• Title, Summary, Keyword: residues

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Enzyme Immunoassay for the Sulfamethazine Residues in Pork Tissue

  • Park, Jun-Hong;Lim, Yoon-Kyu
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.287-290
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    • 1996
  • To control the maximum residue level (MRL) for sulfamethazine (SMZ) residues in pork tissue, a microbial inhibition method is a regulatory screening assay method in Korea. Microwell plate-based competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit is avalable for routine screening of SMZ residues in pork tissue. One ELISA kit is evaluated. Phosphate buffer extracts of samples fortified with SMZ at 0, 1, 5, and 10 ng/g were used in a recovery test of the kit. Market pork samples were assayed by the kit. Recovery of sulfamethazine was 104% at 10 ng/g. Intraassay variations and interassay variations for the kit were 7.70% and 5.76%, respectively. Concentration causing 50% inhibition of color development compared with blanks was 16.4ng. The violative pork samples with over MRL (0.1 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g) was 4 of 32 cases (12.5%) by used ELISA kit. This result indicates a possibility of the ELISA kit for screening test of SMZ residues in pork tissue, and still needs a comfirmatory assay for mandatory purposes.

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ANTIBIOTICS RESIDUES IN RAW MILK IN THAILAND

  • Amonsin, A.;Saitanu, K.;Teeverapanya, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.27-30
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    • 1996
  • One thousand eight hundreds and twenty two samples of raw milk were detected for antibiotic residues using Bacillus subtilis ATTCC 6633, B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C 593 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 as test organisms, were carried out from July 1991 through June 1992. Apparent antibiotic residues were found through out the study period, except in January. The detection rate varied from 0.7% in March and May to 11% in April. One hundred and thirty six (72%) samples of the 187 screening positive samples were considered to contain only the indigenous antimicrobial agents. Of the total, 51 (2.8%) samples were positive for antibiotic residues. Among the tested organisms, B. stearothermophilus var. calidolactis was the most sensitive organism in detection of the antibiotic residues.

Reduction of Pesticide Residues in the Production of Red Pepper Powder

  • Chun, Mi-Hwa;Lee, Mi-Gyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.57-62
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    • 2006
  • Six organophosphorus, one organochlorine, and three synthetic pyrethroid pesticides were analyzed for their residues during washing and hot-air drying of red peppers conducted in the production of powder. The residue ratio in organophosphorus pesticides was 33% in chlorpyrifos, 31 % in diazinon, 50% in methidathion, 80% in EPN, 28% in fenitrothion, and 60% in profenofos. The ratio in pyrethroids was 109% in cypermethrin, 102% in deltamethrin, and 106% in fenvalerate. That in organochlorine was 56% in ${\alpha}$-endosulfan and 90% in ${\beta}$-endosulfan. The results were greatly different between organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides. UV irradiation along with hot-air drying brought about a remarkable reduction of the residues, up to 70% as compared with hot-air drying only. The removal effect was most remarkable in pyrethroids, which are hardly removed by hot-air drying. The color of the pepper was not changed during UV irradiation. The use of oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide during washing did not show a remarkable removal of residues. The residue ratio was not affected whether the pesticide is contaminated artificially or naturally.

Reducing Veterinary Drug Residues in Animal Products: A Review

  • Rana, Md Shohel;Lee, Seung Yun;Kang, Hae Jin;Hur, Sun Jin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.687-703
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    • 2019
  • A survey we conducted suggests that the ingestion of veterinary drug residues in edible animal parts constitutes a potential health hazard for its consumers, including, specifically, the possibility of developing multidrug resistance, carcinogenicity, and disruption of intestinal normal microflora. The survey results indicated that antibiotics, parasitic drugs, anticoccidial, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are broadly used, and this use in livestock is associated with the appearance of residues in various animal products such as milk, meat, and eggs. We observed that different cooking procedures, heating temperatures, storage times, fermentation, and pH have the potential to decrease drug residues in animal products. Several studies have reported the use of thermal treatments and sterilization to decrease the quantity of antibiotics such as tetracycline, oxytetracycline, macrolides, and sulfonamides, in animal products. Fermentation treatments also decreased levels of penicillin and pesticides such as dimethoate, malathion, Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and lindane. pH, known to influence decreases in cloxacillin and oxacillin levels, reportedly enhanced the dissolution of antimicrobial drug residues. Pressure cooking also reduced aldrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan in animal products. Therefore, this review provides updated information on the control of drug residues in animal products, which is of significance to veterinarians, livestock producers, and consumer health.

