• Title, Summary, Keyword: residues

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Yield, Nutritional Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Pleurotus ostreatus on Corncobs Supplemented with Herb Residues

  • Jin, Zhiqiang;Li, Yunling;Ren, Jiahong;Qin, Nan
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.24-32
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    • 2018
  • Improper disposal of herb residues in China has caused severe problems to the surrounding environment and human safety. Three herb residues, i.e., compound Kushen injection residues (CKI) and part one and part two of Qizhitongluo Capsule residues (QC1 and QC2, respectively), were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. The effect of the supplementation of corncobs (CC) with different herb residues on yield, nutritional composition, and antioxidant activity of P. ostreatus was investigated. Compared to the control, the higher mycelial growth rate was observed on substrates CC +30% CKI and CC +30% QC1, while the higher yield was obtained from substrates CC +30% QC2 and CC +30% CKI. Moreover, chemical analysis of fruit bodies revealed that the addition of herb residues to CC significantly increased proteins, amino acids, ashes, minerals (Na and Ca), and total phenolic contents but significantly reduced carbohydrates and $IC_{50}$ values of DPPH radicals. In addition, no heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and As) were detected in the fruiting bodies harvested from different substrate combinations. These results demonstrated that mixtures of CC with herb residues might be utilized as a novel, practical, and easily available substrate for the cultivation of P. ostreatus, which is beneficial for the effective management of herb residues.

Effect of Soybean-curd Residues in the Formulated Diet on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Flounder (Paralicthys olivaceus) (넙치 (Paralicthys olivaceus) 치어용 배합사료에 콩비지 첨가가 성장 및 체성분에 미치는 효과)

  • LEE Sang-Min;KIM Kyoung-Duck;JANG Hyun-Suk;LEE Yong-Whan;LEE Jong Kwan;LEE Jong Ha
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.596-600
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    • 2003
  • This study investigated the effect of soybean-curd residues as an ingredient of the formulated diet for juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Three replicates of juvenile fish (averaging weight $1.5\pm0.04\;g$) were fed one of four isonitrogenous $(50\%)$ diets containing $0\%,\;5\%,\;10\%\;and\;15\%$ soybean-curd residues for 7 weeks. Survival, hepatosomatic index and condition factor of the fish were not affected by dietary soybean-curd residues levels. Weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the diet containing $5\%$ soybean-curd residues were not significantly different to those of the fish fed the control diet, however these values decreased in the fish fed the $10\%\;and\;15\%$ soybean-curd residues (P<0.05). Daily feed and protein intake increased with increasing dietary soybean-curd residues level. Crude protein and lipid contents in the whole body decreased with increasing dietary soybean-curd residues, but no significant differences were observed among control, $5\%\;and\;10\%$ soybean-curd residues diets (P>0.05). Plasma total protein concentration of fish was affected by dietary soybean-curd residues levels (P<0.05). It is concluded that the soybean-curd residues as a substitute for wheat flour can be included up to $5\%$ in the diet for juvenile flounder.

Nutritional Evaluation of Some Tropical Crop Residues: In Vitro Organic Matter, Neutral Detergent Fibre, True Dry Matter Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Using the Hohenheim Gas Test

  • Aregheore, E.M.;Ikhatua, U.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.747-751
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    • 1999
  • The Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to assess the nutritional value of some crop residues of known in vivo digestibility. The crop residues are groundnut shells (GNS) corn cobs (CC); cassava peels (CaP); unripe and ripe plantain peels (UPP, RPP) and citrus pulp/peels (CPP). Compared to other crop residues, crude protein (CP) content of CC was low. Except for CaP and CPP that had low neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), other residues contained a high amount of cell wall constituents. Net gas production was significantly different among the crop residues (p<0.05). Gas production was highest in CPP followed by CaP. CC, UPP and RPP have the same volume of net gas production, while the least net gas production was in GNS. True dry matter (TDM) digestibility was significantly different (p<0.05) among the residues. GNS was the least in TDM digestibility. CaP, UPP and RPP had similar TDM digestibility values, while the highest TDM digestibility was obtained in CPP. OM digestibility was different among the residues (p<0.05). CaP and CPP had the same ME value while CC, UPP and RPP had close ME values and GNS the least in ME (p<0.05). The potential extent (b) and rate (c) of gas production were statistical different among the residues (p<0.05). The Hohenheim gas test gave high in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility for CC, CaP, UPP and RPP and CPP. Fermentable carbohydrates and probably available nitrogen in the crop residues influenced net gas production. The results showed that crop residues besides, providing bulk are also a source of energy and fermentable products which could be used in ruminant livestock production in the tropics.

