음파에 의한 carrageenan 저분자화의 최적 조건)

  • KIM Sang-Moo;PARK Seong-Min;CHOI Hyeon-Mee;LEE Keun-Tai
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.495-500
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    • 1999
  • The carrageenans are linear, sulfated Polysaccharides extracted from various species of the Rhodophyta (marine red algae). The carrageenan backbone is based on a repeating disaccharide sequence of $\beta$-D-galactopyranose residues linked glycosidically through position 1 and 3, and $\alpha$-D-galactopyranose residues linked glycosidically through position 1 and 4. Carrageenans are typical food polysaccharides in that food applications overwhelmingly dominate their end uses. Other applications, hewer, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, industrial suspensions and paints are also of importance But because of its high degree of gelling and viscosity with low solubility, carrageenan is limited to use beyond $0.03\%$ as food additives. Response Surface Methodology was applied for optimizing the processing parameters of ultrasound treatment in order to produce low-molecular-weight carrageenan. The use of ultrasound significantly reduced viscosity of $\lambda$-carrageenan solutions. Optimal parameters for ultrasound reduction of carrageenan molecular weight were: temperature, $10^{\circ}C$; ultrasound intensity, 121.64 $W/cm^2$ ; tarrageenan concentration, $2\%$; treatment time, 40 min. As the gel permeation chromatogram of dextran standards (M.W.= 500,000 ; 260,000 ; 167,000 ; 71,400 ; 42,000) and ultrsound treated carrageenan, the molecular weight of ultrasound treated carrageenan were approximately 200,000 (peak 1) and 60,000 (peak 2), respectively.

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Optimization of Goat Milk Yoghurt Preparation Conditions by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면 분석에 의한 산양유 요구르트의 제조조건 최적화)

  • Ham, Jun-Sang;Jeong, Seok-Geun;Shin, Ji-Hye;Choi, Mi-Young;Han, Gi-Sung;Chae, Hyun-Seok;Yoo, Young-Mo;Ahn, Jong-Nam;Ko, Sang-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Wook;Choi, Seok-Ho;Lee, Wan-Kyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to establish the optimal preparation conditions of yoghurt made from goat milk with reduced goaty flavor by adding citrus concentrate and flavor. A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of citrus concentrate ratio (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5%), citrus flavor ratio (0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05%) and fructose ratio (3, 4, 5, 6, 7%). The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the sixteen yoghurt samples were compared. The addition of citrus concentrate had a significant (p<0.01) effect on the pH, $a^*,\;and\;b^*$ values. Regarding organoleptic properties, the addition of citrus concentrate had a significant (p<0.01) effect on color, and fructose had an effect on overall palatability. The maximum value of organoleptic goaty flavor was 2.35, more than double the minimum value. The optimum conditions predicted for minimizing goaty flavor of the yoghurt were 1.44% citrus concentrate, 0.0357% citrus flavor, and 6.91% fructose.

Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction Conditions for Total Catechin and Electron Donating Ability of Grape Seed Extracts (포도씨 추출물의 총 카테킨 함량과 전자공여능에 대한 마이크로웨이브 추출조건 최적화)

  • Lee, Eun-Jin;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.840-846
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    • 2008
  • Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of grape seeds was performed under the different conditions based on a central composite design for independent variables of microwave power ($0{\sim}120\;W$), ethanol concentration ($0{\sim}100%$) and extraction time ($1{\sim}5\;min$). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict the optimum extraction conditions for three dependent variables in grape seed extracts: total yield, total catechin and electron donating ability. Determination coefficients ($R^2$) of regression equations for the three dependent variables were higher than 0.9 (p < 0.01). The optimal MAE conditions to yield the maximum value of total catechin (434.16 mg%) were 122.76 W microwave power, 42.88% ethanol and 4.67 min extraction time. The superimposed contour maps for maximizing the three dependent variables indicated that the MAE condition ranges were 75150 W, 4060% ethanol and 3.55.0 min. The predicted values at the optimized conditions (6.72% total yield, 408.65 mg% total catechin, and 83.33% electron donation ability) were similar to the experimental values. The optimized MAE (112.5 W, 50% EtOH, 4.2 min) was more efficient than the conventional solvent extraction using 80% EtOH, $60^{\circ}C$ for 3h and 150 rpm.