Development of Microbial Bioassay for Detection of Pesticide Residues (미생물을 이용한 농약잔류 분석법 개발)

  • 백수봉;양창술;오연선
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to develop bioassay for detection of pesticide residues in agricultural products by using the soil microbial isolates sensitive to pesticides. One hundred bacterial isolates and eighty five fungal isolates were obtained from soil and their sensitivity to 10 ppm of several pesticides was examined in vitro. Five bacterial isolates and three fungal isolates were found sensitive to organochloride fungicide and two fungal isolates sensitive to organocopper fungicide. Among these isolates, B46, B93 and F67 were tested to find out the difference in sensitivity according to the methods of fungicide treatment. All of the isolates were found sensitive to 10 ppm of organochloride fungicides mixed directly in PDA. But they were found insensitive to the fungicide mixed in PDA after filtering through membrane filter. In case of organocopper fungicide, the isolates were found sensitive only when it was treated in PDA. And their sensitivity showed difference among various kinds of organochloride fungicides. B46 and B93 were employed to check the possibility as the agent for detection of the pesticidal residues in twenty eight agricultural products including rice. It was found that all samples had not residues because the samples did not inhibit the growth of isolates. When organochloride fungicides were applied to the above products, it was possible to detect the residues in fruits and vegetables at the concentration of 10 ppm, but not in starch-rich grains. B46 and B93 were identified as Bacillus sp. according to their bacterial characteristics in culture.

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Site-directed Mutagenesis of Cysteine Residues in Phi-class Glutathione S-transferase F3 from Oryza sativa

  • Jo, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Ju-Won;Noh, Jin-Seok;Kong, Kwang-Hoon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.33 no.12
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    • pp.4169-4172
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    • 2012
  • To elucidate the roles of cysteine residues in rice Phi-class GST F3, in this study, all three cysteine residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis in order to obtain mutants C22A, C73A and C77A. Three mutant enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by affinity chromatography on immobilized GSH. The substitutions of Cys73 and Cys77 residues in OsGSTF3 with alanine did not affect the glutathione conjugation activities, showing non-essentiality of these residues. On the other hand, the substitution of Cys22 residue with alanine resulted in approximately a 60% loss of specific activity toward ethacrynic acid. Moreover, the ${K_m}^{CDNB}$ value of the mutant C22A was approximately 2.2 fold larger than that of the wild type. From these results, the evolutionally conserved cysteine 22 residue seems to participate rather in the structural stability of the active site in OsGSTF3 by stabilizing the electrophilic substrates-binding site's conformation than in the substrate binding directly.

The reasons of drug residues in bulk milk (원유내 약물잔류의 원인에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jeong-hun;Kim, Jin-suk;Choi, Pill-su;Lee, Won-chang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1180-1186
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    • 1999
  • The 102 farms received a positive result of the bulk milk drug residue test were selected to investigate the reasons of drug residues in bulls milk. The most frequent causes of drug residues were milker or producer mistakes (28.4%), failure to observe withdrawal time (21.5%), and withholding milk from treated quarters only (19.6%). Milker or producer mistakes occurred high at the farms having a parlor system (4 cases out of 11 farms), and related to the inadequate records and marking of treated cows. The lack of knowledge on the absorption of antibiotic from treated quarters and its excretion from untreated quarters caused mainly withholding milk from treated quarters only. Among the 91 farms identified the cause of drug residues, most of the route of drug administration was intramammary infusion (81.3%), and mostly drug used for the treatment of cows was ${\beta}$-lactam antibiotic (57.1%)