Studies on the Residues of Chlorinated Organic Insecticides -3. Heptachlor residues in soil 15 years after yearly treatment of the soil insecticide in a tobacco field- (유기염소계 살충제의 잔류분에 관한 연구 -3. 담배연작토양의 Heptachlor 잔류분에 관하여-)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 1975
  • Soil residues in a tobacco field yearly treated with a soil insecticide, Heptachlor, was analyzed by GLC equipped with electron capture detector(ECD). In addition, translocation of the heptachlor residues into two staple vegetables, radish and chinese cabbage was also studied under field conditions. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The Heptachlor residues in the soil of tobacco plots were less than 0.010 ppm. 2. The Heptachlor residues in radish and chinese cabbages cultivated in the tobacco plot were also below 0.010 ppm. 3. Amount of Heptachlor residues translocated into the vegetables were not related to the concentrations of the residues in the soil.

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Role of the Amino Acid Residues in the Catalysis of Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida SU10 as Probed by Chemical Modification and Random Mutagenesis

  • Park, Sun-Jung;Park, Jin-Mo;Lee, Byeong-Jae;Min, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 1997
  • The catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) encoded by the Pseudomonas putida xylE gene was over-produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The activity of the C23O required the reduced form of the Fe(II) ion since the enzyme was highly susceptible to inactivation with hydrogen perocide but reactivated with the addition of ferrous sulfate in conjunction with ascorbic acid. The C23O activity was abolished by treatment with the chemical reagents, diethyl-pyrocarbonate (DEPC), tetranitromethane (TNM), and 1-cyclohexy1-3-(2-morpholinoethyl) car-bodiimidemetho-ρ-toluenesulfontate (CMC), which are modifying reagents of histidine, tyrosine and glutamic acid, respectively. These results suggest that histidine, tyrosine and glutamic acid residues may be good active sites for the enzyme activity. These amino acid residues are conserved residues may be good active sites for the enzyme activity. These amino acid residues are conserved residues among several extradion dioxygenases and have the chemical potential to serveas ligands for Fe(II) coordination. Analysis of random point mutants in the C23O gene derived by PCR technique revealed that the mutated positions of two mutants, T179S and S211R, were located near the conserved His165 amd Hos217 residues, respectively. This finding indicates that these two positions, along with the conserved histidine residues, are specially effective regions for the enzyme function.

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Mesophase formation behavior in petroleum residues

  • Kumar, Subhash;Srivastava, Manoj
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.171-182
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    • 2015
  • Mesophase pitch is an important starting material for making a wide spectrum of industrial and advanced carbon products. It is produced by pyrolysis of petroleum residues. In this work, mesophase formation behavior in petroleum residues was studied to prepare environmentally-benign mesophase pitches, and the composition of petroleum residues and its influence on the mesophase formation was investigated. Two petroleum residues, i.e., clarified oil s (CLO-1, CLO-2) obtained from fluid catalytic cracking units of different Indian petroleum refineries, were taken as feed stocks. A third petroleum residue, aromatic extract (AE), was produced by extraction of one of the CLO-1 by using N-methyl pyrrolidone solvent. These petroleum residues were thermally treated at 380℃ to examine their mesophase formation behavior. Mesophase pitches produced as a result of thermal treatment were characterized physico-chemically, as well as by instrumental techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry. Thermal treatment of these petroleum residues led to formation of a liquid-crystalline phase (mesophase). The mesophase formation behavior in the petroleum residues was analyzed by optical microscopy. Mesophase pitch prepared from CLO-2 exhibited the highest mesophase content (53 vol%) as compared to other mesophase pitches prepared from CLO-1 and AE.