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Investigation on the Significance and Necessity for Recycling of Wood Wastes (목재 폐기물 재활용의 의의 및 필요성에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Gwang-Chul;Park, Hee-June;Jung, In-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Furniture Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2009
  • In our country, most of the wood resources are imported. We faced a continuous rising of wood price by export country's some conditions and excess rising of transport charge, also a shortage of structural size members. In these situation, recycling or reuse of wood residues and wastes under wood processing industry, building construction and demolition is not a option but a prerequisite. In our country, there is a dearth of data on recycling or reuse of wood residues and wastes, so the investigation on the necessity of recycling or reuse of wood residues and wastes was conducted by using the foreign data and documents. First of all, fields and actual conditions for the domestic wood processing industry were surveyed. Then, kinds and signification of wood residues and wastes were organized. Later, the necessity and the signification of recycling or reuse of wood residues were investigated, and postulations for effective recycling and reuse were suggested. Above all, the necessity of grading standards for reuse or recycling and some important consideration for developing grading standards were emphasized. At last, foreign research tendencies and some applications on recycling or reuse of wood residues and wastes were supplemented.

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Comparison of detecting methods and the relationship between tissue and blood for enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin residues in broiler chickens (육계에서 조직과 혈액의 enrofloxacin 및 대사성 ciprofloxacin 잔류 상관관계 조사 및 검사방법간의 비교)

  • Sung, Myung-Suk;Kim, Mi-Suk;Seo, Hee-Jin;Bae, Dong-Rok;Hwang, Ji-Young;Kim, Soon-Tae;Cho, Jong-Suk;Park, Hong-Je;Hong, Sung-Hee;Kim, Gyung-Dong;Jang, Seong-Jun;Yun, Mun-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.311-320
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate detecting methods and the relationship between tissues and blood for enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin residues in broiler chickens. Two groups of broiler chickens were administrated via the drinking water with $50{\mu}g/mL$ and $100{\mu}g/mL$ of enrofloxacin for 5 days, respectively. The concentration of enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin in tissues (muscle and kidney) and blood were measured during administration period (for 5 days) and withdrawal period (for 12 days) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Also, all samples were conducted for screening of residues by microbial method using E. coli for quinolone detection and immuno-chromatography method using Smart kit. The relationship between tissues (muscle and kidney) and blood for enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin residues in broiler chickens was followed : The levels of enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin residues in muscle and kidney were higher 2.9~3.2 folds, 3.6~3.8 folds more than the residues levels in blood, respectively. These results support we can predict the residues in muscle and kidney from the residues in blood. In comparison of detecting methods for antibiotic residues, microbial method using E. coli for quinolone detection and immuno-chromatography method using Smart kit could detect positive reaction at similar or lower concentration than violative concentration of enrofloxacin and metabolic ciprofloxacin in chicken tissues. These results support what two screening methods are useful for screening of quinolone detection in chickens.

The Distribution of Pesticide Residues in Commercial Agricultural Products for the Northern Area of Seoul (서울북부지역에서 유통되고 있는 농작물의 잔류농약 분포)

    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.311-322
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to investigate the 106 kinds of pesticide residues in agricultural products (n=3,614) by GC, for the northern area of Seoul from March (1999) to December (2000). The detection rate of pesticide residues in samples was 5.0% (mean =2.86$\pm$7.22 mg/kg, n=180). The order of the agricultural products in which pesticide residues were detected was korean lettuce > perilla leaf, pepper > chinese cabbage > leek > spinach. The percentage of the agricultural products in excess of MRL was 2.0% (n=73). The agricultural products in excess of MRL were korean lettuce (n=15), perilla leaf(n=13), leek (n=6), spinach (n=6), pepper (n=5), chwinamul (n=5), etc. The order of the pesticide residues which were detected in agricultural products was procymidone endosulfan chlorpyrifos vinclozolin chlorothalonil and diazinon. The average residual values of procymidone, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, vinclozolin, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were 4.07, 1.24, 1.27, 2.83, 17.71 and 1.48 respectively. The pesticide residues in excess of MRL were chlorpyrifos (n=19), endosulfan (n=12), procymidone(n=), vinclozolin (n=6), etc, and the measured concentration ranges of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, procymidone, vinclozolin, pyrazophos, diazinon and EPN were 0.03-6.72, 0.18-5.8, 2.0-60.8, 1.70-20.33, 0.26-1.21. 0.59-4.3 and 0.28-4.19 respectively.