Herbicidal Activity of Rotation Crop Residues on Weeds and Selectivity to Crops (윤작작물 잔류물의 제초활성 및 작물에 대한 선택성)

  • Uddin, Md. Romij;Pyon, Jong-Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2010
  • Allelopathic activity of rotation crop residues to common weeds and selectivity of crops were studied for developing an alternative weed control strategy in upland organic farming. All rotation crop residues with various ratios suppressed weed growth, but the growth of crop species stimulated a little when those were grown with the mixture of rotation crop residues except a few crop species. Among the rotation crop residues used in this study hairy vetch was the most effective, followed by Chinese milkvetch, barley and rye in suppression of weed growth. The 90:10 (crop:soil, v/v) treatments incorporation rate of crop residues such as hairy vetch and Chinese milkvetch suppressed completely the growth of all weed species tested in this study. The effect of crop residues on suppression of weed growth reduced to 90% when the incorporation rates decreased to 60% [60:40 (crop:soil, v/v). It was noticed that broadleaf weed species were more susceptible to rotation crop residues than grass weed species. In the influence of crop residues on the crop growth, no growth inhibition was found in red pepper, lettuce and perllia at any incorporation rates, but tomato, cucumber and corn were slightly inhibited in a few cases at their highest incorporation levels. This study demonstrated that rotation crop residues especially hairy vetch and Chinese milkvetch have high herbicidal effects against weeds without inhibiting the growth of crop species.

Consumers' Awareness and Information Needs towards Food Hygiene(I): Focused on Pesticide Residues (식품위생에 대한 소비자의 인식도 및 정보요구도에 관한 연구(I): 잔류농약을 중심으로)

  • 김효정;김미라
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the consumers' awareness and information needs towards pesticide residues and to find out the factors affecting the information needs. Data were collected from 506 adults in Seoul, Daegu and Busan by the self-administered questionnaire. Frequencies, X²tests, and regression analysis were conducted to analyze the data by SPSS Windows. The results of this study were as follows: (1) many respondents showed the high concerns and information needs for pesticide residues (2) many people worried to eat vegetables, fruits and cereals in turn due to pesticide residues, and did not trust the results from food safety tests by the government, and (3) age, educational attainment and concerns about pesticide residues were factors affecting the consumers' information needs.

Inappropriate Anxieties about Crop Protection Residues in Food

  • Atreya, Naresh-C
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2002
  • Crop Protection Products (CPPs) are a useful weapon in our fight against the pests, diseases and weeds that harm or destroy our food. To be effective CPPs need to exhibit some persistence. The consequence of this is that residues of the original material or its metabolites may remain on food and thus there is a potential for the intake of such residues. The issue of CPP residues in food is an emotional subject and is rarely debated rationally or supported by scientific facts. Media headlines like “Poison in our food” or “These days enough Pesticides (CPPs) are sprayed onto vegetables to turn you into one” are testimony to the high level of emotion that surrounds the subject of CPP residues in food. Recent surveys of consumers have indicated that more than 80 percent view CPP residues in food as a “serious hazard”. This significantly exceeds concerns over drugs, hormones in meat, nitrates in food, irradiated foods, food additives, or artificial colours.

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Studies on the detection of sulfonamide residues in swine edible tissues (돈육내 sulfonamides의 잔류물질 검출에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Youn-kyung;Kim, Tae-jong;Yoon, Hwa-joong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.843-850
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    • 1994
  • The study was carried out to determine the residues of sulfonamides in swine edible tissues with high performance thin layer chromatography. For this purpose, the Rf values of sulfonamides in various solvent systems and the recovery rate of sulfameathazine from sampike saples were obtained. Thirty-four samples collected from meat market in Seoul were analyzed. The results obtained from the present study were followings: 1. The average recovery rate of sulfamathazine residues from spiked tissues 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1mg/kg sample weight was 85%. 2. Two of 34 samples of pork for domestic consumption were reported to have been exceeded 0.05 ppm in sulfamethazine residues degree. 3. On the basis of the results, the degree of residues of sulfamethazine in swine meat for domestic consumption is seemed not to be dangerous for public health.

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